scholarly journals Comparative Analysis of Cariogenic Potential of Different Types of Commercially Available Milk Beverages- An Interventional Study

Shefali Giri ◽  
Priyanka Paul Madhu ◽  
Kumar Gaurav Chhabra ◽  
Gopika Mahure ◽  
Shailey Chandak

To assess the cariogenic potential of almond milk, soya milk, coconut milk and bovine milk, was evaluated to check ability to enable Streptococcus mutans association formed, acid manufacturing, as well as their ability to buffer pH transforms. The baseline non stimulated whole salivary sample (2.5-5 ml) will be collected from the students in the morning at least 1 hr after breakfast. The salivary samples (pre-test and post-test) will be collected and tested for the CFUs. Salivary samples are transported in a plastic container to the microbiological laboratory. They were then tested for the number of CFUs for S. mutans using mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Soya milk promoted much more biofilm development, whereas sugar free almond milk promoted a little. When pH test was performed, sugar free almond milk had the lowest cation exchange capacity, whereas bovine milk had the maximum cation exchange capacity.

2010 ◽  
Vol 660-661 ◽  
pp. 1064-1069 ◽  
Jeane A. Rosário ◽  
Laura A. Silva ◽  
Gabriel Beraldi G. Moura ◽  
Marivone Gusatti ◽  
Raquel B. Lima ◽  

The performance of the alkaline processes on the properties of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and swelling was studied in three different types of bentonite from Brazil, Argentina and Mozambique. Alkaline activations were performed by means of mechanochemical reactions with solutions of NaOH and Na2CO3, to increase the sodium content of bentonite clays and, thus, improve the properties above. Clay samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, to obtain the constituent phases. Activated samples were evaluated according to their cation exchange capacity – determined by the methylene blue test, and swelling index – measured by the Foster’s method. Results showed that the activation improved the properties of all bentonite types, especially the Brazilian clay, which achieved the most significant raises. There was also an indication that the type of clay affect the processing.

2018 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Mardi Wibowo

Since year 1977 until 2005, PT. ANTAM has been exploited nickel ore resources at Gebe Island – Center ofHalmahera District – North Maluku Province. Mining activity, beside give economically advantages also causedegradation of environment quality espicially land quality. Therefore, it need evaluation activity for change ofland quality at Gebe Island after mining activity.From chemical rehabilitation aspect, post mining land and rehabilitation land indacate very lack and lackfertility (base saturated 45,87 – 99,6%; cation exchange capacity 9,43 – 12,43%; Organic Carbon 1,12 –2,31%). From availability of nutrirnt element aspect, post mining land and rehabilitation land indicate verylack and lack fertility (nitrogen 0,1 – 1,19%). Base on that data, it can be concluded that land reclamationactivity not yet achieve standart condition of chemical land.Key words : land quality, post mining lan

Geraldo R. Zuba Junio ◽  
Regynaldo A. Sampaio ◽  
Altina L. Nascimento ◽  
Luiz A. Fernandes ◽  
Natália N. de Lima ◽  

ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the chemical attributes of an Inceptisol cultivated with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), variety ‘BRS Energia’, fertilized with sewage sludge compost and calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) silicate. The experiment was conducted at the ICA/UFMG, in a randomized block design, using a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of two doses of Ca-Mg silicate (0 and 1 t ha-1) and four doses of sewage sludge compost (0, 23.81, 47.62 and 71.43 t ha-1, on dry basis). Soil organic matter (OM), pH, sum of bases (SB), effective cation exchange capacity (CEC(t)), total cation exchange capacity (CEC(T)), base saturation (V%) and potential acidity (H + Al) were evaluated. There were no significant interactions between doses of sewage sludge compost and doses of Ca-Mg silicate on soil attributes, and no effect of silicate fertilization on these attributes. However, fertilization with sewage sludge compost promoted reduction in pH and increase in H + Al, OM and CEC. The dose of 71.43 t ha-1 of sewage sludge compost promoted the best soil chemical conditions.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (10) ◽  
pp. 2617
Alicja Szatanik-Kloc ◽  
Justyna Szerement ◽  
Agnieszka Adamczuk ◽  
Grzegorz Józefaciuk

Thousands of tons of zeolitic materials are used yearly as soil conditioners and components of slow-release fertilizers. A positive influence of application of zeolites on plant growth has been frequently observed. Because zeolites have extremely large cation exchange capacity, surface area, porosity and water holding capacity, a paradigm has aroused that increasing plant growth is caused by a long-lasting improvement of soil physicochemical properties by zeolites. In the first year of our field experiment performed on a poor soil with zeolite rates from 1 to 8 t/ha and N fertilization, an increase in spring wheat yield was observed. Any effect on soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area (S), pH-dependent surface charge (Qv), mesoporosity, water holding capacity and plant available water (PAW) was noted. This positive effect of zeolite on plants could be due to extra nutrients supplied by the mineral (primarily potassium—1 ton of the studied zeolite contained around 15 kg of exchangeable potassium). In the second year of the experiment (NPK treatment on previously zeolitized soil), the zeolite presence did not impact plant yield. No long-term effect of the zeolite on plants was observed in the third year after soil zeolitization, when, as in the first year, only N fertilization was applied. That there were no significant changes in the above-mentioned physicochemical properties of the field soil after the addition of zeolite was most likely due to high dilution of the mineral in the soil (8 t/ha zeolite is only ~0.35% of the soil mass in the root zone). To determine how much zeolite is needed to improve soil physicochemical properties, much higher zeolite rates than those applied in the field were studied in the laboratory. The latter studies showed that CEC and S increased proportionally to the zeolite percentage in the soil. The Qv of the zeolite was lower than that of the soil, so a decrease in soil variable charge was observed due to zeolite addition. Surprisingly, a slight increase in PAW, even at the largest zeolite dose (from 9.5% for the control soil to 13% for a mixture of 40 g zeolite and 100 g soil), was observed. It resulted from small alterations of the soil macrostructure: although the input of small zeolite pores was seen in pore size distributions, the larger pores responsible for the storage of PAW were almost not affected by the zeolite addition.

Soil Research ◽  
1981 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 93 ◽  
GP Gillman

The cation exchange capacity of six surface soils from north Queensland and Hawaii has been measured over a range of pH values (4-6) and ionic strength values (0.003-0.05). The results show that for variable charge soils, modest changes in electrolyte ionic strength are as important in their effect on caton exchange capacity as are changes in pH values.

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