compound heterozygous
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Fumikatsu Nohara ◽  
Go Tajima ◽  
Hideo Sasai ◽  
Yoshio Makita

AbstractMedium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by biallelic pathogenic ACADM variants. We report a case of an asymptomatic Japanese girl with MCAD deficiency caused by compound heterozygous pathogenic variants (NM_000016.5:c.1040G > T (p.Gly347Val) and c.449_452delCTGA (p.Thr150ArgfsTer4)). Because the MCAD residual activity in lymphocytes of the patient was below the limit of quantification, both variants are likely to cause complete loss of MCAD enzymatic activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 940
René St-Arnaud ◽  
Martin Pellicelli ◽  
Mahmoud Ismail ◽  
Alice Arabian ◽  
Toghrul Jafarov ◽  

PTH induces phosphorylation of the transcriptional coregulator NACA on serine 99 through Gαs and PKA. This leads to nuclear translocation of NACA and expression of the target gene Lrp6, encoding a coreceptor of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) necessary for full anabolic response to intermittent PTH (iPTH) treatment. We hypothesized that maintaining enough functional PTH1R/LRP6 coreceptor complexes at the plasma membrane through NACA-dependent Lrp6 transcription is important to ensure maximal response to iPTH. To test this model, we generated compound heterozygous mice in which one allele each of Naca and Lrp6 is inactivated in osteoblasts and osteocytes, using a knock-in strain with a Naca99 Ser-to-Ala mutation and an Lrp6 floxed strain (test genotype: Naca99S/A; Lrp6+/fl;OCN-Cre). Four-month-old females were injected with vehicle or 100 μg/kg PTH(1-34) once daily, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Control mice showed significant increases in vertebral trabecular bone mass and biomechanical properties that were abolished in compound heterozygotes. Lrp6 expression was reduced in compound heterozygotes vs. controls. The iPTH treatment increased Alpl and Col1a1 mRNA levels in the control but not in the test group. These results confirm that NACA and LRP6 form part of a common genetic pathway that is necessary for the full anabolic effect of iPTH.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yuyu Li ◽  
Ruyi Li ◽  
Hehua Dai ◽  
Genlin Li

Abstract Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with 89 causative genes identified to date. However, only approximately 60% of RP cases genetically solved to date, predicating that many novel disease-causing variants are yet to be identified. The purpose of this study is to identify novel variants in PDE6A and PDE6B genes and present its phenotypes in patients with retinitis pigmentosa in Chinese families. Methods Five retinitis pigmentosa patients with PDE6A variants and three with PDE6B variants were identified through a hereditary eye disease enrichment panel (HEDEP), all patients’ medical and ophthalmic histories were collected, and ophthalmological examinations were performed, followed by an analysis of the possible causative variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variants. Results We identified 20 variants in eight patients: 16 of them were identified in either PDE6A or PDE6B in a compound heterozygous state. Additional four heterozygous variants were identified in the genes ADGRA3, CA4, OPTN, RHO. Two novel genetic changes in PDE6A were identified (c.1246G > A and c.1747 T > A), three novel genetic changes in PDE6B were identified (c.401 T > C, c.2293G > C and c.1610-1612del), out of the novel identified variants one was most probably non-pathogenic (c.2293G > C), all other novel variants are pathogenic. Additional variant was identified in CA4 and RHO, which can cause ADRP (c.243G > A, c.688G > A). In addition, a novel variant in ADGRA3 was identified (c.921-1G > A). Conclusions This study reveals novel and known variants in PDE6A and PDE6B genes in Chinese families with autosomal recessive RP, and expands the clinical and genetic findings of photoreceptor-specific enzyme deficiencies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 607-617
Wen-Xin Lin ◽  
Ying-Ying Chai ◽  
Ting-Ting Huang ◽  
Xia Zhang ◽  
Guo Zheng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Hui Yang ◽  
Liwei Li ◽  
Junhong Zhang ◽  
Qing Li ◽  
Li Qiao ◽  

Abstract Background: Over 100 mutations in the SRD5A2 gene have been identified in subjects with 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). Exploration of SRD5A2 mutations and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind their effects should reveal the functions of the domains of the 5α-reductase 2 enzyme and identify the cause of 46,XY DSD. Previously, we reported a novel compound heterozygous p.Q6X/p.H232R mutation of the SRD5A2 gene in a case with 46,XY DSD. Whether the compound heterozygous p.Q6X/p.H232R mutation in this gene causes 46,XY DSD requires further exploration. Results: To clarify the cause of 46,XY DSD in the affected family focused on here, SRD5A2 sequencing was performed. Heterozygous p.H232R mutation was identified in the proband’s father, so we concluded that this mutation originated from the paternal side of the family and did not cause 46,XY DSD. Meanwhile, heterozygous p.Q6X mutation was identified in the proband’s mother, maternal uncle, and maternal grandfather, indicating that this mutation originated from maternal side of the family and did not cause 46,XY DSD. To clarify the effect of the p.H232R mutation in SRD5A2 on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) production, p.H232R mutant SRD5A2 plasmids were transfected into HEK293 cells. LC-MS indicated that DHT production decreased compared with that in cells transfected with wild-type SRD5A2.Conclusions: Our findings confirmed that the compound heterozygous p.Q6X/p.H232R mutation in the SRD5A2 gene is the cause of 46,XY DSD. p.H232R mutation reduced DHT production while attenuating the catalytic efficiency of the 5α-reductase 2 enzyme.

Tess Holling ◽  
Sheela Nampoothiri ◽  
Bedirhan Tarhan ◽  
Pauline E. Schneeberger ◽  
Kollencheri Puthenveettil Vinayan ◽  

AbstractThe sodium (Na+):multivitamin transporter (SMVT), encoded by SLC5A6, belongs to the sodium:solute symporter family and is required for the Na+-dependent uptake of biotin (vitamin B7), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), the vitamin-like substance α-lipoic acid, and iodide. Compound heterozygous SLC5A6 variants have been reported in individuals with variable multisystemic disorder, including failure to thrive, developmental delay, seizures, cerebral palsy, brain atrophy, gastrointestinal problems, immunodeficiency, and/or osteopenia. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with biallelic SLC5A6 variants affecting function by reporting five individuals from three families with motor neuropathies. We identified the homozygous variant c.1285 A > G [p.(Ser429Gly)] in three affected siblings and a simplex patient and the maternally inherited c.280 C > T [p.(Arg94*)] variant and the paternally inherited c.485 A > G [p.(Tyr162Cys)] variant in the simplex patient of the third family. Both missense variants were predicted to affect function by in silico tools. 3D homology modeling of the human SMVT revealed 13 transmembrane helices (TMs) and Tyr162 and Ser429 to be located at the cytoplasmic facing region of TM4 and within TM11, respectively. The SLC5A6 missense variants p.(Tyr162Cys) and p.(Ser429Gly) did not affect plasma membrane localization of the ectopically expressed multivitamin transporter suggesting reduced but not abolished function, such as lower catalytic activity. Targeted therapeutic intervention yielded clinical improvement in four of the five patients. Early molecular diagnosis by exome sequencing is essential for timely replacement therapy in affected individuals.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Mamiko Yamada ◽  
Hisato Suzuki ◽  
Hiroyuki Adachi ◽  
Atsuko Noguchi ◽  
Fuyuki Miya ◽  

Abstract Background Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is increasingly known as a degenerative disease rather than simple “hypoplasia”. At least 21 disease-causing genes have been identified for PCH so far. Because PCH is very heterogenous, prognostic prediction based solely on clinical or radiologic findings is not feasible. Case presentation Here, we report two siblings who had a fulminant neonatal course. The documentation of pontocerebellar hypoplasia by postmortem brain CT imaging in one of the siblings and a subsequent complex and comprehensive whole genome analysis established that both siblings had bi-allelic compound heterozygous variants (a splicing variant and a deletion) in the SLC25A46 gene which encodes a solute carrier protein essential for mitochondrial function. Long-read whole genome sequencing was required to confirm the presence of the deletion. The fulminant courses suggest that SLC25A46-related PCH is an acutely progressive degenerative condition starting in utero, rather than a simple static hypoplasia. Conclusion The genomic analysis was instrumental and essential to solving the enigma of the unexplained neonatal deaths of these two siblings and to provide accurate genetic counseling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Neta Aviran ◽  
Gil Amarilyo ◽  
Yaniv Lakovsky ◽  
Rotem Tal ◽  
Jenny Garkaby ◽  

Abstract Background Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome (PFMS) is a rare complication of Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and is often challenging, especially when PFMS is the initial manifestation of FMF. The aim of this report was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in pediatric patients with PFMS. Results There were three girls and two boys ranging in age from 6 months to 16 years, all of Mediterranean ancestry. Three had high-grade fever, and all had elevated inflammatory markers. MRI of the extremities yielded findings suggestive of myositis, which together with the clinical picture, normal CPK levels, and supporting family history of FMF, suggested the diagnosis of PFMS. Out of most common MEFV mutations tested, one patient was homozygous for M694V mutation, three were heterozygous for M694V mutation, and one was compound heterozygous for the M694V and V726A mutations. Conclusions MRI may serve as an auxiliary diagnostic tool in PFMS.

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