169 article(s) in Problemos

Ranciere’S Challenge For The Lithuanian Modern Art Histories: The Possibility Of New Sensible Structures

by analysing jacques rancière’s conception of art regimes and taking the practical example of paintings by lithuanian artist vincas kisarauskas, it is demonstrated that by thinking about the modern art in the 20th century as the intersection of the three art regimes by rancière, we might escape from the binary oppositions still prevailing in the interpretations of modern art in post-soviet and post-socialist countries, and also escape the current narratives of late and silent modernisms implying the belatedness and disability of modern art created in soviet lithuania. by writing histories of modern art with rancière, it is possible to claim that at least a part of lithuanian modern art is neither late nor silent. on the contrary, the part operating in the aesthetic regime of art becomes a space of search for the new tropes of expression and of the common sensual fabric of life Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Modern Art
  • 20Th Century
  • The Common
  • Binary Oppositions
  • The Aesthetic
The Philosophy Of The Enlightenment As A Paradigm Of Transhumanism

in the works devoted to the phenomenon of transhumanism, it is widely recognized that philosophy of the enlightenment had a great intellectual influence on the formation of transhumanism. yet, this article states that the ideas of enlightenment philosophy can be reasonably treated as not only consisting the conceptual transhumanism core but also as being a source of its internal contradictions. the paper defends the position that transhumanism in general is an intrinsically controversial project and introduces the premises for this contradiction – the basic anthropological views inherited from philosophy of the enlightenment. finally, the article questions the status of transhumanism as a techno-scientific program and states it to be an ideologically engaged project in anthropological engineering, which, in its turn, is devoid of any clear theoretical and practical outline Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Enlightenment
  • Scientific Program
  • Intellectual Influence
  • The Status
  • Enlightenment Philosophy
Intersections Between Diplomacy And Philosophy: Athens, Rome

the political context of greek philosophy and its political themes are the subject of numerous studies, but the relation between diplomacy and philosophy, to the best of my knowledge, has not yet been studied. in this article i examine two episodes of diplomatic missions that have left a clear mark on the history of philosophy and i try to show that the link between the history of diplomacy and the history of philosophy is neither accidental nor superficial Show More ... ... Show Less

  • History Of Philosophy
  • The Political
  • Greek Philosophy
  • The Subject
Analyses Of Time Experience In Melancholia On The Ground Of Husserl’S Phenomenological Investigations

this paper examines under which conditions melancholic experiences of time (“time has stopped, nothing happens”, “i cannot see the future”) are possible. in recent phenomenological research on melancholia, melancholic time experiences are analyzed as disturbances in affectivity. however, it is not always clear how the disturbance of time experience might be structurally interrelated with the disturbance in affectivity. this paper focuses on the interrelatedness of temporal synthesis and affectivity in husserl’s phenomenology. husserl’s analyses will be used to explain what role affectivity plays in the constitution of the normal daily world experience, and in particular the time experience. further, it will be shown how a possibility of the disturbance in time experience is already rooted in the most basic layer of constitution Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Time Experience
  • Phenomenological Research
  • The Future
  • Basic Layer
The Interpretive-Sensory Access Theory Of Self-Knowledge: Empirical Adequacy And Scientific Fruitfulness

the interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge claims that we come to know our own minds by turning our capacities for knowing other minds onto ourselves. peter carruthers argues that two of the theory’s advantages are empirical adequacy and scientific fruitfulness: it leaves few of the old discoveries unexplained and makes new predictions that provide a framework for new discoveries. a decade has now passed since the theory’s introduction. i review the most important developments during this time period regarding the two criteria: whether the theory’s six main predictions were supported, and whether the theory’s predictions contributed to new empirical studies. i argue that the interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge remains empirically adequate and scientifically fruitful Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Self Knowledge
  • Empirical Adequacy
  • Empirical Studies
  • Other Minds
  • Time Period
Semantical Interpretations Of The Temporal Logic Systems CL And Kb With The Gaps Of Traditional Truth-Values

over the past several decades, in the field of temporal logic there have been created a great number of semantical theories that provide different truth conditions for tensed propositions. in this article we deal with five non-bivalent semantical interpretations of the temporal logic systems cl (cocchiarella linear) and kb (kripke branching): 1) ł3 by j. łukasiewicz; 2) k3 by s. c. kleene; 3) ockhamism by a. prior; 4) supervaluationism by r. thomason; 5) relativism by j. macfarlane. the aim of this article is to present a detailed typology of the five semantical theories based on these criteria: a) the ability to deal with the problem of retrospective evaluation of future contingent propositions; b) the ability to deal with the problem of divine omniscience and free will; c) their relation to the law of excluded middle; d) their relation to other formulas that are intuitively acceptable in an intederministic context. it is argued that the only theory that satisfies all four criteria is the relativism of j. macfarlane; however, it faces some serious challenges when dealing with the problem of retrospective evaluation of future contingent propositions in the theological context Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Temporal Logic
  • Retrospective Evaluation
  • Future Contingent
  • Logic Systems
  • Law Of Excluded Middle
Frege’S Bedeutung

the article raises the question what is the content of frege’s infamous notion of bedeutung? it is claimed that the so–called standard interpretation of this notion – bedeutung as referential relation between a name and an object – was developed and established evaluating frege’s ideas in philosophy of language in isolation from his logicist ideas. however, precisely his logicist concerns have motivated frege’s interest in semantic issues. a broader consideration of frege’s works reveals an internalist and rationalist notion of meaning, that is based on the context principle, and that should not be reduced to mere reference. the question of the meaning of subsentential components, for frege, is closely related to the question of the meaning of the whole sentence, that is, the meaning of sub–sentential components should be construed as secondary with regard to the meaning of the whole sentence Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Philosophy Of Language
  • Standard Interpretation
Apparent L-Falsity And Actual Logical Structures

in 2012, orenes and johnson-laird found interesting results from the cognitive point of view but problematic if analyzed under methods such as the semantic one of extension and intension presented by carnap. the main difficulty in this way is that orenes and johnson-laird showed that people tend to accept, in the case of certain inferences, conclusions that, by themselves, are, according to the aforementioned semantic method, false in absolutely all of the state-descriptions that can be imagined. however, in this paper, a way to overcome that difficulty is proposed. that way is based upon the idea that the real logical forms of the conclusions accepted by the participants in orenes and johnson-laird’s experiments were not the apparent ones, but they corresponded to other very different structures that can be true in some state-descriptions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The State
  • Point Of View
  • Main Difficulty
  • The Real
  • Logical Structures
Recalcitrant Emotions: A Phenomenological View

in this paper, i sketch an account of emotion that is based on a close analogy with a husserlian account of perception. i also make use of the approach that i have limned, viz., to articulate a view of the kind of “conflict without contradiction” (cwc) which may obtain between a recalcitrant emotion and a judgment. my main contention is that cwc can be accounted for by appeal to the rationality of perception and emotion, conceived as responsiveness to experiential evidence. the conflicts in question can be regarded as obtaining between different strands of evidence, and our perceptual and emotional experiences can be thus conflicted even among themselves, not only in the special case of a conflict with a judgment Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Emotional Experiences
  • Close Analogy
  • Special Case
  • Phenomenological View
Tom Regan’S Philosophy Of Animal Rights: Subjects-Of-A-Life In The Context Of Discussions Of Intrinsic And Inherent Worth

modern animal rights debates began in the 1970s, mainly as part of the budding field of applied ethics in anglo-american philosophy. in just a short time, these animal rights discourses received international academic respect, especially through analytically trained philosophers. central for this development was the analysis that rights language can be principally used species neutrally. this paper’s contribution is to examine the central terms of tom regan’s still widely discussed theory for their actuality and usefulness. hence strengthening these arguments for modern animal rights theory as a serious approach in (inter)national ethical and legal disputes. translated from german by gary steiner, bucknell university Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Animal Rights
  • Applied Ethics
  • American Philosophy
  • Inherent Worth
  • Short Time
The Moral Grounds Of Arendt’S Conception Of Politics

many critics of hannah arendt claim that her account of politics lacks moral guidelines and constraints. in their view, she radically dissociated politics from morality. such an interpretation is mistaken. these critics fail to acknowledge that arendt’s conception has its own resources of normativity. fundamental categories of arendt’s political theory (plurality, natality, freedom, equality, forgiveness, promise) serve moral, as well as political, purposes. the internalization of these categories strengthens political actors’ moral judgment and their sense of responsibility. active participation in political life engenders respect for human dignity and the multiplicity of different perspectives. critics ignore the moral dimension of arendt’s conception of politics because they confuse different levels of analysis of the relationship between politics and morality. in the paper, these levels are discussed using the metaphor of a three-storey house Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Moral Judgment
  • Political Theory
  • Human Dignity
  • Levels Of Analysis
  • Different Levels
Ethics Of Responsibility And Ambiguity Of Politics In Levinas’S Philosophy

the destruction of man in the shoah or holocaust did not mean that levinas argues in favor of turning away from the socio-historical reality to cultivate his own little garden. the deepest truth of subjectivity can be found in an alterity that calls for a socio-political responsibility. the political implications are rooted in different layers of levinas’s thought. in his talmudic comments, levinas questions the reality of war as the truth of politics. but his explorations of subjectivity, ethical relationality and society allow to understand different political options such as contract theory (responsibility in the first person), liberation philosophy and human rights (responsibility in the second person) and the necessity of building a just society (ethics in the third person). paradoxically, a just and equitable society ignores the uniqueness of the unique other. while organized responsibility is necessary, it introduces a new form of violence. in this article, we bring together the different layers in levinas’s political vision and we explore its limits. a fundamental question is whether levinas’s vision of politics is based on ethics or whether his ethics is a critique of politics Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Rights
  • The Political
  • Political Responsibility
  • Ethics Of Responsibility
  • New Form
Machiavelli’S Revolution And Koselleck’S Sattelzeit

this article suggests that human action in machiavelli is both materialistic and temporalized. it further argues that reinhart koselleck’s view of machiavelli’s understanding of time as historical circularity is misleading. the author is making the case that machiavelli drew from lucretian materialism to strip political concepts of content via an animal-materialist anthropology and ontology holding that man, as any animal, is material reality acting under an atomic arrangement wherein no time, whether linear or circular, can exist. the conclusion is that koselleck’s interpretation of the circularity of time in machiavelli kept him from seeing his role as an antecedent of the conceptual and temporal revolution underlying the sattelzeit Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Action
  • Atomic Arrangement
  • Material Reality
Foucault Panopticism And Self-Surveillance: From Individuals To Dividuals

the paper analyses the concept of panopticism formulated in foucault’s works and its possibilities of relevance in contemporary power and (self)surveillance studies. in the book “discipline and punish: the birth of the prison”, foucault, applying jeremy bentham’s idea of a panoptical prison, writes about the power of the sovereignty that is replaced by the society of discipline. foucault discusses panopticism in order to unfold the concept of the society of discipline. here the essential measure of the society of discipline and panopticism becomes the concern for the individual per se. deleuze in his text “postscript on the societies of control” states that we no longer live in a society of discipline, but rather in a process, where we switch from the society of discipline to the society of control. in these changed circumstances, according to deleuze, there are no longer individuals, rather dividuals. in these circumstances, is it possible to talk about panopticism? the paper shows that panopticism is still relevant while switching to the society of control. also, it states that the currently unfolding scheme of the society of control has been programmed in the asymmetry of the panoptical gaze. precisely in the processes produced in the asymmetry of the gaze gain its flexible totality in the society of control Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Society Of Control
  • The Asymmetry
  • Surveillance Studies
  • The Gaze
  • Per Se
The Transformation Of Scientific Political Philosophy Into A Speculative Philosophy Of History

the paper presents an analysis of the three stages of the development of political philosophy since the 17th century. the rise of modern political theory was marked by attempts to develop a philosophy along the lines of natural sciences. these attempts lead to the development of highly speculative and abstract doctrines; political philosophy ceased being a practical discipline. the paper argues that an important aspect of the traditionalist political thought of the 18th century was an attempt to reestablish the link between theory and practice. in the 19th century, the interest in history was supplemented with new premises about the historical process. political philosophy, which strived to become scientific, became highly dependent on the premises of various philosophies of history Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Philosophy
  • Political Theory
  • 19Th Century
  • Theory And Practice
  • Three Stages
Reciprocal Cosmopolitanism

in the paper i analyse daniele archibugi’s conception of the new cosmopolitanism, aimed at formulation of a theory of cosmopolitan democracy capable of facing contemporary global problems that go beyond the competences of nation-states. my claim is that the advocates of the new cosmopolitanism have yet to come up with a theoretical minimum to which all parties of the cosmopolitan debate would subscribe. i argue that the main obstacle in formulation of a viable cosmopolitanism are attempts at imposition of the universalist uniformity inscribed in the traditional cosmopolitanism or, at best, a straightforward acceptance of cultural differences. in opposition to this, i outline the idea of reciprocal cosmopolitanism which, i believe, should proceed from the acknowledgement of human diversity, thus becoming a more inclusive project than its existing alternatives Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Cultural Differences
  • Human Diversity
  • Global Problems
  • Cosmopolitan Democracy
  • Theoretical Minimum
From The Dual Character Of Chemistry To Practical Realism And Back Again: Philosophy Of Science Of Rein Vihalemm

the focus of the paper is on rein vihalemm’s novel approach to science called practical realism. from the perspective of vihalemm, science is not only theoretical but first and foremost a practical activity. this kind of approach puts chemistry rather than physics into the position of a typical science as chemistry has a dual character resting on both constructive-hypothetico-deductive (ϕ-science) and classifying-historico-descriptive (non-ϕ-science) types of cognition. chemists deal with finding out the laws of nature like the physicists. however, in addition to this they deal with substances or stuff that is rather an activity typical to natural history. the analysis of the dual character of chemistry brings about the need to analyse philosophically the reasons why physics has held the position of the only science proper so far. the comparative analysis of physics and chemistry at the basis of practical realism suggests that it is chemistry rather than physics that should hold a special position among sciences. perhaps we should exchange ϕ-science for χ-science Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Dual Character
  • Comparative Analysis
  • Natural History
  • Philosophy Of Science
  • Special Position
Does Inner Awareness Always Accompany Outer Awareness During Perception

in the present paper, we defend the thesis that outer-world-directed perceptual consciousness is always accompanied by an inner awareness (iaoa). this is contrary to the view that outer-world-directed conscious mental states are not accompanied by an inner awareness, which is held by gennaro (2008) against kriegel’s (2009a and 2009b) self-representationalism. we attempt to show why philosophers like gennaro get it wrong when they deny the iaoa thesis by critically examining his arguments against it and by giving arguments in its favour Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Outer World
  • Mental States
  • Perceptual Consciousness
F. Brentano And K. Twardowski: Some Traces Of Their Influence On The Contemporary Ukrainian Scholars

n this article, the author considers the particularities of franz brentano’s psychognosy (descriptive psychology) in the context of notion of “basic” or “analytic” truths and his methodological approaches to scientific, philosophical investigations as well as his influence upon kasimir twardowski, who was the pupil of brentano and accepted the main points of his methodological program.the author also stresses that the study of brentano’s and twardowski’s heritage is important for tracing the origin of scientific/analytic philosophy. it is very important to investigate brentano-twardowski relations in the context of the concept of “basic truths” or “analytic truths”. brentano stresses that “basic truths” can be found thanks to “psychognosy” or “pure psychology”. for twardowski, psychology is the base for philosophical investigations because it helps to understand the formation of notions and judgements.this article is also dedicated to the inquiries of brentano’s and twardowski’s legacy provided by ukrainian scholars borys dombrowskiy and yanosh sanotskiy. the reception of brentano’s theory of judgement in dombrowskiy’s works and the problem of brentano’s psychologism in sanotskiy’s works were examined Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Philosophical Investigations
  • Analytic Philosophy
  • Descriptive Psychology
  • Methodological Approaches
A Fair Version Of The Chinese Room

by the chinese room thought experiment, john searle (1980) advocates the thesis that it is impossible for computers to think in the same way that human beings do. this article intends firstly to show that the chinese room does not justify or even test this thesis and secondly to describe exactly how the person in the chinese room can learn chinese. regarding this learning process, searle ignores the relevance of an individual’s pattern recognition capacity for understanding. to counter searle’s claim, this paper, via examining a series of thought experiments inspired by the chinese room, aims to underline the importance of pattern recognition for understanding to emerge Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Chinese Room
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Learning Process
  • Thought Experiment
  • Human Beings
Discourses And Semantic Tropes Of The Philosophical Explication Of Video Games

the article explores one of the most remarkable and dynamic phenomena of modern technoculture – video games. it reconstructs the genesis of the philosophical discourse on video games, exposing the main difficulties arising in making the definitions. special importance is attached to the critical comparative analysis of the major strategies for the philosophical explication of video games. with the aid of the method of comparative-historical reconstruction and a structuralist approach, the essential correlations between the essential definition of a video game and the ontological systems of plato, the gnostics, g. berkeley, e. kant, as well as post-modern philosophy was established. the research results in formulating a model-integrative definition of a video game Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Video Games
  • Comparative Analysis
  • Dynamic Phenomena
The Everyday As Revolution And Resistance: G. Debord And M. De Certeau

the paper analyzes the effort to rethink the status of everyday life in the context of consumer society. two concepts of everyday life are interpreted – guy debord’s critique of society of the spectacle, and michel de certeau’s concept of everyday life as resistance. as debord says, the purpose of the critique of the everyday is to recharge the entire system of capitalism. by capturing the radical contrast between the current meager status of everyday life and the potential of the everyday, debord was convinced that a radical discrimination of everyday life can only be overcome by radical means – the revolution of the everyday. rejecting the possibility of transforming the entire structure of the society through everyday life, de certeau focused on the everyday as resistance to the strategic domains of society. thus, de certau’s goal is not to transform the entire system, but to maintain the resilient potential of everyday life as a constant opportunity for daily renewal. the paper concludes that it is the attitudes of everyday life such as resistance that have influenced visual and urban studies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Everyday Life
  • The Everyday
  • Entire System
  • Urban Studies
  • Consumer Society
Greimas’S Semiotics: Between Structuralism And Phenomenology

greimas’s semiotics is characterized by an inner duality. this is the inner tension between structuralism and phenomenology. the aim of the paper is to reveal the relationship between structuralism and phenomenology in semiotics. structuralism and phenomenology have a different understanding of the role of the subject in creating and understanding meanings. early greimas understood value systems through the linguistic prism and eliminated the discursive system’s subject itself. late greimas’s approach to the subject changed and coincided with the subject of daily experience, who was involved in the selection and creation of meanings. greimas’s semiotics came closer to phenomenology, but only partially. the concept of bodily and sensory experience in greimas’s semiotics is constructed from objectivistic positions of science. the body and sensual perception are understood as intermediaries between the inner and outer worlds Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Subject
  • Sensory Experience
  • The Body
  • Value Systems
The Romanticism Of Political Science

the aim of the article is to demonstrate the relationship between modern political science and romanticism. this is done by using carl schmitt’s conception of political romanticism and proposing some corrections to it. schmitt failed to notice important similarities between the scientific concept of causa and the romantic concept of occasio. modern political science is based on the same assumptions as the modern art of the romantic tradition. the researches of political science are conditioned by an unpolitical relationship with reality Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Science
  • Modern Art
  • Scientific Concept
  • The Relationship
Why Ethics Needs Metaphysics

the aim of this paper is to show that ronald dworkin’s objective to isolate ethics from metaphysics is not sufficiently grounded, and a certain metaphysics is inherent even in his own position of autonomous ethics. while opposing those thinkers who seek to ground ethics by finding an external – neutral and non-evaluative – ground, dworkin identifies this externality to ethics with metaphysics and aims to show its fallibility. however, such a conception of metaphysics seems to be too narrow and one-sided and leads his own position into contradictions. this paper aims to demonstrate these contradictions and to argue that even the position that is inner to ethics and stems from a first-person agent’s perspective can only be developed while considering such metaphysical ideas as freedom, dignity, person Show More ... ... Show Less

  • First Person
What Is Ancient Political Thinking

this paper examines the origins of ancient political thinking from (roughly) 750 to 348 b.c. the analysis of authors who had been discussing political questions over this period shows that ancient political thinking can be classified into three discourses: political thought, political theory, and political philosophy. the purpose of this paper is to define the characteristics of each discourse and to illustrate them with specific historical examples which show how these discourses interacted with the greek political experiences and how political thought transformed into a theory and philosophy Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Thinking
  • Political Thought
  • Political Philosophy
  • Political Theory
The Duty Of Knowing Oneself As One Appears: A Response To Kant’S Problem Of Moral Self-Knowledge

a challenge to kant’s less known duty of self-knowledge comes from his own firm view that it is impossible to know oneself. this paper resolves this problem by considering the duty of self-knowledge as involving the pursuit of knowledge of oneself as one appears in the empirical world. first, i argue that, although kant places severe restrictions on the possibility of knowing oneself as one is, he admits the possibility of knowing oneself as one appears using methods from empirical anthropology. second, i show that empirical knowledge of oneself is fairly reliable and is, in fact, considered as morally significant from kant’s moral anthropological perspective. taking these points together, i conclude that kant’s duty of self-knowledge exclusively entails the pursuit of empirical self-knowledge Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Self Knowledge
  • Perspective Taking
  • Empirical Knowledge
  • Anthropological Perspective
  • Empirical World
The Subject And The Real: Ethical Implications Of A. Badiou’S Philosophy

alain badiou’s theory of ethics of the subject implies that the individual interpellation of the symbolic plane could be secondary to the truth process, which grounds the formation of the subject. we arrive at the hypothesis that the subject of the interpellation is already a subject of truth when the symbolic interpellation process starts.in the paper, two contemporary ethical orientations are emphasized: democratic materialism, which comprises the idealism created by market laws, and a materialist dialectic, which opens the possibility of the subject’s formation during the struggles. however, badiou’s attempts to create an alternative symbolic plane – a historical plane – do not seem reassuring; therefore, one must look at the event-producing-history from the psychoanalytical perspective.the theory of drives opens the possibility to relate badiou’s subject to the repressed real, to show him as immune to the desire, which may be derived from a symbolical plane, and able to ground his struggles with revolutionary jouissance while not allowing history to end too early Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Subject
  • The Real
  • Ethical Implications
  • Materialist Dialectic
  • The Individual
The Interpretive-Sensory Access Theory Of Self-Knowledge: Simplicity And Coherence With Surrounding Theories

the interpretive-sensory access (isa) theory of self-knowledge claims that one knows one’s own mind by turning one’s capacity to know other minds onto oneself. previously, researchers mostly debated whether the theory receives the most support from the results of empirical research. they have given much less attention to the question whether the theory is the simplest of the available alternatives. i argue that the question of simplicity should be considered in light of the well-established theories surrounding the isa theory. i claim that the isa theory then proves to be the simplest. i reply to objections to this claim related to recent developments in this area of research: the emergence of a unified transparency theory of self-knowledge and the relative establishment of the predictive processing theory Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Self Knowledge
  • Empirical Research
  • Predictive Processing
  • Other Minds
  • Processing Theory
Is R. Rorty’S Moral Philosophy Possible? Antifoundationalism And Kant’S Criticism

this article aims to answer the main question raised – is rorty’s moral philosophy possible? to what extent is it possible to treat it as an authentic theory? rorty’s criticism of kant and the kantians, as one of the key points of contemporary moral philosophy, determines the posture in the moral domain and provides a certain place in discourse. the article states that, despite the fact that rorty’s moral philosophy is not based on a particular theoretical concept, it can be considered as a fragmented whole consisting of several parts, one of which is the agent’s openness to the choice of moral identity. at the same time, we will critically question the position of rorty himself – while maintaining the suspicion towards the sources of moral knowledge, he maintains an insufficient distance with one of his own sources of moral knowledge, namely historical progress Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Moral Philosophy
  • Moral Knowledge
  • Theoretical Concept
  • Main Question
  • Moral Domain
Normativity Of Scientific Laws (II): Aspects Of Implicit Normativity

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]straipsnyje „mokslo dėsnių normatyvumas (i)“ buvo atskirtas implicitinis ir eksplicitinis normatyvumas ir remiantis josephu rouse’u buvo parodyta, kad mokslo dėsniuose glūdi tai, ką carlosas alchourrónas ir eugenijus bulyginas laiko normatyvo branduoliu. šiame straipsnyje šis teiginys plėtojamas išskiriant šešis mokslo dėsnių implicitinio normatyvumo aspektus: (1a) bendrąjį ir (1b) specialųjį konceptualinį normatyvumą, susijusį su analitiniu mąstymu ir specialiomis mokslinėmis terminologijomis; (2a) teorinį ir (2b) materialinį episteminį normatyvumą, susijusį su matematiniu ir eksperimentiniu pasaulio apskaitomumu; (3a) siaurąjį ir (3b) platųjį praktinį normatyvumą, susijusį su technologijomis siauresne ir platesne reikšme Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Scientific Laws
  • Implicit Normativity
Warrant, Conclusive Reason, And Failure-Of-Transfer-Of-Warrant

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]fredas dretske savo episteminio uždarumo (epistemic closure) atmetimą grindžia tuo, kad pagrįsto samprotavimo pagrindas (warrant) neprivalo pereiti (arba būti „perduotas“) samprotavimo išvadai. pagrindo neperdavimo (failure of transfer of warrant) strategiją taip pat naudojo episteminio uždarumo šalininkai kaip apsaugą nuo michaelo mckinsey’io argumento prieš pirmojo asmens autoriteto suderinamumą su semantiniu eksternalizmu, taip pat kaip bendresnį paaiškinimą, kodėl tam tikri pagrįsti samprotavimai atrodo neįtikinamai jų išvadų pagrįstumo požiūriu. šiame straipsnyje naujai nagrinėjami kai kurie svarbiausi mėginimai paaiškinti pagrindo neperdavimo atvejus ir pagrindinė kontrargumentavimo strategija atsakant teoretikams, įžvelgiantiems ydingą ratą. pagrindinis šio straipsnio tikslas yra apginti dretskišką minėtų samprotavimų neįtikinamumo paaiškinimą Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Epistemic Closure
  • Conclusive Reason
Formalizmas Ir Fenomenologija V. Sezemano Estetikoje

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]straipsnio tikslas – atskleisti formalizmo ir fenomenologijos sąryšius vosyliaus sezemano estetikoje. sezemanas estetikai skirtuose straipsniuose „estetinis vertinimas meno istorijoje“ (1922), „poetinio vaizdo prigimtis“ (1925), „menas ir kultūra“ (1927) polemizavo su formalistine meno samprata. tačiau išsamiausiai formalistinės meno sampratos kritika yra atskleista „estetikoje“ (1970), nuodugniai pristatant estetinės struktūros sampratą. šiame straipsnyje autorius pirmiausia analizuoja svarbiausius formalistinės meno istorijos bruožus, o tada nagrinėja, kaip sezemanas meninės formos konceptą transformuoja į estetinės struktūros sampratą. formalistinė meno analizė atveda nuo grynai autonomiškos formos prie stiliaus, kuris yra siejamas su bendruomenišku buvimu pasaulyje. regimo vaizdo aspektų analizė parodo, kad regimumas turi būti susietas su regėjimu ir jo nuostatomis. sezemanas atsisako dualistinės juslinės medžiagos ir inteligibilios formos perskyros ir vietoj jos siūlo estetinės struktūros sampratą. jis atskleidžia juslinės estetinio objekto struktūros sąryšį su patiriančiuoju subjektu. estetinė vertybė gali būti atveriama kaip reikšminga tik dalyvaujant subjektui ir turint reikiamą kontempliatyvią nuostatą. meno analizė turi apimti ne tik individualią objekto išraiškos struktūrų, bet ir suvokimo ir jo nuostatų fenomenologinę analizę. formalizmo ir fenomenologijos derinys būdingas visiems sezemano estetikos lygmenims. struktūrinė analizė atskleidžia meno kūrėjo, meno kūrinio ir meno suvokėjo sisteminį sąryšingumą Show More ... ... Show Less

G. Simondon’O Ontogenezės Teorija: Tarp Organizmo Ir Techninio Objekto

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]straipsnyje analizuojama gilbert’o simondon’o ontogenezės teorija, kuria siekiama tyrinėti būties tapsmą, arba genezę. simondon’as teigia, jog filosofija turi analizuoti ne substancinius, išbaigtus ir sau tapačius individus, bet individuacijos procesus. taip simondon’as sukuria universalią individuacijos teoriją, kurią suvokia kaip perėjimą nuo ikiindividualios būklės prie individą sukuriančio individuacijos proceso, kuris savo ruožtu tampa naujos individuacijos pradžia. galima teigti, jog simondon’as ontologijos pagrindu laiko ne tapatybę, bet neatitikimą ir skirtumą, kurie verčia individus pereiti į naują egzistencijos fazę ar lygmenį. taip individuacijos teorija tampa universalia metodologija, leidžiančia palyginti fizinius, biologinius, psichinius ir techninius individuacijos procesus. simondon’o sukurta individuacijos,arba ontogenezės, teorija laikytina materialistine metodologija, kuri pagrindžia sąsajas tarp organinių ir neorganinių, žmogiškų ir nežmogiškų individų Show More ... ... Show Less

Kasdienybė Kaip Klasikinės Filosofijos Paraštinis Fenomenas

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]straipsnyje analizuojama, kaip filosofijos ir kasdienybės santykis buvo interpretuojamas klasikinės filosofijos paradigmoje. talio ir tarnaitės istorijoje įtvirtinta perskyra tarp filosofijos ir kasdienybės perkeliama į ontologijos ir gnoseologijos diskursą. platono olos alegorija interpretuojama kaip ontologinis, o descartes’o teorija kaip gnoseologinis kasdienybės transcendavimo ir suspendavimo būdas. straipsnyje argumentuojama, kad dominuojančioje klasikinėje paradigmoje kasdienybė traktuojama kaip kliūtis filosofiniam pažinimui pasiekti. būtent todėl kasdienybę reabilituojanti šiuolaikinė filosofija siekia diversifikuoti unifikuotą kasdienybės sampratą ir parodyti, kad kasdienybė – tai įvairialypis darinys,kuriame gali koegzistuoti skirtingos kasdienybės galios Show More ... ... Show Less

The Aporias Of The Vicious Circle In A Political Beginning: Reflections On H. Arendt’S Thoughts On The Foundation Of A Polity

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]modernioji revoliucija, kurianti naują politinę tvarką, patenka į ydingąjį ratą, būdingą bet kuriai pradžiai: jeigu tai yra pradžia, tai iš ko kyla jos principas? arba, jei principo nėra, kaip pradžia gali jį įsteigti? šiuolaikinės politinės patirties kontekste ši aporija yra lygiareikšmė problemai, kaip modernioji politika gali save pagrįsti arba kaip perkurti politinę valdžią modernybėje? straipsnyje nagrinėjami hannah’os arendt kūriniai ta tema ir siekiama ištirti pradžios ir principo politinėje plotmėje ydingąjį ratą. teigiama, kad arendt pasiūlė istoriją apie pradžios ir principo abipusį kūrimą, taigi vadinamąjį ydingąjį ratą pavertė hermeneutiniu ratu, kuriame steigties performatyvumas implicitiškus principus padaro eksplicitiškus Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Vicious Circle
Machiavelli’O Valdovas: Dorybių Galvosūkis

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]straipsnyje analizuojamas nicollò machiavelli’o veikale „valdovas“ išsakytas daugiaprasmis požiūris į dorybes ir jų reikšmę politikoje. žymusis renesanso mąstytojas dorybių reikšmę aptaria pateikdamas skirtingas samprotavimo pakopas. kiekvienoje iš jų jis formuluoja vis radikalesnes tarpines išvadas, nuosekliai vesdamas prie galutinės išvados apie tai, kad valdovui dorybės yra kenksmingos, o naudingiausia yra jų regimybė. pasitelkiant klasikinės politinės filosofijos atstovus siekiama įrodyti, jog machiavelli’o pasiūlytas labiausiai naujam valdovui priderantis dorybių regimybės kūrimo kelias prilygsta tobulam neteisingumui. todėl galima daryti išvadą, kad machiavelli savo veikale „valdovas“ išreiškia radikalų atsiribojimą nuo visos platoniškosios politinės filosofijos tradicijos ir pradeda kurti naują tradiciją ant senųjų sofistinių idėjų apie žmogaus ir politikos prigimtį pagrindų Show More ... ... Show Less

Teisingumas Uždarose Ir Atvirose Visuomenėse: H. Bergsonas Versus K. R. Popperis

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]teisingumo sąvoka patyrė istorinę transformaciją, plečiantis jos taikymo laukui: pereita nuo šeimos į miesto (valstybės) ir nuo miesto į žmonijos lygmenis. k. r. popperis teigia, jog atviroji visuomenė atsirado pirmajame transformacijos etape, t. y. atėnuose. h. bergsonas atėnų miesto-imperijos racionalųjį teisingumą laiko uždaros visuomenės varikliu, tęsiančiu archajinio (šeimos) teisingumo tradiciją, nepaisant tuo pačiu metu vykusios politinės transformacijos – demokratijos atsiradimo. bergsono nuomone, atviroji visuomenė gimsta tik teisingumui tapus absoliučiam, t. y. jo principą siekiant taikyti žmonijos lygmenyje, kam poslinkį istoriškai davė judeokrikščionybė. straipsnyje, pasitelkiant eschilo, aristotelio, pierre’o manent ir kt. autorių tekstus, nagrinėjama ši teisingumo sąvokos evoliucija bei uždarosvisuomenės virsmas į atvirą. pabaigoje keliamas šiuolaikinės europos atitikties atviros visuomenės sąvokai klausimas Show More ... ... Show Less

A. Badiou Ankstyvoji Subjekto Teorija Ir Kovingo Subjekto Iškilimas

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]šiame straipsnyje nušviečiamos ankstyvojo alaino badiou filosofinės kūrybos laikotarpio politinės sampratos, siejant jas su jo formavimuisi reikšmingų filosofų, politinių teoretikų ir praktikų – hegelio, lenino ir mao dzedongo – veikalų interpretacijomis. šių autorių suformuluotos ir politiniais veiksmais patvirtintos idėjos badiou leidžia, viena vertus, kritikuoti kitų poststruktūralizmo teoretikų, pirmiausia – deleuze’o ir guattari, kuriamas pasipriešinimo šiuolaikinei galiai teorijas, kita vertus – pagrįsti savitą subjekto sampratą, iš dalies lėmusią šiuolaikinio politinio subjekto studijų atgimimą ir suklestėjimą paskutiniame xx a. dešimtmetyje. keliama hipotezė, kad teorinė veikla ir politinė patirtis badiou leidžia kurti originalią besipriešinančio subjekto figūrą, kritišką ne tik galios, bet ir kai kurių pasipriešinimo jai strategijų atžvilgiu Show More ... ... Show Less

The First Polish Translation Of Kant’S The Contest Of The Faculties In The Collections Of Vilnius University Library

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos fonduose saugomas nebaigtas, anoniminis immanuelio kanto „fakultetų ginčo“ vertimo į lenkų kalbą rankraštis. daugybė rankraščio ypatumų (terminologija, sintaksė ir rašysena) patvirtina, jog tai józefo władysławo bychowieco, vieno svarbiausių xix a. pradžios kanto filosofijos populiarintojų lenkijoje ir lietuvoje, neišlikusio vertimo fragmentas. rankraštis yra anksčiausias žinomas bychowieco darbas, veikiausiai atliktas jo filosofijos studijų karaliaučiuje metu Show More ... ... Show Less

  • University Library
  • Vilnius University
Kant’S Criticism Of European Colonialism: A Contemporary Account Of Cosmopolitan Law

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]šiame straipsnyje nagrinėjami immanuelio kanto juridiniai argumentai prieš europos kolonijinę praktiką, atsižvelgiant į kai kuriuos pastarojo meto aiškinimus, kuriuos pateikia tokie kanto tyrinėtojai kaip arthuras ripsteinas, george’as cavallaras, katrin flikschuh, anna stilz ir liesbet vanhaute. pirma, susitelkiama į kanto kosmopolitinės sąjungos pagrindimą kaip teisinį reikalavimą, kylantį iš racionalios teisės doktrinos sisteminio pobūdžio. antra, atkreipiamas dėmesys į kanto pastabas, kaip europos tautos turėtų užmegzti komercinius santykius su kitomis pasaulio tautomis ir kaip jos turėtų elgtis su savo valstybės neturinčiomis tautomis. daroma išvada, kad kanto teisiniai ir politiniai raštai turėtų būti laikomi antikolonistinės minties europos apšvietos filosofijoje pirmtakais Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Contemporary Account
  • Cosmopolitan Law
  • European Colonialism
Armstrong’S Theory Of Laws And Causation: Putting Things Into Their Proper Places

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]dėsnio ir priežastinio sąryšio standartinės sampratos gynėjai ir oponentai sutaria, kad šią sampratą teisinga yra priskirti davidui m. armstrongui. iš esmės pritardamas įprastam požiūriui, šiame straipsnyje siūlau naujai pažvelgti į armstrongo dėsnio ir priežastingumo teoriją traktuojant ją kaip armstrongo metafizikos dalį. labiausiai mums turėtų rūpėti verifikatorių teorija ir formalus dalykų padėtį sudarančių elementų aiškinimas. taip kontekstualizuodamas standartinį požiūrį – matydamas jį kaip neatsiejamą nuo armstrongo metafizikos kaip visumos, aš naujai interpretuoju jo dėsnio ir priežastingumo teoriją. aš teigiu, kad tokia prieiga būtina norint neklaidžioti klystkeliais ir adekvačiai suprasti standartinį požiūrį. straipsnio pabaigoje parodau, kaip būtent tokios prieigos taikymas saugo armstrongo teoriją nuo lemtingojo a. birdo kontrargumento Show More ... ... Show Less

Dalyvavimo (Methexis) Problema Platono Dialoguose Parmenidas Ir Didysis Hipijas

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]straipsnyje nagrinėjama dalyvavimo (methexis) problema platono dialoguose parmenidas ir didysis hipijas. parodoma, kad juose aprašyti argumentai, susiję su dalyvavimo problema, nurodo į šios problemos sąryšius su padalintos linijos analogija, aprašyta platono valstybėje. ši analogija išryškina methexis problemos esmę – dalyvavimas kaip santykis tarp jusliškai suvokiamų atskirybių bei amžinų ir nekintančių eidų problemiškas tampa tik tuomet, kai nagrinėjamas tarpiško pažinimo (dianoia) plotmėje, t. y. samprotavimu, kuris išvadas pasiekia padedamas vaizdinių. straipsnyje mėginama įrodyti, kad šiuose dialoguose dalyvavimo problema platono sąmoningai nagrinėjama būtent per tarpiško pažinimo prizmę norint parodyti, kad bet koks bandymas mąstyti eidus per vaizdinius visuomet susidurs su neįveikiamais sunkumais ir paradoksais Show More ... ... Show Less

Dėmesys Ir Abstrakcija. E. Husserlio Atsakas Empiristinei Abstrakcijos Teorijai Loginiuose Tyrinėjimuose

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]kritinėje literatūroje, skirtoje dėmesio fenomenologijai, išsiplėtojo diskusija apie ankstyvąją husserlio dėmesio sampratą. išskirtinos dvi pagrindinės polemikos pusės: pirmoji, neigianti ankstyvąjį husserlį formulavus dėmesio sampratą kaip atskirą nuo intencionalumo tematikos (depraz, dwyer, arvidson); antroji, tvirtinanti, kad ankstyvasis husserlis skyrė dėmesio ir intencionalumo fenomenus ir suvokė tai kaip (sąlyginai) atskiras fenomenologinių tyrinėjimų sritis (bégout, wehrle, breyer, nečiajev).straipsnyje tiriamas antrajame tyrinėjime išdėstytas husserlio ginčas su empiristine abstrakcijos teorija. atskleidžiami keturi pagrindiniai husserlio argumentai ir išryškinama fenomenologinio dėmesio aprašymo problematika. atrandamas dėmesio ir intencionalumo fenomenų skirties pagrindas generalizuojančios ir individualizuojančios intencijos distinkcijoje, nes šiai paaiškinti būtina turėti dėmesio sampratą. tai laiduoja abstrakčios dėmesio sąvokos reikšmės išaiškinimo reikmę ir genetinę dėmesio sampratos išplėtojimo galimybę Show More ... ... Show Less

Hume’S Second Thoughts On Personal Identity

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba]šiame straipsnyje svarstoma, kaip davidas hume’as galėtų išvengti savo intelektinių kančių dėl asmens tapatumo traktato priede. visų pirma, straipsnyje siekiama suprasti hume’o nusivylimo, bandant traktato priede paaiškinti tai, kas jam iš tikrųjų rūpėjo, šaltinis, ir pasiūlomos kelios interpretacinės linijos. neseniai jonathanas ellisas išskyrė keletą galimų hume’o keblumų supratimo būdų. šiame straipsnyje iš keturių elliso išskirtų paaiškinimų grupių detaliai aptariami trys jo menkai eksplikuoti dalykai ir sprendžiami kai kurie svarbūs elliso praleisti klausimai. galiausiai pasiūlomas alternatyvus hume’o sunkumo perskaitymas, grindžiamas danielio dennetto idėjomis šiuo klausimu, ir pateikiamas pasiūlymas dėl to, ką hume’as būtų galėjęs pasakyti apie šias problemas Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Personal Identity
DVEJOPA MACHINACIJOS SAMPRATA HEIDEGGERIO TECHNIKOS FILOSOFIJOJE

straipsnyje nagrinėjama dvejopa machinacijos (machenschaft) samprata martino heideggerio technikos filosofijoje. pirmoji susijusi su vakarų metafizikos destrukcija (destruktion) ir jos kulminacija reflektuojama moderniosios technikos plotmėje. pirmiausiai machinaciją heideggeris pristato kaip pačios būties atsivėrimo būdą „pirmoje pradžioje“ (ersten anfang). machinacija lemia μετά judesio pamatą, nurodantį į nuolatinę transcendencijos aspiraciją bei „techninį“ esinių atvėrimo pobūdį, nors savo „pajėgumų“ prasme machinacija graikų metafizikoje dar glūdi implicitiškai. eksplicitiškai machinacija pasirodo tik moderniojoje technikoje. kiek kitokią machinacijos sampratą galime aptikti heideggerio „juoduosiuose sąsiuviniuose“ (schwarze hefte), rašytuose 1931–1938 m. juose pačią modernybės epochą filosofas pristato kaip machinaciją. taigi straipsnyje siekiama išryškinti šių dviejų heideggerio sampratų jungtį, kuri yra machinacijos galios (macht) augimo tikrovės atžvilgiu nuoroda Show More ... ... Show Less