To better interpret the subsurface structures and characterize the reservoir, a depth model quantifying P-wave velocity together with additional rock’s physical parameters such as density, the S-wave velocity, and anisotropy is always preferred by geologists and engineers. Tradeoffs among different parameters can bring extra challenges to the seismic inversion process. In this study, we propose and test the Direct Waveform Inversion (DWI) scheme to simultaneously invert for 1D layered velocity and density profiles, using reflection seismic waveforms recorded on the surface. The recorded data includes primary reflections and interbed multiples. DWI is implemented in the time-space domain then followed by a wavefield extrapolation to downward continue the source and receiver. By explicitly enforcing the wavefield time-space causality, DWI can recursively determine the subsurface seismic structure in a local layer-by-layer fashion for both sharp interfaces and the properties of the layers, from shallow to deep depths. DWI is different from the layer stripping methods in the frequency domain. By not requiring a global initial model, DWI also avoids many nonlinear optimization problems, such as the local minima or the need for an accurate initial model in most waveform inversion schemes. Two numerical tests show the validity of this DWI scheme serving as a new strategy for multi-parameter seismic inversion.
AbstractTo mitigate the global warming crisis, one of the effective ways is to capture CO2 at an emitting source and inject it underground in saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or in coal beds. This process is known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). With CCS, CO2 is considered a waste product that has to be disposed of properly, like sewage and other pollutants. While and after CO2 injection, monitoring of the CO2 storage site is necessary to observe CO2 plume movement and detect potential leakage. For CO2 monitoring, various physical property changes are employed to delineate the plume area and migration pathways with their pros and cons. We introduce a new rock physics model to facilitate the time-lapse estimation of CO2 saturation and possible pressure changes within a CO2 storage reservoir based on physical properties obtained from the prestack seismic inversion. We demonstrate that the CO2 plume delineation, saturation, and pressure changes estimations are possible using a combination of Acoustic Impedance (AI) and P- to S-wave velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) inverted from time-lapse or four-dimensional (4D) seismic. We assumed a scenario over a period of 40 years comprising an initial 25 year injection period. Our results show that monitoring the CO2 plume in terms of extent and saturation can be carried out using our rock physics-derived method. The suggested method, without going into the elastic moduli level, handles the elastic property cubes, which are commonly obtained from the prestack seismic inversion. Pressure changes quantification is also possible within un-cemented sands; however, the stress/cementation coefficient in our proposed model needs further study to relate that with effective stress in various types of sandstones. The three-dimensional (3D) seismic usually covers the area from the reservoir's base to the surface making it possible to detect the CO2 plume's lateral and vertical migration. However, the comparatively low resolution of seismic, the inversion uncertainties, lateral mineral, and shale property variations are some limitations, which warrant consideration. This method can also be applied for the exploration and monitoring of hydrocarbon production.
AbstractThe Rajasthan basin situates in the western part of India. The basin architecture comprises three significant sub-basins such as Barmer-Sanchor, Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer. Barmer-Sanchor and Bikaner-Nagaur sub-basins are intracratonic categories, whereas the Jaisalmer sub-basin comes under intracratonic nature. The current study was conducted in the Jaisalmer sub-basin. The study was conducted in two regions in the Jaisalmer sub-basin through a comparative quantitative interpretation study with the help of two vintages seismic surveys. Ghotaru and Bandha are two adjacent areas in the Jaisalmer sub-basin where Ghotaru has seen few hydrocarbon discoveries; however, no such discoveries are encountered in the Bandha area. The current study was concentrated on the Jaisalmer limestone formation in the Jurassic age. The sub-basin and its related study area have been structurally deformed due to various tectonic activities. Structural deformation was played a crucial role in changing the rock property of limestone facies. A post-stack seismic inversion was carried out to capture the rock property changes in the limestone reservoir based on P-impedance values. Development of high P-impedance was observed in the Ghotaru region compared to the Bandha region from this study. A frequency changes of the limestone lithofacies with structural components was also captured in this study. The high impedance limestone lithofacies is a probable hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir unit in the Jaisalmer Formation of the Ghotaru region.
In order to solve the problem that elastic parameter constraints are not taken into account in local lithofacies updating in multi-point geostatistical inversion, a new multi-point geostatistical inversion method with local facies updating under seismic elastic constraints is proposed. The main improvement of the method is that the probability of multi-point facies modeling is combined with the facies probability reflected by the optimal elastic parameters retained from the previous inversion to predict and update the current lithofacies model. Constrained by the current lithofacies model, the elastic parameters were obtained via direct sampling based on the statistical relationship between the lithofacies and the elastic parameters. Forward simulation records were generated via convolution and were compared with the actual seismic records to obtain the optimal lithofacies and elastic parameters. The inversion method adopts the internal and external double cycle iteration mechanism, and the internal cycle updates and inverts the local lithofacies. The outer cycle determines whether the correlation between the entire seismic record and the actual seismic record meets the given conditions, and the cycle iterates until the given conditions are met in order to achieve seismic inversion prediction. The theoretical model of the Stanford Center for Reservoir Forecasting and the practical model of the Xinchang gas field in western China were used to test the new method. The results show that the correlation between the synthetic seismic records and the actual seismic records is the best, and the lithofacies matching degree of the inversion is the highest. The results of the conventional multi-point geostatistical inversion are the next best, and the results of the two-point geostatistical inversion are the worst. The results show that the reservoir parameters obtained using the local probability updating of lithofacies method are closer to the actual reservoir parameters. This method is worth popularizing in practical exploration and development.