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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 114471
Qiying Tao ◽  
Wangwang Ding ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Xuanhui Qu ◽  
Mingli Qin

2022 ◽  
Vol 216 ◽  
pp. 106945
Can Cui ◽  
Xiaoguo Gong ◽  
Lijia Chen ◽  
Weiwei Xu ◽  
Lijie Chen

I. C. Lin ◽  
M. H. Lee ◽  
P. C. Wu ◽  
S. C. Lin ◽  
J. W. Chen ◽  

Abstract Thin oxide films are of vast opportunities for modern electronics and can facilitate emergent phenomena by factors absent in the bulk counterparts, such as the ubiquitous epitaxial strain and interfacial charge doping. Here, we demonstrate the twisting of intended bulk-metallic phases in 10-unit-cell LaNiO3, PrNiO3, and NdNiO3 films on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 into distinct charge-lattice entangled states by epitaxial strains. Using atomically-resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, the interfacial electron doping into SrTiO3 in the conventional context of band alignments are discounted. Instead, spontaneously doped holes that are localized and at the order of 1013 cm-2 are atomically unraveled across all three heterointerfaces and associated with strain mitigations by the accompanied atomic intermixing with various ionic radii. The epitaxial strains also lead to condensations of monoclinic-C2/c lattice instabilities, which are hidden to the bulk phase diagram. The group-theoretical analysis of characteristic transition pathways unveils the strain resurrection of the hidden C2/c symmetry. While this strain-induced monoclinic phase in LaNiO3 remains metallic at room temperature, those in PrNiO3 and NdNiO3 turn out to be insulating. Such strain-induced monoclinic lattice instabilities and parasitic localized holes go beyond the classical elastic deformations of films upon epitaxial strains and hint on plausible hidden orders in versatile oxide heterostructures with unexpected properties, of which the exploration is only at the infancy and full of potentials.

Daniel Maldonado-Lopez ◽  
Jassiel R. Rodriguez ◽  
Vilas G. Pol ◽  
Ravuri Syamsai ◽  
Nirmala Grace Andrews ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 838
Bahaa Jawad ◽  
Puja Adhikari ◽  
Kun Cheng ◽  
Rudolf Podgornik ◽  
Wai-Yim Ching

A rational therapeutic strategy is urgently needed for combating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection initiates when the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) binds to the ACE2 receptor, and thus, inhibiting RBD is a promising therapeutic for blocking viral entry. In this study, the structure of lead antiviral candidate binder (LCB1), which has three alpha-helices (H1, H2, and H3), is used as a template to design and simulate several miniprotein RBD inhibitors. LCB1 undergoes two modifications: structural modification by truncation of the H3 to reduce its size, followed by single and double amino acid substitutions to enhance its binding with RBD. We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supported by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Complete binding profiles of all miniproteins with RBD have been determined. The MD investigations reveal that the H3 truncation results in a small inhibitor with a −1.5 kcal/mol tighter binding to RBD than original LCB1, while the best miniprotein with higher binding affinity involves D17R or E11V + D17R mutation. DFT calculations provide atomic-scale details on the role of hydrogen bonding and partial charge distribution in stabilizing the minibinder:RBD complex. This study provides insights into general principles for designing potential therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2.

Donghai Wu ◽  
Bingling He ◽  
Yuanyuan Wang ◽  
Peng Lv ◽  
Dongwei Ma ◽  

Abstract Due to the excellent activity, selectivity, and stability, atomically dispersed metal catalysts with well-defined structures have attracted intensive research attention. As the extension of single-atom catalyst (SAC), double-atom catalyst (DAC) has recently emerged as a research focus. Compared with SAC, the higher metal loading, more complicated and flexible active site, easily tunable electronic structure, and the synergetic effect between two metal atoms could provide DACs with better catalytic performance for a wide range of catalytic reactions. This review aims to summarize the recent advance in theoretical research on DACs for diverse energy-related electrocatalytic reactions. It starts with a brief introduction to DACs. Then an overview of the main experimental synthesis strategies of DACs is provided. Emphatically, the catalytic performance together with the underlying mechanism of the different electrocatalytic reactions, including nitrogen reduction reaction, carbon dioxide reduction reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, and oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, are highlighted by discussing how the outstanding attributes mentioned above affect the reaction pathway, catalytic activity, and product selectivity. Finally, the opportunities and challenges for the development of DACs are prospected to shed fresh light on the rational design of more efficient catalysts at the atomic scale in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Daniel Perez-Salinas ◽  
Allan S. Johnson ◽  
Dharmalingam Prabhakaran ◽  
Simon Wall

AbstractSpontaneous C4-symmetry breaking phases are ubiquitous in layered quantum materials, and often compete with other phases such as superconductivity. Preferential suppression of the symmetry broken phases by light has been used to explain non-equilibrium light induced superconductivity, metallicity, and the creation of metastable states. Key to understanding how these phases emerge is understanding how C4 symmetry is restored. A leading approach is based on time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, which explains the coherence response seen in many systems. However, we show that, for the case of the single layered manganite La0.5Sr1.5MnO4, the theory fails. Instead, we find an ultrafast inhomogeneous disordering transition in which the mean-field order parameter no longer reflects the atomic-scale state of the system. Our results suggest that disorder may be common to light-induced phase transitions, and methods beyond the mean-field are necessary for understanding and manipulating photoinduced phases.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 221
Xiaoting Luo ◽  
Zhiheng Huang ◽  
Shuanjin Wang ◽  
Min Xiao ◽  
Yuezhong Meng ◽  

As thermal management in 3DIC integration becomes increasingly important in advanced semiconductor node processes, novel experimental and modeling approaches are in great demand to reveal the critical material issues involving multiscale microstructures that govern the behavior of through-silicon-via (TSV) protrusion. Here, a coarse-grained phase-field crystal model properly coupled with mechanics through the atomic density field is used to simulate the formation of polycrystalline structures and protrusion of nano-TSVs from the atomic scale. TSVs with different grain structures are directly loaded, and protrusion/intrusion profiles are obtained along with displacement, stress, and strain fields. Thermodynamic driving forces from external loadings and the mismatch of Young’s modulus between adjoining grains as well as detailed displacement and strain distributions are ascribed to control the complex deformation in TSVs. TSVs with sizes up to around 30 nm and an aspect ratio of 4 are successfully investigated, and a further increase in the size and aspect ratio to cover the micrometer range is feasible, which lays down a solid basis toward a multiscale material database for simulation inputs to the design of TSV-based 3DIC integration and relevant electronic design automation (EDA) tools.

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