Universal Method
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Chemosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Marta Domżalska ◽  
Aleksandra M. Dąbrowska ◽  
Dawid Chojnowski ◽  
Mariusz Makowski ◽  
Agnieszka Chylewska

Treatment with pyrazine derivatives—antituberculosis pyrazinamide (PZA), anticancer bortezomib (BZM), and antifungal pyrazine-2-amidoxime (PAOX) and pyrazine-2-thiocarboxamide (PTCA)—is associated with side effects, as observed in the case of other therapeutic drugs. To prevent the side effects of pyrazine derivatives, researchers are working to develop a universal method that will detect these compounds in body fluids. There is a lack of literature data about voltammetric measurements with poly-L-amino acid-modified GCEs surfaces. The available reports describe the application of various modifications of these electrodes for the detection of different active substances of drugs; however, they do not indicate one particular method for the detection of drugs with a pyrazine skeleton. This research aimed to prepare three types of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) with modified surfaces by electropolymerization using 1, 10, and 100 mM solutions of L-glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-lysine (Lys), respectively. The poly-amino acid coatings applied on GCE surfaces were analyzed in detail under a three-dimensional (3D) microscope and were used as chemosensors of four pyrazine drugs in stoichiometric tests. The results were compared with the measurements made on an unmodified GCE. To obtain reliable results, the linearity of measurements was also verified in the concentration gradient and appropriate scanning speed was chosen to achieve the most accurate measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Jinjian Zheng ◽  
Christine L. Kirkpatrick ◽  
Daniel Lee ◽  
Xinxin Han ◽  
Ana I. Martinez ◽  

AbstractThe recent detection of potent carcinogenic nitrosamine impurities in several human medicines has triggered product recalls and interrupted the supply of critical medications for hundreds of millions of patients, illuminating the need for increased testing of nitrosamines in pharmaceutical products. However, the development of analytical methods for nitrosamine detection is challenging due to high sensitivity requirements, complex matrices, and the large number and variety of samples requiring testing. Herein, we report an analytical method for the analysis of a common nitrosamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), in pharmaceutical products using full evaporation static headspace gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection (FE-SHSGC-NPD). This method is sensitive, specific, accurate, and precise and has the potential to serve as a universal method for testing all semi-volatile nitrosamines across different drug products. Through elimination of the detrimental headspace-liquid partition, a quantitation limit of 0.25 ppb is achieved for NDMA, a significant improvement upon traditional LC-MS methods. The extraction of nitrosamines directly from solid sample not only simplifies the sample preparation procedure but also enables the method to be used for different products as is or with minor modifications, as demonstrated by the analysis of NDMA in 10+ pharmaceutical products. The in situ nitrosation that is commonly observed in GC methods for nitrosamine analysis was completely inhibited by the addition of a small volume solvent containing pyrogallol, phosphoric acid, and isopropanol. Employing simple procedures and low-cost instrumentation, this method can be implemented in any analytical laboratory for routine nitrosamine analysis, ensuring patient safety and uninterrupted supply of critical medications.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 225
Pei-Ju Chen ◽  
Hsien-Yeh Chen ◽  
Wei-Bor Tsai

A facial, versatile, and universal method that breaks the substrate limits is desirable for antifouling treatment. Thin films of functional poly-p-xylylenes (PPX) that are deposited using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) provide a powerful platform for surface immobilization of molecules. In this study, we prepared an alkyne-functionalized PPX coating on which poly (sulfobetaine methacrylate-co-Az) could be conjugated via click chemistry. We found that the conjugated polymers were very stable and inhibited cell adhesion and protein adsorption effectively. The same conjugation strategy could also be applied to conjugate azide-containing poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (NIPAAm). The results indicate that our method provides a simple and robust tool for fabricating antifouling surfaces on a wide range of substrates using CVD technology of functionalized poly (p-xylylenes) for biosensor, diagnostics, immunoassay, and other biomaterial applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 761-776
Ihor Prykhodko ◽  
Stanislav Horielyshev ◽  
Yanina Matsehora ◽  
Vasiliy Lefterov ◽  
Stanislav Larionov ◽  

The article presents a universal method for determining the professional suitability (PS) of a candidate and an algorithm for forming a psychological profile for a specific profession based on determining the psychological potential of personality. The developed method is based on the use of automated support systems. Based on the obtained value of the integral indicator, a decision is made on the PS group of this candidate. This method adapts to the requirements of the profession to candidates, taking into account changes in the conditions of activity by adjusting the typical psychological profile of the personality. The developed method for determining a candidate’s PS has been brought to practical implementation in the form of an Automated Psychodiagnostic Complex (APDC) “Psychodiagnostics.” APDC has been tested on the example of the psychological selection procedures of personnel for military service in units with law enforcement functions. APDС allows to reduce the time and labor costs for conducting psychodiagnostic studies, increases the reliability of tests due to a higher degree of standardization of the testing procedure, increases the accuracy of assessing psychological characteristics, and reduces the likelihood of errors in the processing of test results. APDС can be used for recruiting in various sectors of the economy, education, and military sphere.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 03005
Ekaterina Balakina ◽  
Alexander Konshin ◽  
Mikhail Kochetov

The impact of a wheeled agricultural vehicle on the deformable support surface determines the vehicle's ability to move, as well as soil compaction, which is not desirable in agriculture. The agricultural machine must not cause more pressure on the ground than is permissible. Therefore, in the tasks of design numerical modelling of the agricultural vehicle movement or trailer, it is required to calculate the specified parameter. It is impossible to calculate without knowledge of the geometric characteristics of the contact spot associated with the normal deformation of the tire under normal load. To calculate these characteristics, it is necessary to have universal dependencies for determining the normal stiffness of the tire. These are available for tires of various purposes. The elastic properties of ultra-low pressure tires are insufficiently studied. Experimental studies of the elastic properties of these tires have been carried out with the authors participation. However, there are currently no dependencies to describe them. This does not provide the possibility of a correct design calculation of the influence of such tires on the soil. The purpose of the work: to develop a universal method for calculating the influence on the soil of agricultural vehicle. A universal method for calculating the impact of a wheeled agricultural machine on the ground has been developed. Universal design-experimental dependence for determining the normal stiffness of ultra-low pressure tires is obtained. It takes into account tire pressure, normal load under specific conditions and geometric characteristics.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 231
Xiaolu Yu ◽  
Hongju He ◽  
Xuezhi Zhao ◽  
Guangmin Liu ◽  
Liping Hu ◽  

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important precursor compounds with anticancer activities in Brassicaceae vegetables and are readily hydrolyzed by myrosinase. Given the diversity of these species, establishing an accurate and universal method to quantify intact GSLs in different plant tissues is necessary. Here, we compared and optimized three tissue disruption methods for sample preparation. After microwave treatment for 90 s, 13 GSLs in homogenized Chinese cabbage samples were recovered at 73–124%. However, a limitation of this method was that different tissues could not be processed under the same microwave conditions. Regarding universality, GSLs in Brassicaceae vegetables could be extracted from freeze-dried sample powder with 70% methanol (v/v) or frozen-fresh sample powder with 80% methanol (v/v). Moreover, heating extraction is necessary for GSLs extracted from frozen-fresh sample powder. Average recoveries of the two optimized methods were 74–119% with relative standard deviations ≤15%, with the limits of quantification 5.72–17.40 nmol/g dry weight and 0.80–1.43 nmol/g fresh weight, respectively. Notably, the method for analyzing intact GSLs was more efficient than that for desulfo-GSLs regarding operational complexity, detection speed and quantification accuracy. The developed method was applied to identify the characteristic GSLs in 15 Brassicaceae vegetables, providing a foundation for further research on GSLs.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Javier Esteban-Escaño ◽  
Berta Castán ◽  
Sergio Castán ◽  
Marta Chóliz-Ezquerro ◽  
César Asensio ◽  

Background: Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is the universal method for the surveillance of fetal well-being in intrapartum. Our objective was to predict acidemia from fetal heart signal features using machine learning algorithms. Methods: A case–control 1:2 study was carried out compromising 378 infants, born in the Miguel Servet University Hospital, Spain. Neonatal acidemia was defined as pH < 7.10. Using EFM recording logistic regression, random forest and neural networks models were built to predict acidemia. Validation of models was performed by means of discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility. Results: Best performance was attained using a random forest model built with 100 trees. The discrimination ability was good, with an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.865. The calibration showed a slight overestimation of acidemia occurrence for probabilities above 0.4. The clinical utility showed that for 33% cutoff point, missing 5% of acidotic cases, 46% of unnecessary cesarean sections could be prevented. Logistic regression and neural networks showed similar discrimination ability but with worse calibration and clinical utility. Conclusions: The combination of the variables extracted from EFM recording provided a predictive model of acidemia that showed good accuracy and provides a practical tool to prevent unnecessary cesarean sections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1464
Shuang Li ◽  
Peng Hao ◽  
Chengcheng Yu ◽  
Gengkun Wu

Significant wave height (SWH) prediction plays an important role in marine engineering areas such as fishery, exploration, power generation, and ocean transportation. For long-term forecasting of a specific location, classical numerical model wave height forecasting methods often require detailed climatic data and incur considerable calculation costs, which are often impractical in emergencies. In addition, how to capture and use the dynamic correlation between multiple variables is also a major research challenge for multivariate SWH prediction. To explore a new method for predicting SWH, this paper proposes a deep neural network model for multivariate time series SWH prediction—namely, CLTS-Net. In this study, the sea surface wind and wave height in the ERA5 dataset of the relevant points P1, P2, and P3 from 2011 to 2018 were used as input information to train the model and evaluate the model’s SWH prediction performance. The results show that the correlation coefficients (R) of CLTS-Net are 0.99 and 0.99, respectively, in the 24 h and 48 h SWH forecasts at point P1 along the coast. Compared with the current mainstream artificial intelligence-based SWH solutions, it is much higher than ANN (0.79, 0.70), RNN (0.82, 0.83), LSTM (0.93, 0.91), and Bi-LSTM (0.95, 0.94). Point P3 is located in the deep sea. In the 24 h and 48 h SWH forecasts, the R of CLTS-Net is 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, which are much higher than ANN (0.71, 0.72), RNN (0.85, 0.78), LSTM (0.85, 0.78), and Bi-LSTM (0.93, 0.93). Especially in the 72 h SWH forecast, when other methods have too large errors and have lost their practical application value, the R of CLTS-Net at P1, P2, and P3 can still reach 0.81, 0.71, and 0.98. The results also show that CLTS-Net can capture the short-term and long-term dependencies of data, so as to accurately predict long-term SWH, and has wide applicability in different sea areas.

Inna Kostyria ◽  
Maryna Shevchenko

The purpose of the research is to identify the features of intercultural dialogue in the context of global communication and information revolution, to reveal changes in the principle of intercultural dialogue in the new environment and to show the impact of culture on modern international relations. Research methodology. Analytical research methods based on methods of analysis and synthesis were used by the authors to reveal the essence of dialogue and its disclosure as a universal method of research not only personality but also culture when the cultural basis turns dialogue into the need of everyday life. Scientific novelty. Peculiarities of dialogue as a basis of intercultural interaction in modern conditions are revealed. The concepts of dialogue and discussion, as well as intrapersonal dialogue within each social subject, in the consciousness of each person, where there are two different positions of consciousness, are revealed and analyzed. Conclusions. The study analyzes new approaches to the principle of intercultural dialogue for intercultural interaction. It is shown that modern culture enters into dialogue only as a whole, characterized by the unity of meanings, their perfection and certainty. The circumstances under which culture in times of crisis seeks its paradigm in a new way are analyzed. It is emphasized that each culture enters into a dialogue in its own unique manner. It is proved that culture cannot exist without the eternal search for the Other, comparison and collation with it. The need for intercultural communication for the effective development of modern international relations based on mutual respect and tolerance is studied.

IoT ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 761-785
Kosuke Ito ◽  
Shuji Morisaki ◽  
Atsuhiro Goto

This study proposes a security-quality-metrics method tailored for the Internet of things (IoT) and evaluates conformity of the proposed approach with pertinent cybersecurity regulations and guidelines for IoT. Cybersecurity incidents involving IoT devices have recently come to light; consequently, IoT security correspondence has become a necessity. The ISO 25000 series is used for software; however, the concept of security as a quality factor has not been applied to IoT devices. Because software vulnerabilities were not the device vendors’ responsibility as product liability, most vendors did not consider the security capability of IoT devices as part of their quality control. Furthermore, an appropriate IoT security-quality metric for vendors does not exist; instead, vendors have to set their security standards, which lack consistency and are difficult to justify by themselves. To address this problem, the authors propose a universal method for specifying IoT security-quality metrics on a globally accepted scale, inspired by the goal/question/metric (GQM) method. The method enables vendors to verify their products to conform to the requirements of existing baselines and certification programs and to help vendors to tailor their quality requirements to meet the given security requirements. The IoT users would also be able to use these metrics to verify the security quality of IoT devices.

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