scholarly journals Machine Learning Algorithms for Big Data Applications With Policy Implementation

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Jianzu Wu ◽  
Kunxin Zhang

This article examines the policy implementation literature using a text mining technique, known as a structural topic model (STM), to conduct a comprehensive analysis of 547 articles published by 11 major journals between 2000 and 2019. The subject analyzed was the policy implementation literature, and the search included titles, keywords, and abstracts. The application of the STM not only allowed us to provide snapshots of different research topics and variation across covariates but also let us track the evolution and influence of topics over time. Examining the policy implementation literature has contributed to the understanding of public policy areas; the authors also provided recommendations for future studies in policy implementation.

Xiwen Bai ◽  
Xiunian Zhang ◽  
Kevin X. Li ◽  
Yaoming Zhou ◽  
Kum Fai Yuen

2020 ◽  
Vol 125 (2) ◽  
pp. 1229-1251
Andreas Rehs

AbstractThe detection of differences or similarities in large numbers of scientific publications is an open problem in scientometric research. In this paper we therefore develop and apply a machine learning approach based on structural topic modelling in combination with cosine similarity and a linear regression framework in order to identify differences in dissertation titles written at East and West German universities before and after German reunification. German reunification and its surrounding time period is used because it provides a structure with both minor and major differences in research topics that could be detected by our approach. Our dataset is based on dissertation titles in economics and business administration and chemistry from 1980 to 2010. We use university affiliation and year of the dissertation to train a structural topic model and then test the model on a set of unseen dissertation titles. Subsequently, we compare the resulting topic distribution of each title to every other title with cosine similarity. The cosine similarities and the regional and temporal origin of the dissertation titles they come from are then used in a linear regression approach. Our results on research topics in economics and business administration suggest substantial differences between East and West Germany before the reunification and a rapid conformation thereafter. In chemistry we observe minor differences between East and West before the reunification and a slightly increased similarity thereafter.

2012 ◽  
pp. 83-88
A. Zolotov ◽  
M. Mukhanov

А new approach to policy-making in the field of economic reforms in modernizing countries (on the sample of SME promotion) is the subject of this article. Based on summarizing the ten-year experience of de-bureaucratization policy implementation to reduce the administrative pressure on SME, the conclusion of its insufficient efficiency and sustainability is made. The alternative possibility is the positive reintegration approach, which provides multiparty policy-making process, special compensation mechanisms for the losing sides, monitoring and enforcement operations. In conclusion matching between positive reintegration principles and socio-cultural factors inherent in modernization process is provided.

Ihor Oheruk

Purpose. The purpose of the work is to analyze the application of the second and third parts of Article 3692 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine to officials in the context, that defines them by the Criminal Code of Ukraine in the note to Article 364 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Methodology. The methodology includes a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of the available scientific and theoretical material and the formulation of relevant conclusions and recommendations. In the course of the study, the following methods of scientific knowledge were used: terminological, logical-semantic, system-structural, logical-normative. Results: in the course of research the cause of criminalization of such act as "abuse of power" is considered, the subject of the specified criminal act which has the features of "an official" in the context, that defines it by the note to Article 364 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine is analyzed and the main ways of committing criminal acts, that are provided for in this article of the Criminal Code of Ukraine are identified. Originality. The study found, that one of the key conditions for the opportunity to influence officials, that are authorized to perform government or local self-government functions, is the position held by the official and the related opportunities. Therefore, taking into account the opinion of the scientists, that the subject of crimes, that are provided for by the second and third parts of Article 3692 is special, the peculiarities of which is the cumulative feature, that denotes, that such person is not endowed with the status of an official, well-founded need to specify the criminal legislation of Ukraine in terms of the application the second and third parts of Article 3692 of the Criminal code of Ukraine concerning officials in the context, that defines them by the criminal legislation of Ukraine in the note to Article 364 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Practical significance. The research results can be used in lawmaking in the improvement of anti-corruption legislation.

2016 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-35
Joseph Azize

The various published biographies and biographical notices of G.I. Gurdjieff (c.1865-1949) are of diverse style, quantity and content. While some have made considerable contributions to the subject, most attempts have reacted for or against Gurdjieff’s status as what might call an ‘Enlightened Master’. Little biographical writing on Gurdjieff has questioned the scope, reliability and prejudices of the sources. Further, possible resources have been neglected. The development in Gurdjieff’s ideas is often overlooked, his life is not sufficiently related to that development, and the lack of comparative research has failed to highlight Gurdjieff’s unique contributions. This article is structured in four parts. The first is an introduction, followed by an overview of existing biographical studies of Gurdjieff. The third part addresses bias in these studies, and this is followed by suggestions for future studies. It is concluded that fieldwork regarding the biography of Gurdjieff has been hampered by imperfect methodology. However, with better use of the source material, some of which has only recently been discovered, and a rigorous use of sources, a more balanced and nuanced picture of Gurdjieff’s life, and the development of his ideas and methods, should emerge.

Aleksey Klokov ◽  
Evgenii Slobodyuk ◽  
Michael Charnine

The object of the research when writing the work was the body of text data collected together with the scientific advisor and the algorithms for processing the natural language of analysis. The stream of hypotheses has been tested against computer science scientific publications through a series of simulation experiments described in this dissertation. The subject of the research is algorithms and the results of the algorithms, aimed at predicting promising topics and terms that appear in the course of time in the scientific environment. The result of this work is a set of machine learning models, with the help of which experiments were carried out to identify promising terms and semantic relationships in the text corpus. The resulting models can be used for semantic processing and analysis of other subject areas.

2015 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 110-121
María Shcherbakova

В течение последних нескольких десятилетий проблемы терминологии привлекли внимание многих исследователей и ученых, что может объясняться растущей важностью науки в жизни людей. Развитие медицинской терминологии началось много веков назад и продолжается по сей день. Основная цель этой работы заключается в рассмотрении терминологического глоссария сердечно-сосудистой системы, созданного на основе  Nomina Anatomical 2001 года, а также в комплексном анализе перевода специализированной терминологии. Наряду с разработкой испано-русского двуязычного глоссария, мы также обратили внимание на анализ собранных данных и комментарии, которые могут предотвратить ошибки и путаницу среди переводчиков и получателей переведенной информации. Для достижения целей мы прибегли к методу анализа параллельных текстов на выбранную тему в испанском и русском языках, а также к методу визуализации, что позволило нам перевести термины из списка и гарантировать высокий уровень точности, объективности, корректности, эквивалентности и адекватности. Основной гипотезой данной статьи является то, что, несмотря на греческое и латинское происхождение большинства выбранных терминов на испанском и значительной их части в русском языке, дословный перевод представляет собой наиболее серьезную и наиболее распространенную ошибку, которую совершают переводчики медицинских текстов, что объясняется особенностями развития медицинских систем в русском и испанском языках, где каждая отрасль терминологии сосредоточилась на своих собственных эволюционных принципах.Resumen: En las últimas décadas, los problemas de la terminología han llamado la atención de muchos investigadores y científicos, lo cual se explica por la creciente importancia que adquiere la ciencia en la vida de las personas. La terminología médica empezó su formación hace siglos y sigue desarrollándose hasta el momento. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es dar cuenta de la creación de un glosario de la terminología del sistema cardiovascular basada en la Nómina Anatómica del año 2001 y un análisis exhaustivo de la traducción de términos realizada. Además de la elaboración de un glosario bilingüe español-ruso también nos hemos centrado en el análisis de datos recogidos y comentarios que pueden prevenir errores y confusiones para los traductores y otros destinatarios. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos hemos optado principalmente por el método de análisis de textos paralelos acerca del tema elegido en español y en ruso, así como el de la metodología de visualización, lo que nos ha permitido traducir los términos de la lista representada garantizando el máximo nivel de fidelidad, objetividad, precisión, equivalencia y adecuación. La hipótesis principal del presente artículo consiste en que, a pesar del origen griego y latín de la mayoría de los términos seleccionados en castellano y una gran parte de los términos en ruso, la traducción literal de éstos representa el error más grave y más frecuente de los traductores de los textos médicos ya que debido a las peculiaridades del desarrollo de los sistemas de lenguajes médicos en español y en ruso, la terminología de cada idioma ha seguido sus propias pautas de evolución.Abstract: During the last few decades the problems of terminology have caught the attention of many researchers and scientists which can be explained by the growing importance of science in the lives of people. Medical terminology formation began centuries ago and keeps developing nowadays. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the terminological glossary of the cardiovascular system created based on the Nomina Anatomical 2001 as well as the comprehensive analysis of specialized terminology translation. Apart from the development of the Spanish-Russian bilingual glossary, I have also focused on the analysis of data collected and comments that can prevent errors and confusion among translators and recipients of the translated information. To achieve the objectives the method of analysis of parallel texts on the subject chosen has been used in Spanish and in Russian, as well as that of visualization, which allowed us to translate the terms from the list and guarantee the highest level of fidelity, objectivity, accuracy, equivalence and adequacy. The main hypothesis of this article is that, despite the Greek and Latin origin of most of the terms selected in Spanish and a large part of the terms in Russian, their literal translation represents the most serious and most common mistake that translators in healthcare setting make due to the peculiarities of the development of medical systems in Spanish and Russian languages, where each language terminology has followed its own guidelines of evolution.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 1034
Carlos Sabater ◽  
Lorena Ruiz ◽  
Abelardo Margolles

This study aimed to recover metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from human fecal samples to characterize the glycosidase profiles of Bifidobacterium species exposed to different prebiotic oligosaccharides (galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides and human milk oligosaccharides, HMOs) as well as high-fiber diets. A total of 1806 MAGs were recovered from 487 infant and adult metagenomes. Unsupervised and supervised classification of glycosidases codified in MAGs using machine-learning algorithms allowed establishing characteristic hydrolytic profiles for B. adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, yielding classification rates above 90%. Glycosidase families GH5 44, GH32, and GH110 were characteristic of B. bifidum. The presence or absence of GH1, GH2, GH5 and GH20 was characteristic of B. adolescentis, B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum, while families GH1 and GH30 were relevant in MAGs from B. longum. These characteristic profiles allowed discriminating bifidobacteria regardless of prebiotic exposure. Correlation analysis of glycosidase activities suggests strong associations between glycosidase families comprising HMOs-degrading enzymes, which are often found in MAGs from the same species. Mathematical models here proposed may contribute to a better understanding of the carbohydrate metabolism of some common bifidobacteria species and could be extrapolated to other microorganisms of interest in future studies.

Margot Horspool ◽  
Matthew Humphreys ◽  
Michael Wells-Greco

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise and reliable guides for students at all levels. The eleventh edition of European Union Law provides a systematic overview of the European institutions and offers thorough, wide-ranging coverage of the key substantive law topics, including separate chapters on competition, discrimination, environmental law and services. It also features a new chapter on the EU and its relationship with third countries, including the UK. Incisive analysis of the governing themes and principles of EU law is consistently delivered, while chapter summaries, critical questions, further reading suggestions and the new ‘Brexit checklist’ feature help to guide the reader through the subject and support further research. Topics covered also include supremacy and direct effect, the European Courts, general principles, free movement of goods and persons and citizenship.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (7) ◽  
pp. 59-82
Md Ashraf Ahmed, PhD Candidate ◽  
Arif Mohaimin Sadri, PhD ◽  
M. Hadi Amini, PhD, DEng

Risk perception and risk averting behaviors of public agencies in the emergence and spread of COVID-19 can be retrieved through online social media (Twitter), and such interactions can be echoed in other information outlets. This study collected time-sensitive online social media data and analyzed patterns of health risk communication of public health and emergency agencies in the emergence and spread of novel coronavirus using data-driven methods. The major focus is toward understanding how policy-making agencies communicate risk and response information through social media during a pandemic and influence community response—ie, timing of lockdown, timing of reopening, etc.—and disease outbreak indicators—ie, number of confirmed cases and number of deaths. Twitter data of six major public organizations (1,000-4,500 tweets per organization) are collected from February 21, 2020 to June 6, 2020. Several machine learning algorithms, including dynamic topic model and sentiment analysis, are applied over time to identify the topic dynamics over the specific timeline of the pandemic. Organizations emphasized on various topics—eg, importance of wearing face mask, home quarantine, understanding the symptoms, social distancing and contact tracing, emerging community transmission, lack of personal protective equipment, COVID-19 testing and medical supplies, effect of tobacco, pandemic stress management, increasing hospitalization rate, upcoming hurricane season, use of convalescent plasma for COVID-19 treatment, maintaining hygiene, and the role of healthcare podcast in different timeline. The findings can benefit emergency management, policymakers, and public health agencies to identify targeted information dissemination policies for public with diverse needs based on how local, federal, and international agencies reacted to COVID-19.

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