water yield
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2022 ◽  
Vol 49 ◽  
pp. 101783
Ammar H. Elsheikh ◽  
S. Shanmugan ◽  
Ravishankar Sathyamurthy ◽  
Amrit Kumar Thakur ◽  
Mohamed Issa ◽  

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12804
Yuanhe Yu ◽  
Xingqi Sun ◽  
Jinliang Wang ◽  
Jianpeng Zhang

Water yield is an ecosystem service that is vital to not only human life, but also sustainable development of the social economy and ecosystem. This study used annual average precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, plant available water content, soil depth, biophysical parameters, Zhang parameter, and land use/land cover (LULC) as input data for the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Service Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to estimate the water yield of Shangri-La City from 1974 to 2015. The spatiotemporal variations and associated factors (precipitation, evapotranspiration, LULC, and topographic factors) in water yield ecosystem services were then analyzed. The result showed that: (1) The water yield of Shangri-La City decreases from north and south to the center and showed a temporal trend from 1974 to 2015 of an initial decrease followed by an increase. Areas of higher average water yield were mainly in Hutiaoxia Town, Jinjiang Town, and Shangjiang Township. (2) Areas of importance for water yield in the study area which need to be assigned priority protection were mainly concentrated in the west of Jiantang Town, in central Xiaozhongdian Town, in central Gezan Township, in northwestern Dongwang Township, and in Hutiaoxia Town. (3) Water yield was affected by precipitation, evapotranspiration, vegetation type, and topographic factors. Water yield was positively and negatively correlated with precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, respectively. The average water yield of shrubs exceeded that of meadows and forests. Terrain factors indirectly affected the ecosystem service functions of water yield by affecting precipitation and vegetation types. The model used in this study can provide references for relevant research in similar climatic conditions.

Ishfaq ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Gowhar Meraj ◽  
Majid Farooq ◽  
Muhammad Muslim ◽  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 184
Jamila Ngondo ◽  
Joseph Mango ◽  
Joel Nobert ◽  
Alfonse Dubi ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  

The evaluation of the hydrological responses of river basins to land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes is crucial for sustaining water resources. We assessed the impact of LULC changes (1990–2018) on three hydrological components (water yield (WYLD), evapotranspiration (ET), and sediment yield (SYLD)) of the Wami–Ruvu Basin (WRB) in Tanzania, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The 1990 LULC imagery was used for SWAT simulation, and imagery from 2000, 2010, and 2018 was used for comparison with modelled hydrological parameters. The model was calibrated (1993–2008) and validated (2009–2018) in the SWAT-CUP after allowing three years (1990–1992) for the warm-up period. The results showed a decrease in WYLD (3.11 mm) and an increase in ET (29.71 mm) and SYLD (from 0.12 t/h to 1.5 t/h). The impact of LULC changes on WYLD, ET, and SYLD showed that the increase in agriculture and built-up areas and bushland, and the contraction of forest led to the hydrological instability of the WRB. These results were further assessed with climatic factors, which revealed a decrease in precipitation and an increase in temperature by 1°C. This situation seems to look more adverse in the future, based on the LULC of the year 2036 as predicted by the CA–Markov model. Our study calls for urgent intervention by re-planning LULC and re-assessing hydrological changes timely.

2022 ◽  
Dedi Liu ◽  
Dezhi Fu

Abstract Long-term scheduling and short-term decision-making for water resources management often require understanding the relationship of water yield pattern between the annual and monthly scales. As the water yield pattern mainly depends on land cover/use and climate, a unifying catchment water balance model with factors has been adopted to derive a theoretical water yield pattern with annual and monthly scales. Two critical values at the parameters ε=1-√2/2 and ϕ=1.0 are identified. The parameter ε referring to the water storage (land use/cover) and evaporation (climate) changes can make more contribution than ϕ for water yield when ϕ>1.0, especially with ε<1-√2/2. But there is less contribution made by ε when ϕ<1.0. The derived theoretical water yield patterns have also been validated by the observed data or the simulated data through the hydrological model. Due to the bias of the soil moisture data, a lot of the estimated parameter ε values are over its theoretical range, especially for the monthly scale in humid basins. The performance of the derived theoretical water yield pattern at annual scale is much better than that at monthly scale while there are only a few data sets from the arid basin at every months fall within their theoretical ranges. Even the relative contributions of ε is found to be bigger than those of ϕ due to ε<1-√2/2 and ϕ>1.0, there are no significant linear relationships between annual and monthly parameters ε and ϕ. Our results not only validate the derived theoretical water yield pattern with the estimated parameter directly by the observed or simulated data rather than the calibrated parameter, but also can guide for further understanding physical of water balance to conversion time scales for the combing long-term and short-term water resources management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Kamran Mahboob ◽  
Qasim Awais ◽  
Muhammad Yahya ◽  
Muhammad Mehtab ◽  
Awais Khan

The biggest problem faced by the world these days is pure drinkable water, and in a few years pure drinkable water will not be easily available, as it is becoming brackish and saline due to pollution. By using solar energy, a solar still can produce pure water which can be used for drinking, cooking, and also for industrial purposes. In this research, a solar still based on clean technology using solar energy to drive the system is used. It can be operated easily and with an approximately negligible maintenance cost. A pyramid solar water desalination unit with modification of the solar electric water heater (used to increase water temperature) is developed to increase the water yield per day. A theoretical model of the solar still unit with and without an electric water heater is developed and performance is compared. Based on this theoretical design, fabrication is carried out and experiments are performed to predict the overall output. It is observed that the output distilled water has a TDS (total dissolved salts) value much lower than the TDS of groundwater. Additionally, the average output of a solar water desalination unit with an electric water heater is found to be enhanced compared with the unit without an electric water heater.

Andrew C. Dyer ◽  
Mohamad A. Nahil ◽  
Paul T. Williams

AbstractBiomass and waste polystyrene plastic (ratio 1:1) were co-pyrolysed followed by catalysis in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system to produce upgraded bio-oils for production of liquid fuel and aromatic chemicals. The catalysts investigated were ZSM-5 impregnated with different metals, Ga, Co, Cu, Fe and Ni to determine their influence on bio-oil upgrading. The results showed that the different added metals had a different impact on the yield and composition of the product oils and gases. Deoxygenation of the bio-oils was mainly via formation of CO2 and CO via decarboxylation and decarbonylation with the Ni–ZSM-5 and Co–ZSM-5 catalysts whereas higher water yield and lower CO2 and CO was obtained with the ZSM-5, Ga–ZSM-5, Cu–ZSM-5 and Fe–ZSM-5 catalysts suggesting hydrodeoxygenation was dominant. Compared to the unmodified ZSM-5, the yield of single-ring aromatic compounds in the product oil was increased for the Co–ZSM-5, Cu–ZSM-5, Fe–ZSM-5 and Ni–ZSM-5 catalysts. However, for the Ga–ZSM-5 catalyst, single-ring aromatic compounds were reduced, but the highest yield of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was produced. A higher biomass to polystyrene ratio (4:1) resulted in a markedly lower oil yield with a consequent increased yield of gas.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 65
Jun Pan ◽  
Kun Chen ◽  
Zhaoliang Cui ◽  
Omar Bamaga ◽  
Mohammed Albeirutty ◽  

Due to the good hydrophobicity and chemical resistance of poly(ethylene trifluoroethylene) (ECTFE), it has been an attractive potential material for microfiltration, membrane distillation and more. However, few porous hydrophobic ECTFE membranes were prepared by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) for membrane condenser applications. In this work, the diluent, di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), was selected to prepare the dope solutions. The calculated Hassen solubility parameter indicated that ECTFE has good compatibility with DnOP. The corresponding thermodynamic phase diagram was established, and it has been mutually verified with the bi-continuous structure observed in the SEM images. At 30 wt% ECTFE, the surface contact angle and liquid entry pressure reach their maximum values of 139.5° and 0.71 MPa, respectively. In addition, some other basic membrane properties, such as pore size, porosity, and mechanical properties, were determined. Finally, the prepared ECTFE membranes were tested using a homemade membrane condenser setup. When the polymer content is 30 wt%, the corresponding results are better; the water recovery and condensed water yield is 17.6% and 1.86 kg m−2 h−1, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (2) ◽  
pp. 187-194
D. K. MISHRA ◽  
A. P. JOHRI ◽  

This paper aims at evolving a conceptual technique for the computation of water yield from the basin snow cover. It may serve as a useful information to compute the snowmelt driven run-off particularly in the lean summer season. For this purpose, the measurement of snow cover area in catchment of Satluj river using very high resolution imagery received from the meteorological satellite NOAA-9 was undertaken on selected dates during the periods, (i) October 1985 to May 1986, and (ii) January to June 1987. The computed snowmelt water yield have been compared with the available actual run-off data. The study shows that the satellite derived snow cover data are potentially useful in predicting the snowmelt run-off. The importance of this technique is further enhanced for the large watersheds over Himalayas where ground based measurements are too scanty.

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