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Hussein Abdulameer Abdulkadhim ◽  
Jinan Nsaif Shehab

Although variety in hiding methods used to protect data and information transmitted via channels but still need more robustness and difficulty to improve protection level of the secret messages from hacking or attacking. Moreover, hiding several medias in one media to reduce the transmission time and band of channel is the important task and define as a gain channel. This calls to find other ways to be more complexity in detecting the secret message. Therefore, this paper proposes cryptography/steganography method to hide an audio/voice message (secret message) in two different cover medias: audio and video. This method is use least significant bits (LSB) algorithm combined with 4D grid multi-wing hyper-chaotic (GMWH) system. Shuffling of an audio using key generated by GMWH system and then hiding message using LSB algorithm will provide more difficulty of extracting the original audio by hackers or attackers. According to analyses of obtained results in the receiver using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)/mean square error (MSE) and sensitivity of encryption key, the proposed method has more security level and robustness. Finally, this work will provide extra security to the mixture base of crypto-steganographic methods.

Bassam Al-Shargabi ◽  
Mohammed Abbas Fadhil Al-Husainy

The need for a reliable and fast encryption algorithm to encrypt medical data for patients is an extremely important topic to be considered especially during pandemic times such as the pandemic COVID-19. This pandemic forced governments and healthcare institutions to monitor COVID-19 patients. All the patient's data or records are also shared among healthcare researchers to be used to help them find vaccines or cures for this pandemic. Therefore, protecting such data (images, text) or records face an everincreasing number of risks. In this paper, a novel multi-round encryption algorithm based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is proposed. The significance of the proposed algorithm comes from using a different random key to perform simple and fast encryption operations on multiple rounds to achieve a high level of confusion and diffusion effects in encrypted data. Experiments were conducted using a set of datasets of various types such as Excel sheets, images, and database tables. The experiments were conducted to test the performance and security level of the proposed encryption algorithm against well-known algorithms such as data encryption standard (DES) and advanced encryption standard (AES). The experiments show an outstanding performance regarding the encryption time, key size, information entropy, and the avalanche effects.

Water Policy ◽  
2022 ◽  
S. H. Baba ◽  
Oyas Asimi ◽  
Ishrat F. Bhat ◽  
Irfan A. Khan

Abstract This study comprehensively investigated the livelihood security scenario of fisher households (FHs) employing the CARE framework with little modifications, in Kashmir, India. Primary data for this study was collected from selected FHs, and a regression function was fitted to quantify the determinants of livelihood security. The findings revealed that fishing has been their dominant livelihood option. The landholding owned by the households was meagre enough to carry out farming or domesticate animals on commercial lines. Poor capital endowments place them at less livelihood security level; however, the respondents with diversified income have a relatively higher index value for livelihood. The regression estimates indicated that barring social and natural capital, all forms of capital have a significant role to play in securing their livelihood. Poor livelihood security, coupled with less income flow, has made their survival vulnerable to various distresses and health disorders, including the prevalence of Infant & Maternal Mortality. Their dietary intake was undesirably less than their dietary recommendations. The COVID-19 pandemic was perceived as a shock to their livelihood security. Further, public investment, which is pertinent for the growth of the fisheries sector, has shown a discouraging trend. The study concluded with a few policy suggestions for securing the livelihood of the fisher community.

C. Sapna Kumari ◽  
C. N. Asha ◽  
U. Rajashekhar ◽  
K. Viswanath

At present, due to the various hacking approaches, the protection for any data transmitted through any channel or mode is one of the important issues. Nowadays, providing data security is satisfactory, developments are extended for obtaining data among the transceivers. Security level depends on the size of a symmetric key which is employed for encryption and decryption using various cryptography systems management and in modern approaches like block and RF codes including AES use a larger size of key simultaneously and there exists security problems due to hacking approaches. To illustrate the protection level and hacking problems, a new ECC is presented as well as by employing scalar duplication, the synchronous key is generated and consists of point doubling and point addition. The created focuses are encrypted before transmission by using ECC-Elgamal-Holomorphic (ECCEH) and transferred through a distant channel and encipher data is failed at the receiver using ECCEH which includes the reverse process. The unique standards of cryptography context have been generated by MATLAB; the defined framework has endeavored to the extent that speed, delay as well as control, and many others are accepted in MATLAB 2017a. The user of the sender, the original information is transformed into integer value by employing Holomorphic and encodes it by utilizing the Elgamal ECC algorithm which employs point doubling and point addition. The encoded information is uploaded into the cloud for storage, here is utilized for storage. When the user presents at the receiver request the cloud to access from it, initially the cloud server authenticates the access control strategies of the requester, and then access is provided by the cloud server. If the user authenticates the strategies, then encoded data can download and the original data is decoded by synchronous key employing ECC- Elgamal algorithm. Using original and decrypted data, various performance factors are calculated in terms of execution time, packet delivery ratio, throughput, latency and compare these results with conventional methods and found to be 12%, 31%, 24%, and 8% progress concerned with packet delivery ratio, latency, outturn and execution time.

Yahao Zhang ◽  
Jin Pang ◽  
Hongshan Yin

Mail transmission was not only the main function of information system, but also the main way of network virus and Trojan horse transmission, which has a key impact on the running state of information. In order to deal with the threats of network viruses and Trojans and improve the level of e-mail management, this paper studies the filtering of information system, and proposes a phishing e-mail filtering method based on Improved Bayesian model. MATLAB simulation results show that the consistency p between the amount of data sent by e-mail and the amount received is good, the consistency rate reached 92.3%. the data security level is 95%, encryption proportion / data proportion ratio under Bayesian optimization are higher than those of unfiltered method,which up to 97.2%. Therefore, the Bayesian optimization model constructed in this paper can meet the needs of phishing email filtering in information communication at this stage.

Rev Rene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
pp. e72190
Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes

In late 2019, the first cases of a disease, which would come to be known as COVID-19, emerged in a Chinese city, known for being the home to a market where wild animals were relatively common and to a virology laboratory of the highest security level. Coincidence or not, the debate about the origin of the disease involves these two places, and a lot of political interest. On the other hand, the tragedy that became one of the deadliest pandemics ever recorded has several other elements that are more or less important, depending on the moment and context.

2022 ◽  
Inqilab Shahbazov ◽  
Zaur Afandiyev

Using the dataset of the first nationwide victimization survey in Azerbaijan, the current paper analyzed whether home security systems have a relationship with the perceived probability of property crime victimization. The ordinal logistic regression analysis was employed. The first set of results examining the distribution of security systems identified that despite the impact of certain demographics correlates, perceived risk is not a significant correlate of possession or absence of security systems. The presence of security measures at home was associated with a higher perceived probability of victimization level for acquisitive crimes. This study shows the importance of incorporating home security level as an independent variable. The choice of home as a unit of analysis when studying fear of victimization allowed us to ascertain not only the impact of home security systems on perceived victimization risks, but also to find out whether it is dwelling, demographic or neighborhood features that matter more in affecting sense of safety. The key findings of the study are that a) the level of home security systems is positively correlated with PPV, irrespective of individual-level characteristics, and b) perceived risk is not a statistically significant factor when it comes to a decision to purchase security systems.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 331
Shimaa A. Abdel Hakeem ◽  
HyungWon Kim

Many group key management protocols have been proposed to manage key generation and distribution of vehicular communication. However, most of them suffer from high communication and computation costs due to the complex elliptic curve and bilinear pairing cryptography. Many shared secret protocols have been proposed using polynomial evaluation and interpolation to solve the previous complexity issues. This paper proposes an efficient centralized threshold shared secret protocol based on the Shamir secret sharing technique and supporting key authentication using Hashed Message Authentication Code Protocol (HMAC). The proposed protocol allows the group manager to generate a master secret key for a group of n vehicles and split this key into secret shares; each share is distributed securely to every group member. t-of-n vehicles must recombine their secret shares and recover the original secret key. The acceptance of the recovered key is based on the correctness of the received HMAC signature to verify the group manager’s identity and ensure the key confidentiality. The proposed protocol is unconditionally secure and unbreakable using infinite computing power as t, or more than t secret shares are required to reconstruct the key. In contrast, attackers with t−1 secret shares cannot leak any information about the original secret key. Moreover, the proposed protocol reduces the computation cost due to using polynomial evaluation to generate the secret key and interpolation to recover the secret key, which is very simple and lightweight compared with the discrete logarithm computation cost in previous protocols. In addition, utilizing a trusted group manager that broadcasts some public information is important for the registered vehicles to reconstruct the key and eliminate secure channels between vehicles. The proposed protocol reduces the communication cost in terms of transmitted messages between vehicles from 2(t−1) messages in previous shared secret protocols to zero messages. Moreover, it reduces the received messages at vehicles from 2t to two messages. At the same time, it allows vehicles to store only a single secret share compared with other shared secret protocols that require storage of t secret shares. The proposed protocol security level outperforms the other shared secret protocols security, as it supports key authentication and confidentiality using HMAC that prevents attackers from compromising or faking the key.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-24
Galina Ivanovna Osadchaya ◽  
Marina Lvovna Vartanova ◽  
Igor Aleksandrovich Seleznev ◽  
Evgeniia Evgenyevna Kiseleva

2022 ◽  
pp. 115-133
Arti Yadav ◽  
Badar Alam Iqbal

This chapter will aim to explicate the challenges posed by global warming or the climate change conditions on food security especially from the point of view of India. The negative impact of global warming has been seen, especially in developing economies, on the agricultural yields leading towards food insecurity. The four pillars of food security (i.e., availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability) are having an impact on climate change. The present study will begin by highlighting the concept of global warming. It will further provide an overview of the Indian food security system followed by the impact of global warming on the food security level in India. The study will also highlight the global warming and food security scenario in the present situation of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in India.

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