Impact of Low Intensity Exercise on Liver Enzymes (ALT & ALP)

Alamgir Khan ◽  
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt ◽  
Shahzaman Khan ◽  
Sobia Nazir ◽  
Ejaz Asghar ◽  

This particular research study was basically carried out for the purpose to examine the impact of low intensity exercise on two particular liver enzymes i.e. alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP). 20 Non sportsmen were selected as subjects of the study (n=20, age 20 to 30 years (20.95±3.79), Body Mass Index (BMI) from 18 to 30 (25.90±5.54). Similarly the subjects were divided into two groups (Experimental Group and Control Group) through the application of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and measurement of Maximum Heart Rate (MHR). 12 weeks self-made low intensity exercise protocol was applied to an experimental group.  5ml blood was collected from all subjects to measure the effect of low intensity exercise on ALT and ALP. The data of pre and post-test were processed through SPSS version 24. Based on analysis and findings, the researcher concluded that in experimental group (EXG) the level of ALT and ALP was found significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to control group (CG). Based on conclusion, it is hereby recommended by the researcher that for the purpose to promote the functional capacity of liver, low as well as moderate intensity exercise should be performed on daily basis. In addition, in this study due to lack of financial resources, two basic liver enzymes i.e.ALT and ALP were measured, therefore the other enzymes like as AST and bilirubin also need to be examined in such other research studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Maryam Fazeli ◽  
Marziyeh Asadizaker ◽  
Simin Jahani ◽  
Elham Maraghi ◽  
Tina Vosoughi

Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) during chemotherapy and after it and decreased body energy are common problems in patients that do not resolve with sleep and rest. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of combination therapy of low-intensity exercise and slow stroke back massage (SSBM) on physical activity and fatigue intensity of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on 92 patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy who were referred to the oncology wards of Baqhaiee-2 hospital Ahvaz-Iran (2018 - 2020). Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group patients who received three days a week for four weeks that each session 10 minutes for slow stroke back massage and 15 minutes’ low-intensity exercise. Control group patients who received usual care. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and then analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results showed the intensity of fatigue decreased in the experimental group, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.05). The trend of physical activity increased in the experimental group; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.68). Conclusions: The combination of low-intensity exercise intervention and slow stroke back massage had a positive effect on fatigue severity but no statistically positive effect on physical activity.

BMJ Open ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. e035610 ◽  
Lucas Ogura Dantas ◽  
Ana Elisa Serafim Jorge ◽  
Paula Regina Mendes da Silva Serrão ◽  
Francisco Aburquerque-Sendín ◽  
Tania de Fatima Salvini

IntroductionThere is an unmet need to develop tailored therapeutic exercise protocols applying different treatment parameters and modalities for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Cryotherapy is widely used in rehabilitation as an adjunct treatment due to its effects on pain and the inflammatory process. However, disagreement between KOA guidelines remains with respect to its recommendation status. The aim of this study is to verify the complementary effects of cryotherapy when associated with a tailored therapeutic exercise protocol for patients with KOA.Methods and analysisThis study is a sham-controlled randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Assessments will be performed at baseline and immediately following the intervention period. To check for residual effects of the applied interventions, 3-month and 6-month follow-up assessments will be performed. Participants will be community members living with KOA divided into three groups: (1) the experimental group that will receive a tailored therapeutic exercise protocol followed by a cryotherapy session of 20 min; (2) the sham control group that will receive the same regimen as the first group, but with sham packs filled with dry sand and (3) the active treatment control group that will receive only the therapeutic exercise protocol. The primary outcome will be pain intensity according to a Visual Analogue Scale. Secondary outcomes will be the Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; the Short-Form Health Survey 36; the 30-s Chair Stand Test; the Stair Climb test; and the 40-m fast-paced walk test.Ethics and disseminationThe trial was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Registration approval number: CAAE: 65966617.9.0000.5504. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration numberNCT03360500

1999 ◽  
Vol 276 (5) ◽  
pp. E828-E835 ◽  
Jeffrey F. Horowitz ◽  
Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez ◽  
Lauri O. Byerley ◽  
Edward F. Coyle

This study determined the effect of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise on the lipolytic rate, glucose disappearance from plasma (Rd Glc), and fat oxidation. Six moderately trained men cycled for 2 h on four separate occasions. During two trials, they were fed a high-glycemic carbohydrate meal during exercise at 30 min (0.8 g/kg), 60 min (0.4 g/kg), and 90 min (0.4 g/kg); once during low-intensity exercise [25% peak oxygen consumption (V˙o 2 peak)] and once during moderate-intensity exercise (68%V˙o 2 peak). During two additional trials, the subjects remained fasted (12–14 h) throughout exercise at each intensity. After 55 min of low-intensity exercise in fed subjects, hyperglycemia (30% increase) and a threefold elevation in plasma insulin concentration ( P < 0.05) were associated with a 22% suppression of lipolysis compared with when subjects were fasted (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 6.7 ± 1.2 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1, P < 0.05), but fat oxidation was not different from fasted levels at this time. Fat oxidation when subjects were fed carbohydrate was not reduced below fasting levels until 80–90 min of exercise, and lipolysis was in excess of fat oxidation at this time. The reduction in fat oxidation corresponded in time with the increase in Rd Glc. During moderate-intensity exercise, the very small elevation in plasma insulin concentration (∼3 μU/ml; P < 0.05) during the second hour of exercise when subjects were fed vs. when they were fasted slightly attenuated lipolysis ( P < 0.05) but did not increase Rd Glc or suppress fat oxidation. These findings indicate that despite a suppression of lipolysis after carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, the lipolytic rate remained in excess and thus did not limit fat oxidation. Under these conditions, a reduction in fat oxidation was associated in time with an increase in glucose uptake.

2012 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 433-442 ◽  
Catherine L. Goldie ◽  
C. Ann Brown ◽  
Sylvia M. J. Hains ◽  
Joel L. Parlow ◽  
Richard Birtwhistle

The effects of a 12-week low-intensity exercise conditioning program (walking) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rate–pressure product (RPP), and cardiac autonomic function were measured in 40 sedentary women with hypertension. Women were assigned to either an exercise group ( n = 20) or a control group ( n = 20), matched for β-blockade treatment. They underwent testing at the beginning and at the end of the 12-week study period in three conditions: supine rest, standing, and low-intensity steady state exercise. The exercise group participated in a 12-week, low-intensity walking program, while the control group continued with usual sedentary activity. Compared with the control group, women in the exercise group showed reductions in systolic and diastolic BP and RPP (i.e., the estimated cardiac workload). β-Blockers increased baroreflex sensitivity and lowered BP and HR in all participants; however, those in the exercise group showed the effects of both treatments: a greater reduction in HR and RPP. The combination of exercise training and β-blockade produces cardiac and autonomic adaptations that are not observed with either treatment alone, suggesting that β-blockade enhances the conditioning effects of low-intensity exercise in women with hypertension.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuning Hou ◽  
Renyan Ma ◽  
Song Gao ◽  
Keneilwe Kenny Kaudimba ◽  
Hongmei Yan ◽  

BackgroundHyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disease by purine metabolism disorders. It is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Studies have shown that exercise can effectively reduce serum uric acid (SUA), but the optimal exercise dose, intensity, and mode of exercise for improving HUA have not been verified in clinical studies. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of different exercise intensities in improving SUA of patients with HUA.Methods and AnalysisA randomized, single-blind, parallel controlled trial will be conducted in this study. 186 HUA patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly divided into a 1:1:1 ratio (1): control group (2), low-intensity exercise group (brisk walking, 57-63% maximum heart rate, 150 min/week, 12 months), and (3) moderate-intensity exercise group (jogging, 64-76% maximum heart rate, 150 min/week, 12 months). The three groups of subjects will receive the same health education and prohibition of high-purine diet during the intervention period. The primary outcomes will be SUA concentration, SUA concentration change (mg/dL), SUA change rate (%), and the proportion of HUA patients. Secondary outcomes will include anthropometric parameters (body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI); physiological indicators (blood pressure, grip, vital capacity, maximum oxygen); biochemical indicators (blood lipid, blood sugar, liver enzyme, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen). Each group of patients will go through an assessment at baseline, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months.DiscussionThis study will evaluate the effect of 12-month low-intensity exercise and moderate-intensity exercise on HUA patients. We hypothesize that both low-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise would improve HUA as compared with no-exercise control, and that moderate-intensity exercise would be more effective than low-intensity exercise in improving HUA. These results can provide a basis for the current physical activity guidelines for HUA’s healthy lifestyle management.Ethics and DisseminationThis study has been approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the Shanghai University of Sport (approval number: 102772020RT005). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants or their guardians. The authors intend to submit the study findings to peer-reviewed journals or academic conferences to be published.Clinical Trial RegistrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry, identifier ChiCTR2100042643.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 037-042
Emmanuel TonbraEgoro ◽  
Ikhide Godwin Ilegbedion ◽  
Prudence NkemdinimOkara

This study was aimed on the biochemical and histomorphological study of abuse in the consumption of alabukun powder in Rattus norvegicus rats. Five milliliter of blood specimen was collected into lithium heparin bottles from seven rats weighing 240±2g respectively with each of them administered with 0.2mg/kg alabukun powder daily for a period of two weeks (experimental group) while another seven rats weighing 240±2g each were not administered with alabukun powder (control group). Thereafter alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine and C-reactive protein were measured quantitatively in both groups of rats. The mean values of all the measured biochemical parameters in Rattus norvegicus rats in the experimental group were statistically significant (p<0.05) as compared to that in the control group. This established biochemical finding was in conformity with the histomorphological examination of the kidney and liver organs. In conclusion, this study has established that administration of 0.2mg/kg of alabukun powder on daily basis for a period of two weeks on Rattus norvegicus rats may induce hepato-renal and inflammatory disorders. It is thus recommended that consumption of alabukun powder by humans should strictly be in compliance with its prescription. However, kidney, liver and inflammatory biomarkers should be quantitatively measured in humans that have abused its consumption with a view to ascertain their health status and prevent any deleterious risks.

2020 ◽  
Vol 24 (5) ◽  
pp. 278-285
Wasim Khan ◽  
Tasleem Arif ◽  
Khushdil K. Muhammad ◽  
Sardar N. Sohail ◽  
Irina V. Kriventsova

Background and Study Aim. The main focus of the study was to examine the effect of varied packages of plyometric training on speed, leg explosive power, and muscular endurance among university students. Material and Methods. Sixty subjects (age= 21.37+1.40) were divided into two groups namely, Control Group (CG, n=15) and Experimental Group (EG, n=45). The EG was further divided into three different groups based on the different training packages such as Low, Medium, and High-Intensity plyometric training. The .05 level of confidence was fixed as the level of significance to test the ‘F’ ratio obtained by the analysis of covariance, which was considered as appropriate. Plyometric training for a period of eight weeks offered to the participants of the Experimental Group. Results. The results revealed that various plyometric training programs have produced significant development in improving motor ability components such as speed, leg explosive power, and muscular endurance of the participants (p<.05). The results indicated that high-intensity plyometric training was noticed as superior then low and medium intensity plyometric training in the perspective of the effect of varied packages of plyometric on selected motor ability components among participants. Conclusion. Keeping in view the utility and importance of plyometric training, we recommended that the exercise protocol used in this study may helpful for the development and improvement of such components to get peak performance in sports.

2018 ◽  
Vol 46 (7) ◽  
pp. 2803-2809 ◽  
Mingmin Shi ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Yangxin Wang ◽  
Shigui Yan

Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on antibiotic release from gentamicin-loaded, self-setting calcium phosphate cement. Methods A gentamicin-loaded calcium phosphate cement cylinder was eluted in stimulated body fluid. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (46.5 kHz, 200 mW/cm2) was used to produce a sinusoidal wave in the experimental group. Non-gentamicin calcium phosphate cement was used in the control group. Results The transient concentration and cumulatively released percentage of gentamicin in the ultrasound group were higher than those in control group at every time point. The duration of gentamicin concentrations over the level of the minimum inhibitory concentration was significantly prolonged in the ultrasound group compared with the control group. Antibacterial efficacy of gentamicin in the ultrasound group was significantly better than that in the control group with the same concentration of gentamicin. Conclusion Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances antibiotic release, providing sustained antibiotic release at high concentrations. This increases the antibacterial effect of gentamicin.

Raquel Sánchez-Rodríguez ◽  
Sandra Valle-Estévez ◽  
Peñas Albas Fraile-García ◽  
Alfonso Martínez-Nova ◽  
Beatriz Gómez-Martín ◽  

Working on the intrinsic musculature of the foot has been shown to be effective in controlling pronation. However, the potential coadjuvant effect that involving other muscle groups might have on foot posture remains unknown. The aim was, therefore, to assess whether a 9-week intrinsic and extrinsic foot and core muscle strength program influenced foot posture in pronated subjects. The participants were 36 healthy adults with pronated feet that were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group (n = 18) performed a strengthening exercise protocol for 9 weeks (two sessions of 40 min per week), while the control group (n = 18) did not do these exercises. After 9 weeks, the foot posture index (FPI) scores of the two groups were analyzed to detect possible changes. The FPI at the baseline was 8.0 ± 1.5. After the 9 weeks, the experimental group showed significantly reduced FPI from 8.1 ± 1.7 to 6.4 ± 2.1 (p = 0.001), while the control group had the same score as pre-intervention (FPI 8 ± 1.2, p = 1.0). The FPI scores showed no significant differences by sex. Strengthening of the intrinsic and extrinsic foot and core muscles contributed to improving foot posture in adults, reducing their FPI by 1.66 points.

2009 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-28 ◽  
Aleksandar Djurovic ◽  
Dejan Miljkovic ◽  
Zorica Brdareski ◽  
Aleksandra Plavsic ◽  
Miodrag Jevtic

Background/Aim. Heterotopic ossification (HO) is an important complication of head and spinal cord injuries (SCI). Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field (PLIMF) therapy increases blood flow to an area of pain or inflammation, bringing more oxygen to that area and helps to remove toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PLIMF as prophylaxis of HO in patients with SCI. Methods. This prospective random control clinical study included 29 patients with traumatic SCI. The patients were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14) and control group (n = 15). The patients in the experimental group, besides exercise and range of motion therapy, were treated by PLIMF of the following characteristics: induction of 10 mT, frequency of 25 Hz and duration of 30 min. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy started in the 7th week after the injury and lasted 4 weeks. The presence or absence of HO around the patients hips we checked by a plane radiography and Brookers classification. Functional capabilities and motor impairment were checked by Functional Independent Measure (FIM), Barthel index and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment class. Statistic analysis included Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann Whitney Exact test, Exact Wilcoxon signed rank test and Fischer Exact test. Statistical significance was set up to p < 0.05. Results. At the end of the treatment no patient from the experimental group had HO. In the control group, five patients (33.3%) had HO. At the end of the treatment the majority of the patients from the experimental group (57.14%) moved from ASIA-A to ASIA-B class. Conclusion. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy could help as prophylaxis of HO in patients with traumatic SCI.

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