cell death pathways
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2022 ◽  
Vol 479 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-90
Christina Ploumi ◽  
Margarita-Elena Papandreou ◽  
Nektarios Tavernarakis

Autophagy is a universal cellular homeostatic process, required for the clearance of dysfunctional macromolecules or organelles. This self-digestion mechanism modulates cell survival, either directly by targeting cell death players, or indirectly by maintaining cellular balance and bioenergetics. Nevertheless, under acute or accumulated stress, autophagy can also contribute to promote different modes of cell death, either through highly regulated signalling events, or in a more uncontrolled inflammatory manner. Conversely, apoptotic or necroptotic factors have also been implicated in the regulation of autophagy, while specific factors regulate both processes. Here, we survey both earlier and recent findings, highlighting the intricate interaction of autophagic and cell death pathways. We, Furthermore, discuss paradigms, where this cross-talk is disrupted, in the context of disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Cliff J. Luke ◽  
Stephanie Markovina ◽  
Misty Good ◽  
Ira E. Wight ◽  
Brian J. Thomas ◽  

AbstractLysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release typifies lysosome-dependent cell death (LDCD). However, LMP occurs in most regulated cell death programs suggesting LDCD is not an independent cell death pathway, but is conscripted to facilitate the final cellular demise by other cell death routines. Previously, we demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) null for a cysteine protease inhibitor, srp-6, undergo a specific LDCD pathway characterized by LMP and cathepsin-dependent cytoplasmic proteolysis. We designated this cell death routine, lysoptosis, to distinguish it from other pathways employing LMP. In this study, mouse and human epithelial cells lacking srp-6 homologues, mSerpinb3a and SERPINB3, respectively, demonstrated a lysoptosis phenotype distinct from other cell death pathways. Like in C. elegans, this pathway depended on LMP and released cathepsins, predominantly cathepsin L. These studies suggested that lysoptosis is an evolutionarily-conserved eukaryotic LDCD that predominates in the absence of neutralizing endogenous inhibitors.

2022 ◽  
Mehri Monavarian ◽  
Kathleen O'Connell ◽  
Diego Altomare ◽  
Abigail K Shelton ◽  

Growth factors in the tumor environment are key regulators of cell survival and anoikis resistance during metastasis. Here we reveal significant dichotomy between TGF-β superfamily growth factors BMP and TGF-β/activin and their downstream SMAD effectors in regulation of anchorage-independent tumor cell survival in ovarian cancer. Gene expression profiling uncovered the transcription factor Sox2 as a key signaling node regulated in an opposing manner by anoikis-promoting BMP2 4 and 9 and anoikis-suppressing TGF-β and activin A. Mechanistically, repression of Sox2 by BMPs is mediated by type I receptors ALK2 and ALK3 induced SMAD1 activation, leading to SMAD1-dependent histone H3K27me3 recruitment and DNA methylation at SOX2s promoter. Conversely, TGF-β and activin A promote Sox2 expression directly by ALK5-mediated SMAD3 activation and histone H3K4me3 recruitment. Increased Sox2 expression promotes anoikis resistance, while decreasing Sox2 levels conversely reduces anoikis resistance and activates cell death pathways. Additionally, administrating BMP9 as a strategy to reduce Sox2 robustly inhibits intraperitoneal tumor burden and increases survival in multiple ovarian cancer xenograft models. Importantly, BMP-driven SMAD1 signaling can override the effects of TGF-β and activin on Sox2 regulation, which has potential clinical significance as we find high TGF-β levels in patient ascites. Our findings highlight the contrasting regulation of anoikis by distinct SMAD signaling pathways that are dependent on a novel dichotomous regulation of Sox2 and implicate the use of a subset of BMPs as a therapeutic strategy in cancer

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Qing Nie ◽  
Yue Hu ◽  
Xiao Yu ◽  
Xiao Li ◽  
Xuedong Fang

AbstractAt present, more than one cell death pathways have been found, one of which is ferroptosis. Ferroptosis was discovered in 2012 and described as an iron-dependent and lipid peroxidation-driven regulated cell death pathway. In the past few years, ferroptosis has been shown to induce tumor cell death, providing new ideas for tumor treatment. In this article, we summarize the latest advances in ferroptosis-induced tumor therapy at the intersection of tumor biology, molecular biology, redox biology, and materials chemistry. First, we state the characteristics of ferroptosis in cells, then introduce the key molecular mechanism of ferroptosis, and describes the relationship between ferroptosis and oxidative stress signaling pathways. Finally, we focused on several types of ferroptosis inducers discovered by scholars, and the application of ferroptosis in systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and nanomedicine, in the hope that ferroptosis can exert its potential in the treatment of tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Yituo Chen ◽  
Haojie Zhang ◽  
Xinli Hu ◽  
Wanta Cai ◽  
Wenfei Ni ◽  

Central nervous system (CNS) injury is divided into brain injury and spinal cord injury and remains the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Previous reviews have defined numerous inflammatory cells involved in this process. In the human body, neutrophils comprise the largest numbers of myeloid leukocytes. Activated neutrophils release extracellular web-like DNA amended with antimicrobial proteins called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The formation of NETs was demonstrated as a new method of cell death called NETosis. As the first line of defence against injury, neutrophils mediate a variety of adverse reactions in the early stage, and we consider that NETs may be the prominent mediators of CNS injury. Therefore, exploring the specific role of NETs in CNS injury may help us shed some light on early changes in the disease. Simultaneously, we discovered that there is a link between NETosis and other cell death pathways by browsing other research, which is helpful for us to establish crossroads between known cell death pathways. Currently, there is a large amount of research concerning NETosis in various diseases, but the role of NETosis in CNS injury remains unknown. Therefore, this review will introduce the role of NETosis in CNS injury, including traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischaemia, CNS infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and spinal cord injury, by describing the mechanism of NETosis, the evidence of NETosis in CNS injury, and the link between NETosis and other cell death pathways. Furthermore, we also discuss some agents that inhibit NETosis as therapies to alleviate the severity of CNS injury. NETosis may be a potential target for the treatment of CNS injury, so exploring NETosis provides a feasible therapeutic option for CNS injury in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mary Zhao ◽  
Siqi Li ◽  
Joanne A. Matsubara

Pyroptosis is a gasdermin-mediated, pro-inflammatory form of cell death distinct from apoptosis. In recent years, increasing attention has shifted toward pyroptosis as more studies demonstrate its involvement in diverse inflammatory disease states, including retinal diseases. This review discusses how currently known pyroptotic cell death pathways have been implicated in models of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. We also identify potential future therapeutic strategies for these retinopathies that target drivers of pyroptotic cell death. Presently, the drivers of pyroptosis that have been studied the most in retinal cells are the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, caspase-1, and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Targeting these proteins may help us develop new drug therapies, or supplement existing therapies, in the treatment of retinal diseases. As novel mechanisms of pyroptosis come to light, including those involving other inflammatory caspases and members of the gasdermin protein family, more targets for pyroptosis-mediated therapies in retinal disease can be explored.

2022 ◽  
Vol 102 (1) ◽  
pp. 411-454
Bart Tummers ◽  
Douglas R. Green

The coevolution of host-pathogen interactions underlies many human physiological traits associated with protection from or susceptibility to infections. Among the mechanisms that animals utilize to control infections are the regulated cell death pathways of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. Over the course of evolution these pathways have become intricate and complex, coevolving with microbes that infect animal hosts. Microbes, in turn, have evolved strategies to interfere with the pathways of regulated cell death to avoid eradication by the host. Here, we present an overview of the mechanisms of regulated cell death in Animalia and the strategies devised by pathogens to interfere with these processes. We review the molecular pathways of regulated cell death, their roles in infection, and how they are perturbed by viruses and bacteria, providing insights into the coevolution of host-pathogen interactions and cell death pathways.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 316
Guillermo A. Videla-Richardson ◽  
Olivia Morris-Hanon ◽  
Nicolás I. Torres ◽  
Myrian I. Esquivel ◽  
Mariana B. Vera ◽  

Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive brain tumor in the adult population, urging identification of new rational therapeutic targets. Galectins, a family of glycan-binding proteins, are highly expressed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and delineate prognosis and clinical outcome in patients with GBM. These endogenous lectins play key roles in different hallmarks of cancer by modulating tumor cell proliferation, oncogenic signaling, migration, vascularization and immunity. Additionally, they have emerged as mediators of resistance to different anticancer treatments, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and antiangiogenic therapy. Particularly in GBM, galectins control tumor cell transformation and proliferation, reprogram tumor cell migration and invasion, promote vascularization, modulate cell death pathways, and shape the tumor-immune landscape by targeting myeloid, natural killer (NK), and CD8+ T cell compartments. Here, we discuss the role of galectins, particularly galectin-1, -3, -8, and -9, as emerging glyco-checkpoints that control different mechanisms associated with GBM progression, and discuss possible therapeutic opportunities based on inhibition of galectin-driven circuits, either alone or in combination with other treatment modalities.

2021 ◽  
Daisuke Oikawa ◽  
Min Gi ◽  
Hidetaka Kosako ◽  
Kouhei Shimizu ◽  
Hirotaka Takahashi ◽  

Deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) regulate numerous cellular functions by removing ubiquitin modifications. We examined the effects of 88 human DUBs on linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC)-induced NF-κB activation, and identified OTUD1 as a potent suppressor. OTUD1 regulates the canonical NF-κB pathway by hydrolysing K63-linked ubiquitin chains from NF-κB signalling factors, including LUBAC. OTUD1 negatively regulates the canonical NF-κB activation, apoptosis, and necroptosis, whereas OTUD1 upregulates the interferon (IFN) antiviral pathway. The N-terminal intrinsically disordered region of OTUD1, which contains an EGTE motif, is indispensable for KEAP1-binding and NF-κB suppression. OTUD1 is involved in the KEAP1-mediated antioxidant response and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cell death, oxeiptosis. In Otud1-/--mice, inflammation, oxidative damage, and cell death were enhanced in inflammatory bowel disease, acute hepatitis, and sepsis models. Thus, OTUD1 is a crucial regulator for the inflammatory, innate immune, and oxidative stress responses and ROS-associated cell death pathways.

2021 ◽  
Fiona Carty ◽  
Scott Layzell ◽  
Alessandro Barbarulo ◽  
Louise Webb ◽  
Benedict Seddon

The Inhibitor of Kappa B Kinase (IKK) complex is a critical regulator of NF-κB activation. In addition, IKK has recently been shown to repress RIPK1 dependent extrinsic cell death pathways by directly phosphorylating RIPK1. Our previous work shows that normal thymopoiesis relies on IKK exclusively for repression of TNF triggered cell death pathways, and that NF-κB activation by IKK is redundant for development. The role of these pathways in mature naive T cells has not previously been reported. Here, we show that, like thymocytes, naive peripheral T cells require continued IKK1/2 expression for survival. In contrast, however, cell loss is only partially prevented by blocking extrinsic cell death pathways by either deleting Casp8 or inhibiting RIPK1 kinase activity. Inducible deletion of Rela in mature CD4+ T cells also results in a significant loss of naive CD4+ T cells and loss of IL7R expression, revealing an additional reliance upon NF-κB for long term survival of mature T cells. Together, these data show that IKK dependent survival of naive T cells depends upon both repression of extrinsic cell death pathways and activation of NF-κB survival programme.

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