magnetic resonance imaging mri
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Ahmed Elaraby ◽  
Ayman Taha

<p><span>A novel approach for multimodal liver image contrast enhancement is put forward in this paper. The proposed approach utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of liver as a guide to enhance the structures of computed tomography (CT) liver. The enhancement process consists of two phases: The first phase is the transformation of MRI and CT modalities to be in the same range. Then the histogram of CT liver is adjusted to match the histogram of MRI. In the second phase, an adaptive histogram equalization technique is presented by splitting the CT histogram into two sub-histograms and replacing their cumulative distribution functions with two smooths sigmoid. The subjective and objective assessments of experimental results indicated that the proposed approach yields better results. In addition, the image contrast is effectively enhanced as well as the mean brightness and details are well preserved.</span></p>

Nagashree Nagesh ◽  
Premjyoti Patil ◽  
Shantakumar Patil ◽  
Mallikarjun Kokatanur

The brainchild in any medical image processing lied in how accurately the diseases are diagnosed. Especially in the case of neural disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), accurate detection was still a challenge. Several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques provided experts information about the functionality and anatomical structure of the brain. As autism is a neural disorder, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain gave a complex structure and functionality. Many machine learning techniques were proposed to improve the classification and detection accuracy of autism in MRI images. Our work focused mainly on developing the architecture of convolution neural networks (CNN) combining the genetic algorithm. Such artificial intelligence (AI) techniques were very much needed for training as they gave better accuracy compared to traditional statistical methods.

Athina I. Amanatidou ◽  
Andriana C. Kaliora ◽  
Charalampia Amerikanou ◽  
Stefan Stojanoski ◽  
Natasa Milosevic ◽  

Whereas the etiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex, the role of nutrition as a causing and preventive factor is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to associate dietary patterns with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in a European population (Greece, Italy, and Serbia) affected by NAFLD. For the first time, iron-corrected T1 (cT1), proton density fat fraction (PDFF), and the liver inflammation fibrosis score (LIF) were examined in relation to diet. A total of 97 obese patients with NAFLD from the MAST4HEALTH study were included in the analysis. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the quality of diet and food combinations. Other variables investigated include anthropometric measurements, total type 2 diabetes risk, physical activity level (PAL), and smoking status. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary patterns. Six dietary patterns were identified, namely “High-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, “High-Fat and Salt”, “Plant-Based”, and “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry”. The “Western” pattern was positively associated with cT1 in the unadjusted model (beta: 0.020, p-value: 0.025) and even after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), PAL, smoking, the center of the study, and the other five dietary patterns (beta: 0.024, p-value: 0.020). On the contrary, compared with low-intake patients, those with medium intake of the “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” pattern were associated with lower values of cT1, PDFF, and LIF. However, patients with a “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” dietary pattern were negatively associated with MRI parameters (cT1: beta: −0.052, p-value: 0.046, PDFF: beta: −0.448, p-value: 0.030, LIF: beta: −0.408, p-value: 0.025). Our findings indicate several associations between MRI parameters and dietary patterns in NAFLD patients, highlighting the importance of diet in NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp ◽  
Esra Disci ◽  
Rifat Peksoz ◽  
Refik Selim Atamanalp ◽  
Cansu Tatar Atamanalp

Objectives: Ileosigmoid knotting (ISK) is a rare intestinal obstruction form worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate changing trends in ISK. Methods: The Web of Science and PubMed databases were electronically searched to find all publications to evaluate all epidemiological, etiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, therapeutic, and prognostic factors in ISK. Results: Most of the cases were reported from Asian and African countries. Mean age was 43.9 years with a 79.9%/20.1% of male/female ratio. Main symptom period was 48.1 hours, while the most common clinical features were abdominal pain/tenderness (99.1%), distention (88.3%), and obstipation/constipation (58.8%). Abdominal X-ray radiography, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were diagnostic in 8.2%, 96.2%, and 100.0%, respectively, while the total diagnostic accuracy rate was 20.8%. Bowels were gangrenous in 85.6% of the patients. Ileum resection was applied in 14.0% of the cases, while sigmoid colon resection in 7.6%, and both segment resection in 67.1%. The mortality rate was 22.7%, while the morbidity rate was also 22.7%. Conclusion: ISK is a rare disease, but it is still catastrophic despite its two-century recognised past. As an exception, diagnostic convenience arising from CT or MRI looks like the most important change over the last half-century. doi: How to cite this:Atamanalp SS, Disci E, Peksoz R, Atamanalp RS, Tatar Atamanalp C. Ileosigmoid knotting: A review of 923 cases. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 266-274
Divya K P ◽  
Ajith Cherian

A patient with known epilepsy who has had a single, habitual seizure and whose mental status has returned to baseline need not be transported to the emergency department (ED) unless other injuries require so, whereas a patient with no history of epilepsy who has returned to baseline following a seizure should be evaluated. The evaluation should include basic biochemical parameters, toxicology screening and a brain imaging. One should investigate circumstances that may have precipitated a seizure, such as alcohol withdrawal, stimulant use, or head injury. Risk of recurrence of seizures is more likely in those with a history of significant brain injury or infection. If the patient has a normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalograph (EEG), the likelihood of a second seizure is approximately 1 in 3; if either test result is abnormal, the chances are approximately 1 in 2; if both are abnormal, the probability rises to 2 in 3. Computed tomography (CT) scan head is very useful in the evaluation of first seizure in infants less than six months of age. The clinical characteristics predictive of an abnormal CT scan for patients presenting with seizures were age less than 6 months or age greater than 65 years, history of cysticercosis, altered mentation, closed head injury, recent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt revision, malignancy, neurocutaneous disorder and seizures with focal onset or duration longer than 15 minutes. MRI has been shown to be superior to CT for the detection of cerebral lesions associated with epilepsy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jianqiu Kong ◽  
Junjiong Zheng ◽  
Jieying Wu ◽  
Shaoxu Wu ◽  
Jinhua Cai ◽  

Abstract Background Preoperative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) accurately impacts preoperative preparation and surgical outcome in PHEO patients. Highly reliable model to diagnose PHEO is lacking. We aimed to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomic-clinical model to distinguish PHEO from adrenal lesions. Methods In total, 305 patients with 309 adrenal lesions were included and divided into different sets. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was used for data dimension reduction, feature selection, and radiomics signature building. In addition, a nomogram incorporating the obtained radiomics signature and selected clinical predictors was developed by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the radiomic-clinical model was assessed with respect to its discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness. Results Seven radiomics features were selected among the 1301 features obtained as they could differentiate PHEOs from other adrenal lesions in the training (area under the curve [AUC], 0.887), internal validation (AUC, 0.880), and external validation cohorts (AUC, 0.807). Predictors contained in the individualized prediction nomogram included the radiomics signature and symptom number (symptoms include headache, palpitation, and diaphoresis). The training set yielded an AUC of 0.893 for the nomogram, which was confirmed in the internal and external validation sets with AUCs of 0.906 and 0.844, respectively. Decision curve analyses indicated the nomogram was clinically useful. In addition, 25 patients with 25 lesions were recruited for prospective validation, which yielded an AUC of 0.917 for the nomogram. Conclusion We propose a radiomic-based nomogram incorporating clinically useful signatures as an easy-to-use, predictive and individualized tool for PHEO diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuangshuang Li ◽  
Guanhua Xu ◽  
Junyu Liang ◽  
Liyan Wan ◽  
Heng Cao ◽  

Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis where urate crystals deposit in joints and surrounding tissues. With the high prevalence of gout, the standardized and effective treatment of gout is very important, but the long-term treatment effect of gout is not satisfied because of the poor adherence in patients to the medicines. Recently, advanced imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), attracted more and more attention for their role on gout as intuitive and non-invasive tools for early gout diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effect. This review summarized the role of US, DECT, and MRI in the management of gout from four perspectives: hyperuricemia, gout attacks, chronic gout, and gout complications described the scoring systems currently used to quantify disease severity and discussed the challenges and limitations of using these imaging tools to assess response to the gout treatment.

Kirollos Wagdy Bandry ◽  
Hisham Abou-Taleb ◽  
Gehan S. Seifeldein ◽  
Mohamad Gaber Taha ◽  
Omran Khodary Qenawy

Abstract Background Postmenstrual spotting has recently been related to a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous cesarean section called "CS scar niche". There was no consensus regarding the gold standard method for the assessment of the niche. Recently, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise in the evaluation of the niche. Our study aims to assess the role of MRI in the evaluation of the CS scar niche characters and its association with post-menstrual spotting. Results A total of 65 patients with CS niche were prospectively included in this study and subdivided into two groups, according to presence or absence of postmenstrual spotting (Group A; 34 patients with postmenstrual spotting and Group B; 31 patients without spotting). All patients were examined using a 1.5 T MRI unit. CS scar niche volume was significantly higher among women with post-menstrual spotting (0.57 ± 0.07 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 (cm3); P < 0.001). Also, women with post-menstrual spotting have significantly higher scar length (9.38 ± 3.06 vs. 5.02 ± 2.10 (mm); P < 0.001), scar depth (6.95 ± 3.16 vs. 3.23 ± 0.99 (mm); P < 0.001), scar width (15.78 ± 3.94 vs. 9.87 ± 1.84 (mm); P < 0.001) in comparison to those without post-menstrual spotting. Scar depth (> 7.4 mm) had 81% sensitivity and 97% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 88.7%. While scar width (> 12.8 mm) had 71% sensitivity and 97% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 83.3%. Scar volume (> 0.15 cm3) had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 98.4%. Conclusion MRI measures (CS scar volume, depth, and width) are predictors for postmenstrual spotting in patients with CS scar niche, and scar volume is the most powerful predictor.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 201
Christos Koutserimpas ◽  
Ifigeneia Chamakioti ◽  
Konstantinos Raptis ◽  
Kalliopi Alpantaki ◽  
Georgia Vrioni ◽  

Background: Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus spp. is a severe, but rare, clinical entity. However, clear guidelines regarding the most effective medical management have not yet been established. The present study is a literature review of all such cases, in an effort to elucidate epidemiology, as well as the therapeutic management and the infection’s outcome. Methods: A thorough review of all reports of osteomyelitis of the appendicular and the axial skeleton, without the skull and the spine, caused by Aspergillus spp. was undertaken. Data about demographics, imaging techniques facilitating diagnosis, causative Aspergillus, method of mold isolation, antifungal treatment (AFT), surgical treatment, as well as the infection’s outcome were recorded and evaluated. Results: A total of 63 cases of osseous infection due to Aspergillus spp. were identified. The studied population’s mean age was 37.9 years. The most commonly affected site was the rib cage (36.8%). Most hosts suffered immunosuppressive conditions (76.2%). Regarding imaging methods indicating diagnosis, computer tomography (CT) was performed in most cases (42.9%), followed by plain X-ray (41.3%) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (34.9%). The most frequent isolated mold was Aspergillus fumigatus (49.2%). Cultures and/or histopathology were used for definite diagnosis in all cases, while galactomannan antigen test was additionally used in seven cases (11.1%), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in four cases (6.3%), and beta-d-glucan testing in three cases (4.8%). Regarding AFT, the preferred antifungal was voriconazole (61.9%). Most patients underwent surgical debridement (63.5%). The outcome was successful in 77.5%. Discussion: Osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus spp. represents a severe infection. The available data suggest that prolonged AFT in combination with surgical debridement is the preferred management of this infection, while identification of the responsible mold is of paramount importance.

2022 ◽  
Aleksey V. Smirnov ◽  
Dmitriy S. Semenov ◽  
Ekaterina S. Ahkmad ◽  
Anna N. Khoruzhaya ◽  
Sergey Aleksandrovich Kruchinin

Diagnostic studies carried out using any medical equipment require comprehensive control, which is provided by a number of regulatory documents. Particular attention is paid to X-ray imaging methods, but in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), one can notice both the lack of this attention and the multidirectional efforts to normalize. This is understandable - this diagnostic method is not based on the use of ionizing radiation, and although magnetic fields have some effect on human health, especially on personnel who work in MRI rooms all the time, they are safe for patients who come to the diagnostic procedure from time to time. time and do not have in their body foreign metal (steel implants) or electronic (pacemakers, neurostimulators) objects. However, ignorance and non-compliance with both advisory and mandatory requirements can significantly increase the risk of harm to patients or staff, as well as lead to a decrease in the quality of imaging and diagnostics. A separate feature of the field of MRI regulation is that over the past decades, more than a dozen different standards, sanitary norms, rules, letters and recommendations have been published or revised, a significant part of which complement or duplicate each other, or completely contradict each other. As a result, the need to ensure compliance of the MRI room / department with the requirements of regulatory documents is greatly complicated. This paper provides an overview of the regulatory documentation in force in Russia related to the organization and functioning of an MRI room / department, highlights the aspects that are most important from the point of view of safe and high-quality operation, and formulates the steps necessary to modernize the system, both from the point of view of the quality of diagnostics. and the safety of MRI studies.

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