English Learners
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. p1
Steve Daniel Przymus ◽  
Zachary Brooks

Do adult learners of English make different and sometimes better decisions in English than their monolingual peers and teachers? It is likely, possible, and probable. Using evidence from classroom decision making studies, with over 500 participants, we demonstrate that often adult English learners (henceforth adult Active Bilingual Learners/Users of English [ABLE]) make more accurate decisions in English than first language English speakers, when given time and the ability to utilize their whole linguistic repertoire (i.e., translanguaging). We specifically look at differences in decisions that involve 1) common adverbs of frequency (rare, possible, likely, frequently, etc.) and 2) system 1 (implicit) vs. system 2 (analytical) thinking in cognitive reflection tests, such as math story problems. Understanding these surprising differences and advantages in decision making in English as an Additional Language (EAL) has important practical implications for test preparation and daily instruction for adult ABLE students, and potentially as well for ABLE youth in K-12 schools.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Eri Nakagawa ◽  
Takahiko Koike ◽  
Motofumi Sumiya ◽  
Koji Shimada ◽  
Kai Makita ◽  

Japanese English learners have difficulty speaking Double Object (DO; give B A) than Prepositional Object (PO; give A to B) structures which neural underpinning is unknown. In speaking, syntactic and phonological processing follow semantic encoding, conversion of non-verbal mental representation into a structure suitable for expression. To test whether DO difficulty lies in linguistic or prelinguistic process, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty participants described cartoons using DO or PO, or simply named them. Greater reaction times and error rates indicated DO difficulty. DO compared with PO showed parieto-frontal activation including left inferior frontal gyrus, reflecting linguistic process. Psychological priming in PO produced immediately after DO and vice versa compared to after control, indicated shared process between PO and DO. Cross-structural neural repetition suppression was observed in occipito-parietal regions, overlapping the linguistic system in pre-SMA. Thus DO and PO share prelinguistic process, whereas linguistic process imposes overload in DO.

2022 ◽  
Abdullah Nijr Al-Otaibi

The field of L2 phonology did not receive much research compared to the other linguistic domains. To add to the field and expand the current literature, the present paper’s goal was to examine the impact of syllable structure differences between Arabic and English in uttering L2 English consonant clusters. The following research question was aimed to be answered: Do the differences between two languages’ syllable structure cause production difficulties in the consonant cluster to Saudi Arabian learners of English? The subjects of this investigation were L2 English learners from Saudi with intermediate proficiency levels in English. Applying the descriptive correlational type of research model, the results showed that learners’ production is mainly influenced by their native language-specific phonological features. The learners’ production of targeted L2 consonant clusters seemed to mirror their underlying phonological system, and syllables structures were modified to match their native Arabic phonological system as a result of language transfer. These findings should be taken into account by L2 speech educators as such speech difficulty is anticipated.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136216882110660
Li Xiang ◽  
Hyunjeong Nam

The study aimed to explore the evidence of first language (L1) mediation in second language (L2) word associations and the L2 learner-related factors affecting the extent of L1 mediation with the following approaches. First, different from previous research, word association tests (WATs) embraced both receptive and productive word associations in the study. Second, different from word-related variables such as cognates vs. non-cognates in previous research, the study examined learner-related factors. Third, it examined whether the methodological difference (receptive vs. productive test formats) may affect the extent of L1 mediation in L2 access. A total of 108 Chinese English learners varying in proficiency, learning experiences, input and motivation participated in WATs using 24 stimulus words. The results suggested, (1) from the findings of descriptive statistics and ANOVAs, the evidence of L1 mediation was found in all three L2 proficiency groups with different extent of higher L1 mediation in lower proficiency groups. (2) From the findings of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, significant correlations were found with L1-promoting learning environments, L2 input, integrative motivation and the learners’ awareness of L1 activation. (3) The findings of the paired-samples t-tests confirmed a significant difference between the two test formats. Based on the findings, the study suggested the promotion of L2-rich learning environments, integrative motivation, and receptive and productive word associations in the L2 network.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 36-52
Trish Lopez ◽  
Janet Penner-Williams ◽  
Rebecca Carpenter de Cortina

Teacher professional development and education programs are enhancing job-embedded experiences to address the disparity between theory and implementation. Simultaneously, higher education is now offering online courses to attract geographically distant educators, especially in high-needs fields such as teaching English Learners and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse students. There is a need to investigate what online teacher professional development and education programs can do to promote teachers’ application of what they learn. This pilot study utilized the Inventory of Situationally and Culturally Responsive Teaching (ISCRT) to investigate 23 in-service teachers’ culturally responsive teaching (CRT) practices before and after receiving online coursework and coaching. When compared to the control group, treatment teachers’ scores on four of the five ISCRT standards—Joint Productive Activity, Language and Literacy Development, Challenging Activities, and Instructional Conversations—as well as the composite were statistically significant. Findings suggest online CRT coursework with complementary instructional coaching supports teachers’ implementation of new knowledge and pedagogy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 166-179
Dac Phat Dinh

Exploring the shift in meanings of translating prepositions from English to Vietnamese, the study, besides analyzing the cases of the changes in meanings of prepositions, aims to discuss a general variety of meanings of English prepositions. The methods of analysis and synthesis of theories from the available data on prepositions as well as the methods of classifying and systematizing prepositions were applied to English-Vietnamese translation. From the collected data, this study has revealed 6 cases of the shift in meanings of prepositions and the characteristics of multiple meanings of prepositions. In the course of translation, contextual meanings are used in order to convey the meanings appropriately in the Vietnamese style. The research paper can make some contribution to the teaching of translation and make it a reference material for English learners.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Taiping Deng ◽  
Dongping Deng ◽  
Qing Feng

This study explored the syntactic transfer effect of the non-local subject-verb agreement structure with plural head noun after two intensive phases of input training with event-related potentials (ERP). The non-local subject-verb agreement stimuli with the plural head nouns, which never appeared in training phases, were used for the stimuli. A total of 26 late L1-Chinese L2-English learners, who began to learn English after a critical period and participated in our previous experiments, were asked back to take part in this syntactic transfer experiment. Results indicated that a significant ERP component P600 occurred in the key region (the verb) of the sentences with syntactic violations in the experimental group, but none occurred in the control group. This demonstrated that there was a significant transfer effect of the input training. The possible theoretical explanation was provided and also the malleability of the late L2 learners was discussed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 135-149
Eugenia Mora-Flores

This chapter presents a need to understand the diversity of the English learner population. Within this large multi-lingual group of students, there is a richness of diversity in languages, skills, histories, abilities, and experiences. Teaching for differences begins by learning about the students in the classroom. English learners collectively share language needs, but as individuals require attention to their own personal assets and abilities and ongoing learning needs. This chapter presents suggestions for teaching English learners through the lens of differentiation and extends to individualization and personalization. Strategies for supporting the unique needs within and across the multi-lingual learning population are presented. A focus on maximizing thinking shows a strong correlation to language development. Therefore, this chapter presents instruction for English learners as rigorous and challenging to promote thinking and language development.

2022 ◽  
pp. 137-156
Robin L. Rhodes

English academic discourse in U.S. institutions rests on Eurocentric rhetoric where hidden assumptions and expectations may place transnational students at a disadvantage in instruction, assessment, and entrance into communities of practice. The author's empirical research draws on transnational students, faculty, and staff perceptions into linguistically sustaining pedagogy to bring awareness to transnational lived experience and to make recommendations for equitable instruction and assessment. Bakhtin's dialogism and negotiation and the Academic Literacies model provide theoretical frameworks to provide practical recommendations while also examining the negative discourse and deficit-based practices surrounding English learners in American higher education. A discussion of a course redesign highlights possibilities for valuing the transnational student and offering equitable pedagogy while also increasing student investment in language learning.

2022 ◽  
pp. 207-223
Kimy Liu ◽  
Debra Bukko

Preservice teachers are developing their professional identity while honing their teaching skills. Without transformative learning experience, preservice teachers will teach students the ways they were taught. They can have exclusive and deficit mindsets about students with disabilities (SWDs), many of whom are also English learners. Exclusive and deficit mindsets can lead to two teaching approaches: One is to treat SWDs as inferior to their typical peers. The other is to insist on standardized instruction for the sake of equality. In this chapter, the authors, as the teacher preparation faculty, confronted this challenge by engineering a transformative learning experience to liberate preservice teachers from the deficit mindsets about teaching students with disabilities.

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