Microbial Contamination Control and Prevention During Space H/W Manufacturing and Assembly

1994 ◽  
Enrico Gaia ◽  
Vincenzo Guarnieri
Francesco Romano ◽  
Samanta Milani ◽  
Roberto Ricci ◽  
Cesare Maria Joppolo

In Operating Theatres (OT), the ventilation system plays an important role in controlling airborne contamination and reducing the risks of Surgical Site Infections (SSIs). The air cleanliness is really crucial in this field and different measurements are used in order to characterize the situation in terms of both airborne microbiological pollutants and particle size and concentration. Although the ventilation systems and airborne contamination are strictly linked, different air diffusion schemes (in particular, the Partial Unidirectional Airflow, P-UDAF, and the Mixing Airflow, MAF) and various design parameters are used, and there is still no consensus on real performance and optimum solutions. This study presents measurements procedures and results obtained during Inspection and Periodic Performance Testing (1228 observations) in a large sample of Italian OTs (175 OTs in 31 Italian hospitals) in their operative life (period from 2010 to 2018). The inspections were made after a cleaning procedure, both in “at-rest” conditions and “in operation” state. Inert and microbial contamination data (in air and on surfaces) are analyzed and commented according to four relevant air diffusion schemes and design classes. Related data on Recovery Time (RT) and personnel presence were picked up and are commented. The results confirm that the ventilation systems are able to maintain the targeted performance levels in the OT operative life. However, they attest that significant differences in real OT contamination control capabilities do exist and could be ascribed to various design choices and to different operation and maintenance practices. The study shows and confirms that the air diffusion scheme and the design airflow rate are critical factors. Beside large variations in measurements, the performance values, in terms of control of airborne particle and microbial contamination (in air and on surfaces), for P-UDAF systems are better than those that were assessed for the MAF air diffusion solution. The average performances do increase with increasing airflows, and the results offer a better insight on this relationship leading to some possible optimization.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (6) ◽  
pp. 847-853 ◽  
Victor Daniel Rosenthal

The objective of this systematic review is to analyze types of needle-free connectors and open systems and their effects on central line–associated bloodstream infection rates and other adverse outcomes through a research protocol consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews’ recommendations. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases of systematic reviews were searched for relevant comparative studies published from January 2000 to September 2017. Eighteen studies compared central line–associated bloodstream infection (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definition), internal microbial contamination, occlusions, phlebitis, and other outcomes associated with needle-free connectors with a positive displacement device, negative displacement device, neutral displacement device, or three-way stopcock. Ten studies reported central line–associated bloodstream infection rates, which were lower with positive displacement devices versus negative displacement devices/neutral displacement devices (one study) and with negative displacement devices versus three-way stopcocks (three studies), but varied with different positive displacement device and negative displacement device/neutral displacement device designs (four studies). Seven studies reported internal microbial contamination rates, which were higher with three-way stopcocks versus negative displacement devices (two studies) and positive displacement devices (two studies), lower when positive displacement devices were used versus neutral displacement devices (one study), and varied with different types of negative displacement device (one study). Central line–associated bloodstream infection rates and most other outcomes analyzed were statistically significantly higher with three-way stopcocks (open devices) versus positive displacement device, negative displacement devices, and neutral displacement devices, but varied among closed device designs.

2019 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 54
Heidi Storm Vikke

Background: Prehospital acute care and treatment have become more complex, and while invasive procedures are standard procedures, focus on infection control and prevention is scarce. We aimed to evaluate guideline adherence, microbial contamination, and associated risk factors. Methods: In a nationwide cross-sectional study, we evaluated guideline adherence to thorough cleaning (TC) once a day, and moderate cleaning (MC) in-between patient courses. Microbial contamination on hand-touch sites (HTS) and provider-related sites (PRS) was assessed by total aerobic colony forming units (CFU) and presence of selected pathogens, using swab and agar imprints. Also, microbial contamination was assessed in relation to potential risk factors. Results: 80 ambulances and coherent EMS providers were enrolled. Adherence to guidelines regarding TC was 35%, but regarding MC it was 100%. In total, 129 (27%) of 480 HTS presented a total CFU > 2.5/cm2 and/or pathogenic growth, indicating hygiene failures. The prevalence of selected pathogens on HTS was: S. aureus 7%; Enterococcus 3% and Enterobacteriaceae 1%. Total CFU on the PRS ranged from 0-250/cm2, and the prevalence of pathogens was 18% (S. aureus 15%, Enterococcus 3% and Enterobacteriaceae 0.3%). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was found in one sample, and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in two. No Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were recorded. Conclusion: Guideline adherence was suboptimal, and many HTS did not comply fully with proposed standards for cleanliness. Pathogens were demonstrated on both HTS and PRS, indicating that the EMS may be a source of infection in hospitalized patients. Moreover, cleaning effort and time appears associated with microbial contamination, but a comprehensive investigation of risk factors is needed.

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