Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Dissolution Influence on Crystallinity of Oil Palm Frond, Oil Palm Trunk and Elephant Grass Lignocellulosic Biomass

2014 ◽  
Vol 911 ◽  
pp. 307-313 ◽  
Author(s):  
Siti Norsyarahah Che Kamarludin ◽  
Sandra Ubong ◽  
Nadzeerah Idris ◽  
Intan Suhada Azmi ◽  
Muhammad Syafiq Jainal ◽  
...  

Ionic liquid (IL) has been shown to affect cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass (LB) during pretreatment. This research was carried out with two different experimental design involving IL to observe the effect of dissolution in IL on: (A) the crystallinity of cellulose and (B) the dissolution efficiency of LB. For experiment A, the types of IL used in this research were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate [EMI[A, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride [AMI[C, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride [BMI[C and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride [EMI[C. The crystallinity degree of LB was investigated before and after pretreatment with IL. The microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used as the simulated LB (cellulose content) was dissolved in IL and the crystallinity after the dissolution was analyzed. The temperature (70°C, 80°C, 90°C, 99°C) and concentration ratio of IL with volume/volume (v/v: 10%, 25%, 50%) were varied while the dissolution time remained constant. The crystallinity was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the dissolution temperature and IL concentration ratio affects the intensity of the FTIR peaks. In experiment B, the dissolution of LB with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride [BMI[C and 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride [EMI[C as ILs were investigated. Four types of LB involved were Elaeis guineensis species of Oil Palm Trunk (OPT) and Oil Palm Frond (OPF) and Pennisetum purpureum species (elephant grass) originated from Taiwan and India. From the results obtained, the [BMI[C gave better dissolution to biomass.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Agustin Krisna Wardani ◽  
Aji Sutrisno ◽  
Titik Nur Faida ◽  
Retno Dwi Yustina ◽  
Untung Murdiyatmo

Background. Oil palm trunk (OPT) with highly cellulose content is a valuable bioresource for bioethanol production. To produce ethanol from biomass, pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars such as glucose and xylose. Several pretreatment methods have been developed to overcome biomass recalcitrance. In this study, the effects of different pretreatment methods such as alkali pretreatment, microwave-alkali, and alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave on the lignocellulosic biomass structure were investigated. Moreover, ethanol production from the treated biomass was performed by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) under different temperatures, fermentation times, and cell ratios of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 479 and pentose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis NCYC 1541. Results. Pretreatment resulted in a significant lignin removal up to 83.26% and cellulose released up to 80.74% in treated OPT by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method. Enzymatic hydrolysis of treated OPT resulted in an increase in fermentable sugar up to 93.22%. Optimization of SSCF by response surface method showed that the coculture could work together to produce maximum ethanol (1.89%) and fermentation efficiency (66.14%) under the optimized condition. Conclusion. Pretreatment by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method and SSCF process could be expected as a promising system for ethanol production from oil palm trunk and various lignocellulosic biomass.


2014 ◽  
Vol 893 ◽  
pp. 488-491 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elfarizanis Baharudin ◽  
Alyani Ismail ◽  
Adam Reda Hasan Alhawari ◽  
Edi Syams Zainudin ◽  
Dayang L.A. Majid ◽  
...  

This paper presents the results on dielectric properties of pulverized material based on agricultural waste namely oil palm frond and pineapple leaf fiber for microwave absorber application in the X-band frequency range. The investigation is started by identifying the pulverized materials permittivities and loss tangents using coaxial probe technique, followed by density measurement comprising the determination of bulk and solid densities. Then, by using dielectric mixture model, the solid particle dielectric properties were determined. It is observed that the air properties give quite an effect on the permittivity and loss tangent of the pulverized materials. It is also found that the lower the material density the higher material dielectric constant will be. Furthermore, the results show that, both oil palm frond and pineapple leaf fiber are potential to be X-band absorber with average dielectric constant of 4.40 and 3.38 respectively. The loss tangents for both materials were observed to be more than 0.1 which mark them as lossy materials.


Author(s):  
Siti Nur Ridhwah Muhamed Ramli ◽  
Tengku Elida Tengku Zainal Mulok ◽  
Sabiha Hanim Mohd Salleh ◽  
Khalilah Abdul Khalil ◽  
Othman Ahmad ◽  
...  

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