scholarly journals Neurobiological mechanisms underlying delayed expression of posttraumatic stress disorder: A scoping review

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 151-168
Geert E Smid ◽  
Jonna Lind ◽  
Jens Peter Bonde
2019 ◽  
Vol 86 (2) ◽  
pp. 148-157 ◽  
Megan M. Edgelow ◽  
Megan M. MacPherson ◽  
Faye Arnaly ◽  
Linna Tam-Seto ◽  
Heidi A. Cramm

Background. People who are diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can experience disruptions in their daily occupations. Occupational therapists may assist clients with PTSD to reengage in meaningful occupations. Purpose. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the ways occupational therapy addresses PTSD in clinical practice. Method. Scholarly databases were searched for documents relating to occupational therapy and PTSD. Two reviewers independently applied selection criteria and systematically extracted information. Data were extracted and synthesized in a narrative format. Findings. Fifty sources met inclusion criteria and three major themes were identified: recognizing trauma within specific populations, PTSD’s impact on a range of occupations, and occupational therapy’s response to PTSD. Implications. Occupational therapists are working in multidisciplinary teams to reduce the impact of PTSD on the daily occupations of their clients. More effectiveness studies are required to understand the outcomes of occupational therapy interventions for clients with PTSD.

2015 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-50 ◽  
Sara C. Schroeder ◽  
Ronald M. Ruff ◽  
Lutz Jäncke

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on (a) neuropsychological test performance and (b) self-reported emotional complaints within individuals suffering from postconcussional disorder (PCD) after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). A two-group comparative research design was employed. Two MTBI samples with and without PTSD were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery and the Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory (RNBI). On the neurocognitive test performances no significant between group differences were found, but the MTBI group with PTSD endorsed a significantly greater number of emotional complaints, especially in the RNBI subscales of anxiety and depression. The patients with PTSD also endorsed a significantly greater number of premorbid sequelae in the RNBI emotional composite scale as well as the RNBI premorbid subscales of pain, anxiety and abuse. In sum, PTSD has a negative impact on emotional but not cognitive functioning within individuals suffering from PCD after a mild TBI.

2009 ◽  
Vol 57 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-42 ◽  
Lena Schirmer ◽  
Anja Mehnert ◽  
Angela Scherwath ◽  
Barbara Schleimer ◽  
Frank Schulz-Kindermann ◽  

Die in mehreren Studien gefundenen kognitiven Störungen bei Tumorpatienten nach Chemotherapie werden zumeist mit der Zytostatikaneurotoxizität assoziiert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Zusammenhang von Angst, Depression und Posttraumatischer Belastungsstörung mit der kognitiven Leistungsfähigkeit bei Frauen mit Mammakarzinom untersucht. Insgesamt wurden 76 Brustkrebspatientinnen fünf Jahre nach Abschluss der onkologischen Behandlung mit neuropsychologischen Testverfahren sowie mit der Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Deutsche Version (HADS-D) und der Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) untersucht: 23 nach Standard- und 24 nach Hochdosistherapie sowie 29 nach Brustoperation und Strahlentherapie als Vergleichsgruppe. Signifikante Zusammenhänge sind vor allem zwischen kognitiven Funktionen und Intrusionssymptomen einer Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung (PTBS) festzustellen. Bei Patientinnen nach Standardtherapie weisen Intrusionen der PTBS einen moderaten Zusammenhang mit der globalen kognitiven Beeinträchtigung auf. Die Ergebnisse der Studie deuten auf multidimensionale Einfluss- und moderierende Faktoren bei der Entwicklung kognitiver Defizite bei Brustkrebspatientinnen nach onkologischer Therapie hin.

2008 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 219-223 ◽  
Barbara Frühe ◽  
Hans-Joachim Röthlein ◽  
Rita Rosner

Traumatische Ereignisse im schulischen Kontext treten vergleichsweise häufig auf. So ist die Bestimmung von Kindern und Jugendlichen, die aktuell und auch zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt einer psychologischen Betreuung bedürfen, im Rahmen der Fürsorgepflicht notwendig. 48 Jugendliche zwischen 12 und 17 Jahren wurden in der Schule zu zwei Messzeitpunkten zur akuten und posttraumatischen Symptomatik sowie zu verschiedenen Risikofaktoren befragt. Verwendet wurde die neu entwickelte Checkliste zur Akuten Belastung (CAB) und die deutsche Version des University of Los Angeles at California Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA CPTSD-RI). Eine Woche nach dem Ereignis betrug der Anteil klinisch bedeutsamer Belastung 21 % und nach 10 – 15 Wochen 10 %. Ein mittlerer Zusammenhang zwischen akuter und posttraumatischer Belastung konnte nachgewiesen werden. Als bedeutsame Risikofaktoren für die Entwicklung einer posttraumatischen Belastung stellten sich der Konfrontationsgrad, peritraumatisch erlebte Angst sowie akute Beeinträchtigung heraus. Im Kontext der Betreuung betroffener Jugendlicher nach traumatischen Ereignissen sollte den Risikofaktoren mehr Beachtung geschenkt werden.

2010 ◽  
Vol 218 (2) ◽  
pp. 135-140 ◽  
Slawomira J. Diener ◽  
Herta Flor ◽  
Michèle Wessa

Impairments in declarative memory have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fragmentation of explicit trauma-related memory has been assumed to impede the formation of a coherent memorization of the traumatic event and the integration into autobiographic memory. Together with a strong non-declarative memory that connects trauma reminders with a fear response the impairment in declarative memory is thought to be involved in the maintenance of PTSD symptoms. Fourteen PTSD patients, 14 traumatized subjects without PTSD, and 13 non-traumatized healthy controls (HC) were tested with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) to assess verbal declarative memory. PTSD symptoms were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and depression with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Several indices of the CVLT pointed to an impairment in declarative memory performance in PTSD, but not in traumatized persons without PTSD or HC. No group differences were observed if recall of memory after a time delay was set in relation to initial learning performance. In the PTSD group verbal memory performance correlated significantly with hyperarousal symptoms, after concentration difficulties were accounted for. The present study confirmed previous reports of declarative verbal memory deficits in PTSD. Extending previous results, we propose that learning rather than memory consolidation is impaired in PTSD patients. Furthermore, arousal symptoms may interfere with successful memory formation in PTSD.

2016 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-39 ◽  
Nicole L. Hofman ◽  
Austin M. Hahn ◽  
Christine K. Tirabassi ◽  
Raluca M. Gaher

Abstract. Exposure to traumatic events and the associated risk of developing Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a significant and overlooked concern in the college population. It is important for current research to identify potential protective factors associated with the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms unique to this population. Emotional intelligence and perceived social support are two identified protective factors that influence the association between exposure to traumatic events and PTSD symptomology. The current study examined the mediating role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. Participants included 443 trauma-exposed university students who completed online questionnaires. The results of this study indicated that social support mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and reported PTSD symptoms. Thus, emotional intelligence is significantly associated with PTSD symptoms and social support may play an integral role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD. The current study is the first to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. These findings have important treatment and prevention implications with regard to PTSD.

2006 ◽  
Vol 22 (4) ◽  
pp. 259-267 ◽  
Eelco Olde ◽  
Rolf J. Kleber ◽  
Onno van der Hart ◽  
Victor J.M. Pop

Childbirth has been identified as a possible traumatic experience, leading to traumatic stress responses and even to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in a group of women who recently gave birth (N = 435). In addition, a comparison was made between the original IES and the IES-R. The scale showed high internal consistency (α = 0.88). Using confirmatory factor analysis no support was found for a three-factor structure of an intrusion, an avoidance, and a hyperarousal factor. Goodness of fit was only reasonable, even after fitting one intrusion item on the hyperarousal scale. The IES-R correlated significantly with scores on depression and anxiety self-rating scales, as well as with scores on a self-rating scale of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although the IES-R can be used for studying posttraumatic stress reactions in women who recently gave birth, the original IES proved to be a better instrument compared to the IES-R. It is concluded that adding the hyperarousal scale to the IES-R did not make the scale stronger.

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