Plasma Jets
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Author(s):  
Luis Gustavo Martinez ◽  
Akash Dhruv ◽  
Elias Balaras ◽  
Michael Keidar

Abstract This work presents a model for an atmospheric Helium plasma interacting with normal and cancer cells. This interaction is simulated through the expansion and impingement of a gaseous jet onto targets with varying electrical permittivity. Simulation results show that for a plasma jet impinging onto two targets with different permittivity placed axis-symmetrically relative to the stagnation point of impingement, the jet is biased toward the target with lower permittivity when the target acts as a floating potential. This trend is reversed when the back surface of the target is grounded. In the case of a floating target, higher target permittivity yields a higher positive surface potential as the material experiences higher polarization in response to the net flux of electrons from the plasma onto the surface. Because of this higher surface potential, targets with higher permittivity generate a smaller electric field in the discharge column relative to materials with lower permittivity. When the back surface of the target is ground, the trend is reversed, with polarization occurring primarily on the back surface due to the response to the reservoir of positive charges introduced by ground. In the ground case, the material experiences more negative charging the front surface which induces a lower electric potential. As a result, the material with higher permittivity and a grounded back surface attracts plasma organization at the interface because of the higher local electric field. These numerical findings support experimental results presented by other researchers, which demonstrate selectivity of plasma jets towards some cancer cells more than others. The mechanism introduced here may help inform targeted treatment of specific cells, including those reported to be more resistant to plasma jets.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruisheng Zheng ◽  
Bing Wang ◽  
Liang Zhang ◽  
Yao Chen ◽  
Robertus Erdelyi

Abstract Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves are spectacular propagating disturbances with EUV enhancements in annular shapes in the solar corona. These EUV waves carry critical information about the coronal magnetised plasma that can shed light on gaining insight to the elusive physical parameters (e.g. the magnetic field strength) by global solar coronal magneto-seismology (SMS). EUV waves are closely associated with a wide range of solar atmospheric eruptions, from violent flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to less energetic plasma jets or mini-filament eruptions, and can play a role in accelerating particles to non-thermal energies. However, the physical nature and driving mechanism of EUV waves is still under controversy. Here, we report the unique discovery of twin EUV waves (TEWs) that were formed in a single eruption with observations from two different perspectives. In all earlier studies, a single eruption was associated at most in a single EUV wave. The newly found TEWs urge to re-visit our theoretical understanding about the underlying formation mechanism(s) of coronal EUV waves. Two distinct scenarios of TEWs were found. In the first scenario, the two waves were separately associated with a filament eruption and a precursor jet, while in another scenario the two waves were successively associated with a filament eruption. Hence, we label these distinguished scenarios as "fraternal TEWs" and "identical TEWs", respectively. Further, we also suggest that impulsive lateral expansions of two distinct groups of coronal loops are critical to the formation of TEWs in a single eruption.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caleb Richards ◽  
Elijah Jans ◽  
Ilya Gulko ◽  
Keegan Orr ◽  
Igor V. Adamovich

2021 ◽  
Vol 130 (23) ◽  
pp. 233301
Author(s):  
Yuanyuan Jiang ◽  
Yanhui Wang ◽  
Jiao Zhang ◽  
Shiyuan Cong ◽  
Dezhen Wang

Author(s):  
Qiang Sun ◽  
Qianhong Zhou ◽  
Hantian Zhang ◽  
Wei Yang ◽  
Ye Dong ◽  
...  

Abstract The separation phenomenon of light and heavy ions was widely observed experimentally in the vacuum arc discharge with multi-component composite cathode. In this work, a two-dimensional axisymmetric multi-fluid model is used to study the separation mechanism in the multi-component composite cathode vacuum arc. The multi-component vacuum arcs are simulated as a whole which includes separate cathode spot jets, the mixing region, and common arc column. The results show that the plasma jets originated from the separate cathode spot mix together to form a common arc column after a certain distance from the cathode. Due to the rapid increase of ion temperature dozens of times in mixing region of cathode spot jet, the effect of pressure gradient becomes far greater than that of the collisions between light and heavy ions. This leads to a shift in the predominant ion motion mechanism from ion-ion collision (single cathode spot jet region) to pressure expansion (the mixing region). Finally, the light ions gain higher velocities under pressure expansion. In addition, the effect of thermal conductivity and viscosity leads to the wider high temperature regions for light ions, thus making a wider distribution of corresponding ion flux. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. This paper provides an insight into ion separation mechanism in the multi-component vacuum arc.


Author(s):  
Bhagirath Ghimire ◽  
Bethany Patenall ◽  
Endre Szili ◽  
Nishtha Gaur ◽  
Pradeep Lamichhane ◽  
...  

Abstract This study investigates how addition of a second ground electrode in an argon plasma jet influences the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in deionised water (DIW). Briefly, plasma is ignited by purging argon gas through a quartz tube at 1 litre per minute and applying a sinusoidal voltage of 7 kV (peak-peak) at 23.5 kHz to a high voltage stainless steel needle electrode sealed inside the quartz tube surrounded by single or double copper ring(s) situated downstream of the high voltage electrode that served as the ground electrode(s). The mechanisms of H2O2 production are investigated through the electrical and optical plasma properties and chemical analysis of the treated DIW. We discover that the addition of a second ground electrode results in higher accumulation of charges on the wall of quartz tube of the plasma jet assembly resulting in an increase in the discharge current and dissipated power. This further leads to an increase in the electron temperature that more than doubles the H2O2 production through dissociative recombination of water vapour molecules, whilst still maintaining a biological tissue tolerable gas temperature. The double ground electrode plasma jet is shown to be highly effective at reducing the growth of common wound pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) in both planktonic and biofilm states whilst inducing a low level of cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocyte skin-like cells under certain conditions. The information provided in this study is useful in understanding the complex physicochemical processes that influence H2O2 production in plasma jets, which is needed to optimise the development of plasma sources for clinical applications.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4396
Author(s):  
Kateřina Polášková ◽  
Miloš Klíma ◽  
Zdeňka Jeníková ◽  
Lucie Blahová ◽  
Lenka Zajíčková

Polypropylene is a typical representative of synthetic polymers that, for many applications including adhesive joints, requires an increase in wettability and chemical surface reactivity. Plasma processing offers efficient methods for such surface modifications. A particular disadvantage of the plasma jets can be the small plasma area. Here, we present a cold atmospheric plasma radio-frequency slit jet developed with a width of 150 mm applied to polypropylene plasma treatment in Ar, Ar/O2 and Ar/N2 We identified two main parameters influencing the tensile strength of adhesive joints mediated by epoxy adhesive DP 190, nitrogen content, and the amount of low molecular weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs). Nitrogen functional groups promoted adhesion between epoxy adhesive DP 190 and the PP by taking part in the curing process. LMWOMs formed a weak boundary layer, inhibiting adhesion by inducing a cohesive failure of the joint. A trade off between these two parameters determined the optimized conditions at which the strength of the adhesive joint increased 4.5 times. Higher adhesion strength was previously observed when using a translational plasma gliding arc plasma jet with higher plasma gas temperatures, resulting in better cross linking of polymer chains caused by local PP melting.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
G. Bruno ◽  
S. Wenske ◽  
H. Mahdikia ◽  
T. Gerling ◽  
T. von Woedtke ◽  
...  

Cold physical plasmas, especially noble gas driven plasma jets, emit considerable amounts of ultraviolet radiation (UV). Given that a noble gas channel is present, even the energetic vacuum UV can reach the treated target. The relevance of UV radiation for antimicrobial effects is generally accepted. It remains to be clarified if this radiation is relevant for other biomedical application of plasmas, e.g., in wound care or cancer remediation. In this work, the role of (vacuum) ultraviolet radiation generated by the argon plasma jet kINPen for cysteine modifications was investigated in aqueous solutions and porcine skin. To differentiate the effects of photons of different wavelength and complete plasma discharge, a micro chamber equipped with a MgF2, Suprasil, or Borosilicate glass window was used. In liquid phase, plasma-derived VUV radiation was effective and led to the formation of cysteine oxidation products and molecule breakdown products, yielding sulfite, sulfate, and hydrogen sulfide. At the boundary layer, the impact of VUV photons led to water molecule photolysis and formation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. In addition, photolytic cleavage of the weak carbon-sulfur bond initiated the formation of sulfur oxy ions. In the intact skin model, protein thiol modification was rare even if a VUV transparent MgF2 window was used. Presumably, the plasma-derived VUV radiation played a limited role since reactions at the boundary layer are less frequent and the dense biomolecules layers block it effectively, inhibiting significant penetration. This result further emphasizes the safety of physical plasmas in biomedical applications.


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