2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 17-22
Anjaly PR ◽  
Madhushree HS ◽  
Ganesh Puttur

The Shodhana procedures are mainly divided into three phases known as Trividha Karma. Acharya Dalhana has clarified Trividha Karma in the context of Shodhana as Poorva Karma, Pradhana Karma and Paschat Karma. Samsarjana Krama is a special diet pattern which is followed as Paschat Karma after Samshodhana. After Samshodhana Karma the Atura Shareera will have reduced tolerance owing to the elimination of large quantities of Dosha and Mala from the body, leading to weakness and reduction in digestive fire. This can be corrected only by following proper Samsarjana Krama with respect to the Shuddhi attained by the Atura. Acharyas detailed the Samsarjana Krama for two Annakala with respect to the ancient time period in contrast to the present scenario, where we are following three Annakala. To get a successful result from the treatment the patient should follow all the 3 stages properly. Hence, here an attempt is made to modify the Samsarjana Krama chart for the present era with respect to classical information given by the Acharyas.

Dr. Rishu Sharma ◽  
Dr. Gyanendra Datta Shukla ◽  
Dr. Alok Kumar Srivastava

Panchakarma therapy is one of the vital branch of Ayurveda, which deals mainly with purification of the provoked Doshas from the body. Basti Chikitsa is regarded as the prime treatment modality among the Panchakarma. It is having not only curative action but also preventive and promotive actions. It is considered as best treatment for Vata Dosha. Yapana Basti is a subtype of Asthapana Basti, which is having the property to support life and promote longevity and widely used in various disorders. Rajayapana Basti is superior amongst all the Yapana Bastis described by Acharya Charaka as it is the king of Yapana. This Rasayana Yapana Basti performs dual function of both Anuvasana and Niruha; hence this is Srotoshodhaka and Brimhana at the sametime. That’s why there is no need to administer separate Anuvasana while giving Yapana Basti. There is an urgent need of standardizing the classical Panchakarma procedures in consideration of the need of today. The dosage schedule, exact procedures, medicaments, effects, and side effects are to be standardized so that uniform procedure of practice should be followed all over nation. Standardization is the need of hour for physicians, to prevent Atiyoga (over activity), Ayoga (less or no activity) and to get adequate effects in a systematic and sophisticated manner within desired time period.

Elena Vitalievna Perminova

Organization of care for patients with glomerulonephritis is a rather urgent problem today, due to the high incidence rate and the tendency to progression of renal dysfunction. When discussing treatment issues, it is necessary to pay attention to the fulfillment of three basic requirements for patients, which include normalization of the life regime (in particular, the exclusion of night work, avoiding stressful situations and heavy physical activity when having high blood pressure), the implementation of certain dietary recommendations and prolonged drug treatment [3]. Diseases of the kidneys as the main organ, the affection of which leads to a deterioration of excretory function, require a special diet with a restriction of a number of products. Against the background of glomerulonephritis disruption of the process of glomerular filtration, which in some cases leads to the development of renal failure, it is necessary to reduce the intake of food substances that can have a negative effect on the body — alcohol, smoked meats, spicy, salty foods, preserves, sausages, foods with high protein and salt content. Moreover, one should also take control of the amount of fluid consumed and ensure compliance with the frequency and regularity of food intake.

2018 ◽  
Vol 29 (06) ◽  
pp. 528-532
Thomas Sebastian Bott ◽  
Thekla von Kalle ◽  
Alexander Schilling ◽  
Oliver Heinz Diez ◽  
Sarah Besch ◽  

Introduction The development of stenoses after correction of an esophageal atresia or acid and lye burn of the esophagus are well-known problems in pediatric surgery. Currently, stenoses are treated in the majority of cases by repeated balloon dilatations. The diameter of the balloons used is not standardized; standard curves do not exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diameter of the esophagus correlated to the body weight of the children as measured in upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies to answer the important question to what extent a stenosis should be dilated. Materials and Methods Within the time period from 2011 through 2016, 60 patients with upper GI studies were selected. Evaluations were blinded to two different examiners. The diameters were measured under maximum contrast filling between the second and third rib (cranial point of measurement) and between the seventh and eighth rib (caudal point of measurement). For both, the anteroposterior and lateral aspect was examined. The diameter was calculated as the arithmetic average of both measurements within one level. The diameters were correlated to the weight of the children. Results All children (n = 38) within the 3rd to 97th weight percentile were analyzed. Linear correlation and coefficients of 0.67 at the cranial point and 0.70 at the caudal point were found. Mean diameter at the cranial point of measurement was 6.75 mm at the lowest weight (2.6 kg) and 14 mm at 74 kg. Mean weight of these children (standard deviation [SD]) was 25.3 (18.8) kg and median age was 7 years. Within weight groups (0–10 kg; 10–20 kg; 20–35 kg; 35–50 kg; >50 kg), we calculated SD and two side tested critical 95% confidence interval for all measurements (n = 74). Conclusion Although the variation in measurements is considerable, this evaluation gives a reliable hint to which extent esophageal stenoses should be dilated in relation to the body weight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to evaluate the diameter of the esophagus in children in relation to the body weight.

Circulation ◽  
2007 ◽  
Vol 116 (suppl_16) ◽  
Kevin J Wickenheiser ◽  
Peter F Bodary ◽  
Kristina Bahrou ◽  
Daniel T Eitzman

Background : Obesity is associated with proinflammatory changes and an increased risk for vascular disease complications. The tissue source and mechanism by which soluble P-selectin (sPsel) is generated in obesity are unclear. Methods and Results : Soluble p-selectin (sPsel) levels were measured in the circulation from lean wild type and obese leptin receptor deficient mice (LepR−/−) at 4 and 10 weeks of age. In wild-type mice body weight increases from 13+/−2 to 20+/−3 grams over this time period while the body weight increases from 15+/−2 to 38+/−5 grams in LepR−/− mice. At 4 weeks of age sPsel levels were 103+/−8mg/mL in wild-type mice vs. 138+/−9 ng/mL in LepR−/− mice, p=0.048. By 10 wks of age sPsel increased to 112 +/− 2 in wild-type mice and 182 +/− 9 in LepR−/− mice, p=0.00005. In order to determine if the obesity-induced rise in sPsel is regulated by leukocyte Psgl-1, bone marrow transplantation was performed from Psgl+/+ or Psgl−/− donors into irradiated LepR−/−recipients. At 4 weeks post-transplant, sPsel levels were 166 +/−6 ng/mL in LepR−/− mice receiving Psgl+/+ marrow and 45 +/− 4 ng/mL in LepR−/− mice receiving Psgl−/− marrow, p=0.0000004. In order to determine if the sPsel in LepR−/− mice originated from the endothelium versus platelets, we transplanted Psel−/− bone marrow into irradiated LepR−/−mice. At 4 weeks post transplant, sPsel levels were 153 +/−3 ng/mL in LepR−/− mice receiving Psel−/− bone marrow and were not significantly different from LepR−/− mice receiving Psel+/+ bone marrow (166 +/−6 ng/mL, p=0.06). By 10 weeks post transplant, mice gained even more weight and levels were 377+/−51 ng/mL in LepR−/− mice receiving Psel+/+ bone marrow and 370+/−73 ng/mL in LepR−/− mice receiving Psel−/− bone marrow, p=0.87. Conclusions : These data suggest that the increase in sPsel observed in obesity is primarily derived from the endothelium and that this process is regulated by leukocyte Psgl-1.

Evgeniya V. Sartikova ◽  

The article discusses the main trends in the rotation of the executive (the first) secretaries of the Kalmyk regional party committee in 1921–1943. The study is based on the documents from the fund of the Kalmyk regional committee of the USSR Communist Party kept at the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia. The principles of objectivism and historicism were used for the analysis of the archive materials that allowed to examine the problem in its relation to the existing specific historical circumstances. The goal of the article is to investigate the body of the first secretaries of the Russian Communist Party — All-Russia Communist Party in Kalmykia. The use of the common in the historical research methods (the broadside examination of the archive sources, historical description, chronological method) allowed to investigate the historical phenomena in the close relation to the historical situation. The author concludes that the specific feature of the rotation of the first secretaries of the Kalmyk regional party committee was the appointment of people from other regions of the country to this position. Mainly these were formal representatives, supervisors recommended by the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party — All-Russia Communist Party for the positions of the first or second secretaries of the regional party committee. The analysis of the characteristics of the body of the first secretaries of the Kalmyk regional party in the given time period showed that all these people were from poor peasant families, without high education but with sufficient party service record who combined party and soviet activities.

Societies ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 102
Vitor Ferreira

The aims of this article are to identify, describe, and sociologically understand the different somatic cultures in contemporary Portuguese society—i.e., the distinct ways in which different generations have thought about, used and lived the body from the time of the Estado Novo (the New State, which was the regime that governed Portugal from 1933 to 1974) until the present day. Beginning with the hypothesis that there are different, historically institutionalized, somatic modes of attention to the “young body”, the author uses the most relevant institutions of the socialization of the body as analytical dimensions and investigates their main incorporation strategies and models of corporality. This hypothesis is informed by different generational conditions that change people’s uses of their body, their experiences of living in it, and their thoughts on the matter. Using these analytical dimensions, the article presents a typology that identifies, describes, and comprehends the three somatic cultures in the recent history of Portuguese society: the culture of physical invigoration that forms part of the legacy of the New State; the culture of physical rejuvenation inherited from youth cultures of the 1960s and 70s, along with the growth of body design industries in the 1980s; and the culture of physical perfection inherited from the biotech culture in the 1990s, accompanied by the radicalization of the body design industry. This approach entails the discussion and reinterpretation of a corpus of historical literature, presenting research data on the body in a defined time period (1930 to date) and space (Portugal), analyzed from an embodied perspective of generational change.

1975 ◽  
Vol 65 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-71 ◽  

SUMMARY Counting of radioactivity in Japanese quail in vivo showed a rapid loss of 131I from the body 12–24 h after the i.v. injection of [131I]thyroxine (T4), followed by a period of slow decrease in counting rates to 96 h. From comparison of these [131I]T4 curves with curves for 131iodide-injected birds and from counts on serum and other tissues in vitro it was concluded that, for Japanese quail, the T4 secretion rate should be calculated using serum samples taken during the first 12 h. Using this time period, the parameters measured were: T4 distribution space, laying hens 45·7 and mature cocks 26·3 ml/100 g body weight; fractional degradation rate for T4, hens 5·73 and cocks 3·12/day; serum T4 concentration (Tetrasorb125 method), hens 1·20 ± 0.07 and cocks 1·34 ± 0.05 (s.e.m.)μg/100 ml (n= 16); T4 secretion rate, hens 3·14 and cocks 1·10 μg/100 g/day.

Lizette Larson-Miller

Christian rites for reconciliation and healing are intimately related to one another in that individuals and communities are healed and made whole through divine action In ecclesial rites, this divine response is in cooperation with prayer and ritual that operate within understandings of health and salvation for the whole person, inclusive of spiritual, physical, emotional, mental, and social healing. The historical rites and rituals of the church have undergone tremendous changes throughout history, reflecting differences in what it is that was desired and prayed for, and whether the ritual work was to reincorporate a member back into the church or into health and wholeness. The various ritual processes emerged from the intersection of these theological intentions with scripture and scriptural interpretation, with cultural patterns established or emerging, with geographical availability of physical elements and climate possibilities, and with other religious systems as well as from political and population shifts linked to all of these aspects. Rites of reconciliation were ritual responses to theological assumptions about the free will of humans, human nature and sin, the love of God, and the authority of the church as the body of Christ to challenge members when their words and actions were counter to the unity of the community and the teaching articulated by the appointed leaders. Rites of healing were ritualized acts of the prayer of faith, imitating one of the primary ministries of Jesus himself in healing people into the fullness of life, proclaiming healing as sign and symbol of the reign of God, and assuring all the members that “the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise them up” (James 5:14). Both of these rites, while ritually evolving as theologies and contexts changed, were always concerned with the reconciliation and healing of individuals to themselves, as well as reconciliation and healing in relationship to their communities and to their God. Of these three constituencies—God, community, oneself—one aspect or another would often take precedence in a particular time period, giving a discernable emphasis to the rites in their historical contexts. This tripartite emphasis was met with other factors that shifted historically, such as who may receive these rites, who may administer the rites, and the relationship to the church and to God as perceived by different voices. All of these factors shape the rites of reconciliation and healing over the centuries of Christian practice, contributing to the diverse practices found in Christianity today.

2020 ◽  
Vol 107 (5) ◽  
Xianfeng Yang ◽  
Julien Kimmig ◽  
Bruce S. Lieberman ◽  
Shanchi Peng

Abstract The Cambrian radiation represents a key time period in the history of life. Here, we add to the mounting evidence accumulating on the nature of deuterostomes from this time period through description of a new species of stalked deuterostome, Herpetogaster haiyanensis nov. sp., from the lower Cambrian (series 2, stage 3) Chengjiang biota of China. This represents the first occurrence of the genus in Gondwana, the first juvenile specimen, and the oldest specimens to date. Herpetogaster haiyanensis nov. sp. differs from H. collinsi Caron et al. (2010) in having a stolon that is separated into an outer and inner layer, the segmentation of the body and in the shape and number of branches of the tentacles. The new species reiterates earlier suggestions of deuterostome affinities of the genus―it appears closely related to Phlogites and then successively more distantly related to Cotyledon and Eldonia―and may have fed on hyolithids.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yangyang Miao ◽  
Shugeng Chen ◽  
Xinru Zhang ◽  
Jing Jin ◽  
Ren Xu ◽  

Background. Stroke is the leading cause of serious and long-term disability worldwide. Survivors may recover some motor functions after rehabilitation therapy. However, many stroke patients missed the best time period for recovery and entered into the sequela stage of chronic stroke. Method. Studies have shown that motor imagery- (MI-) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has a positive effect on poststroke rehabilitation. This study used both virtual limbs and functional electrical stimulation (FES) as feedback to provide patients with a closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. An MI-based BCI system acquired, analyzed, and classified motor attempts from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The FES system would be activated if the BCI detected that the user was imagining wrist dorsiflexion on the instructed side of the body. Sixteen stroke patients in the sequela stage were randomly assigned to a BCI group and a control group. All of them participated in rehabilitation training for four weeks and were assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) of motor function. Results. The average improvement score of the BCI group was 3.5, which was higher than that of the control group (0.9). The active EEG patterns of the four patients in the BCI group whose FMA scores increased gradually became centralized and shifted to sensorimotor areas and premotor areas throughout the study. Conclusions. Study results showed evidence that patients in the BCI group achieved larger functional improvements than those in the control group and that the BCI-FES system is effective in restoring motor function to upper extremities in stroke patients. This study provides a more autonomous approach than traditional treatments used in stroke rehabilitation.

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