Comparison of nonlinear classification methods for image data

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (4) ◽  
pp. 767-780
Kyuri Park ◽  
Changyi Park
2009 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 187-199 ◽  
Maria Tito ◽  
Mercedes Cabrerizo ◽  
Melvin Ayala ◽  
Prasanna Jayakar ◽  
Malek Adjouadi

2021 ◽  
Vol 141 (2) ◽  
pp. 168-172
Yasushi Shiroma ◽  
Hitoshi Afuso ◽  
Hidekazu Saito ◽  
Itaru Nagayama ◽  
Shiro Tamaki

Robert M. Glaeser ◽  
Bing K. Jap

The dynamical scattering effect, which can be described as the failure of the first Born approximation, is perhaps the most important factor that has prevented the widespread use of electron diffraction intensities for crystallographic structure determination. It would seem to be quite certain that dynamical effects will also interfere with structure analysis based upon electron microscope image data, whenever the dynamical effect seriously perturbs the diffracted wave. While it is normally taken for granted that the dynamical effect must be taken into consideration in materials science applications of electron microscopy, very little attention has been given to this problem in the biological sciences.

Richard S. Chemock

One of the most common tasks in a typical analysis lab is the recording of images. Many analytical techniques (TEM, SEM, and metallography for example) produce images as their primary output. Until recently, the most common method of recording images was by using film. Current PS/2R systems offer very large capacity data storage devices and high resolution displays, making it practical to work with analytical images on PS/2s, thereby sidestepping the traditional film and darkroom steps. This change in operational mode offers many benefits: cost savings, throughput, archiving and searching capabilities as well as direct incorporation of the image data into reports.The conventional way to record images involves film, either sheet film (with its associated wet chemistry) for TEM or PolaroidR film for SEM and light microscopy. Although film is inconvenient, it does have the highest quality of all available image recording techniques. The fine grained film used for TEM has a resolution that would exceed a 4096x4096x16 bit digital image.

Klaus-Ruediger Peters

Differential hysteresis processing is a new image processing technology that provides a tool for the display of image data information at any level of differential contrast resolution. This includes the maximum contrast resolution of the acquisition system which may be 1,000-times higher than that of the visual system (16 bit versus 6 bit). All microscopes acquire high precision contrasts at a level of <0.01-25% of the acquisition range in 16-bit - 8-bit data, but these contrasts are mostly invisible or only partially visible even in conventionally enhanced images. The processing principle of the differential hysteresis tool is based on hysteresis properties of intensity variations within an image.Differential hysteresis image processing moves a cursor of selected intensity range (hysteresis range) along lines through the image data reading each successive pixel intensity. The midpoint of the cursor provides the output data. If the intensity value of the following pixel falls outside of the actual cursor endpoint values, then the cursor follows the data either with its top or with its bottom, but if the pixels' intensity value falls within the cursor range, then the cursor maintains its intensity value.

M.F. Schmid ◽  
R. Dargahi ◽  
M. W. Tam

Electron crystallography is an emerging field for structure determination as evidenced by a number of membrane proteins that have been solved to near-atomic resolution. Advances in specimen preparation and in data acquisition with a 400kV microscope by computer controlled spot scanning mean that our ability to record electron image data will outstrip our capacity to analyze it. The computed fourier transform of these images must be processed in order to provide a direct measurement of amplitudes and phases needed for 3-D reconstruction.In anticipation of this processing bottleneck, we have written a program that incorporates a menu-and mouse-driven procedure for auto-indexing and refining the reciprocal lattice parameters in the computed transform from an image of a crystal. It is linked to subsequent steps of image processing by a system of data bases and spawned child processes; data transfer between different program modules no longer requires manual data entry. The progress of the reciprocal lattice refinement is monitored visually and quantitatively. If desired, the processing is carried through the lattice distortion correction (unbending) steps automatically.

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