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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 883
Author(s):  
Annalisa Chianese ◽  
Carla Zannella ◽  
Alessandra Monti ◽  
Anna De Filippis ◽  
Nunzianna Doti ◽  
...  

Viral infections represent a serious threat to the world population and are becoming more frequent. The search and identification of broad-spectrum antiviral molecules is necessary to ensure new therapeutic options, since there is a limited availability of effective antiviral drugs able to eradicate viral infections, and consequently due to the increase of strains that are resistant to the most used drugs. Recently, several studies on antimicrobial peptides identified them as promising antiviral agents. In detail, amphibian skin secretions serve as a rich source of natural antimicrobial peptides. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities have been widely reported, but their exploitation as potential antiviral agents have yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, the antiviral activity of the peptide derived from the secretion of Rana tagoi, named AR-23, was evaluated against both DNA and RNA viruses, with or without envelope. Different assays were performed to identify in which step of the infectious cycle the peptide could act. AR-23 exhibited a greater inhibitory activity in the early stages of infection against both DNA (HSV-1) and RNA (MeV, HPIV-2, HCoV-229E, and SARS-CoV-2) enveloped viruses and, on the contrary, it was inactive against naked viruses (PV-1). Altogether, the results indicated AR-23 as a peptide with potential therapeutic effects against a wide variety of human viruses.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kuruvalli Gouthami ◽  
Vadamalai Veeraraghavan ◽  
Prashantha Nagaraja

Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the third most diagnosed disease in the world population and current chemotherapy has been used for targeting the cell proliferation and metastasizing ability of tumor cells. Potent chemotherapeutic drugs for colorectal cancer are capecitabine, fluorouracil, irinotecan, etc. which have toxic effects in normal tissues and adverse effects in multiple organs leading to major obstacles in clinical use. The aim of the study is the use of plant-derived compounds that improve the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics with lower and alleviate toxic side effects and reduce the risk of tumor progression. Results The current study is performed using Vitex negundo leaf which has been demonstrated to have positive effects against colorectal cancer. The use of computational approaches will help improve the identification and screening of lead molecules using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina. Using computational approaches will help to improve lead identification and screening. Herein, we have retrieved six phytochemicals from published literature and investigated their inhibitory effect with Wnt-associated signaling proteins. Authentication of phytocompounds and Wnt-associated signaling proteins was done using AutoDock.4.2. Conclusions The results are screened based on the number of hydrogen bonds, binding energy, and interacting amino acids. The Isoorientin, luteolin, and Chrysophanol get the highest binding energy with target receptors. The binding energy is calculated with all target receptors from the range of − 6.0 to − 8.9 kcal/mol. The In-silico drug likeliness properties are predicted to be the best interacting compounds based on Lipinski Rule of 5 and ADMET analysis. Hence, we propose that Isoorientin, luteolin, and Chrysophanol are the potential inhibitors of Wnt signaling inhibitors, and preclinical studies are needed to confirm the promising therapeutic ability of colorectal cancer.


Author(s):  
Augusto F. Uberti ◽  
Natália Callai-Silva ◽  
Matheus V. C. Grahl ◽  
Angela R. Piovesan ◽  
Eduarda G. Nachtigall ◽  
...  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes dementia and memory loss in the elderly. Deposits of beta-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are present in AD’s brain. A filtrate of Helicobacter pylori’s culture was previously found to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau in vivo, suggesting that bacterial exotoxins could permeate the blood brain barrier and directly induce tau’s phosphorylation. H. pylori, which infects ~60% of the world population and causes gastritis and gastric cancer, produces a pro-inflammatory urease (HPU). Here the neurotoxic potential of HPU was investigated in cultured cells and in rats. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed HPU (50-300 nM) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and had an increased [Ca2+]i. HPU-treated BV-2 microglial cells produced ROS, cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, expressed Iba1 and showed reduced viability, consistent with a neurotoxic effect of HPU. Rats received daily i.p. HPU (5 µg) for 7 days. Hyperphosphorylation of tau at Thr205, Ser199 and Ser396 sites was seen in hippocampal homogenates of treated rats, with no alterations in total tau or GSK-3b levels. HPU was not detected in the brain homogenates. Behavioral tests were performed to assess cognitive impairments. Our findings support previous data suggesting an association between infection by H. pylori and tauopathies such as AD, possibly mediated by its urease.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
YUANWEI FAN ◽  
Fantao Zhang ◽  
Jiankun Xie

Rice is one of the most important crops in the world and half of the world population consumes it as their staple food. The abiotic stresses caused by drought, salt and other stresses have severely impacted rice production. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of small non-coding RNAs which widely reported as gene regulators, suppressing genes expression by degradation mRNA or translation inhibition. Previously, high-throughput sequencing has found a conserved miRNA miR5505 responding to drought stress in Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR). Several other studies also revealed that miR5505 was involved in rice stress responses. We further studied the effect of miRNA in drought and salt tolerance by overexpression it in rice. 2 in 18 successfully transformed transgenic lines with higher miR5505 expression were selected and then drought and salt resistance ability were evaluated. Both transgenic lines showed stronger drought and salt tolerance than wild-type (WT). Putative targets of miR5505 were identified by psRNATarget and several of them were found stress-related. RNA-seq found 1,980 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in transgenic lines. Among them, 978 genes were down-regulated. Three genes were predicted by psRNATarget and two of them might be stress-related. We also found various environmental stress cis-acting elements in upstream of miR5505 promoter through Software PlantCARE. In all, we improved rice drought and salt tolerance by overexpressing miR5505, and the generated putative targets and cis-acting elements also suggested miR5505 might play important roles in the regulation of drought and salt responses. Keywords: rice, overexpression line , drought and salt stress, miR5505


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tianxiang Liu ◽  
Yulin Sun ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Wenhui Jiang ◽  
Hongqi Wu ◽  
...  

Abstract Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important source of nutrients for humans. Therefore, improvement of its yields is essential to feed the increasing world population. The tri-pistil (TRP) trait in wheat has a high potential for increasing yields. We obtained a pure tri-pistil wheat line, 4045, and evaluated its morphological properties. The 4045 wheat line stably produced three independently inherited pistils, which led to 1-3 grains in each floret. Among the three pistils, two lately emerged pistils initiated at late anther primordia stage to early tetrads stage. Genetic analysis revealed that there were TRP penetrance variations among the 11 F1 populations of 4045. Fine mapping narrowed the single dominant TRP locus to a 97.3 kb region, containing two candidate genes, on the 2DL chromosome. However, further gene sequence, functional as well as comparative genomic analyses ruled out the only two candidate genes. Therefore, TRP is high-likely a unique gain-of-function mutation that does not exist in normal wheat genome. Transcriptome analysis of floral homeotic genes revealed that expressions of the C-class TaAG-2s, which are essential for carpel specification, significantly increased in 4045, implying that TaAG-2s have played important roles in TRP-regulated tri-pistil formation. This study highlights that TRP leads to a precisely regulated pistil number increase (PRPNI) mutations and proposed a regulatory model of PRPNI pistil architecture. PRPNI offers a novel abnormal pistil development resource for research of floral architectures and potential on crop yield improvement.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jonas Dittrich ◽  
Christin Brethauer ◽  
Liudmyla Goncharenko ◽  
Jens Bührmann ◽  
Viktoria Zeisler-Diehl ◽  
...  

In times of a constantly growing world population and increasing demand for food, sustainable agriculture is crucial. To reduce the amount of applied nutrients, herbicides, and fungicides, the rainfastness of plant protection agents is of pivotal importance. As a result of protective agent wash-off, plant protection is lost, and soils and groundwater are severely polluted. To date, rainfastness of plant protection products is achieved by adding polymeric adjuvants to the agrochemicals. However, polymeric adjuvants will be regarded as microplastics in the future, and environmentally friendly alternatives are needed. Anchor peptides (APs) are promising biobased and biodegradable adhesion promoters. While the adhesion of anchor peptides to artificial surfaces, such as polymers, has already been investigated in theory and experimentally, exploiting the adhesion to biological surfaces remains challenging. The complex nature and composition of biological surfaces such as plant leaf and fruit surfaces complicate the generation of accurate models. Here, we present the first detailed three-layered atomistic model of the surface of apple leaves and use it to compute free energy profiles of the adhesion and desorption of APs to and from that surface. Our model is validated by a novel fluorescence-based MTP assay that mimicks these complex processes and allows quantifying them. For the AP Macaque Histatin, we demonstrate that aromatic and positively charged amino acids are essential for binding to the waxy apple leaf surface. The established protocols should generally be applicable for tailoring the binding properties of APs to biological interfaces.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Author(s):  
Massimo Pizzato ◽  
Chiara Baraldi ◽  
Giulia Boscato Sopetto ◽  
Davide Finozzi ◽  
Carmelo Gentile ◽  
...  

The ability of a virus to spread between individuals, its replication capacity and the clinical course of the infection are macroscopic consequences of a multifaceted molecular interaction of viral components with the host cell. The heavy impact of COVID-19 on the world population, economics and sanitary systems calls for therapeutic and prophylactic solutions that require a deep characterization of the interactions occurring between virus and host cells. Unveiling how SARS-CoV-2 engages with host factors throughout its life cycle is therefore fundamental to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the viral infection and to design antiviral therapies and prophylactic strategies. Two years into the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this review provides an overview of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell, with focus on the machinery and compartments pivotal for virus replication and the antiviral cellular response. Starting with the interaction with the cell surface, following the virus replicative cycle through the characterization of the entry pathways, the survival and replication in the cytoplasm, to the mechanisms of egress from the infected cell, this review unravels the complex network of interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell, highlighting the knowledge that has the potential to set the basis for the development of innovative antiviral strategies.


Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 177
Author(s):  
Gokhan Hacisalihoglu

Global food security and sustainability in the time of pandemics (COVID-19) and a growing world population are important challenges that will require optimized crop productivity under the anticipated effects of climate change [...]


2022 ◽  
pp. 59-62
Author(s):  
Анна Валерьевна Гурьева ◽  
Мария Николаевна Рожкова

Пищевые привычки и потребности в питательных веществах складываются на протяжении всей жизни человека под влиянием различных факторов, однако неоспоримым остается факт биологической потребности организма в незаменимых аминокислотах и как следствие - в доступных, полноценных белках. Поиск новых источников белка и развитие технологий его получения, воспроизводства, переработки, сбережения всегда в центре внимания пищевой промышленности. Потребность растущего населения Земли в доступных пищевых ресурсах, богатых полноценным белком, с каждым годом только возрастает. Выбор оптимальной формулы, способа переработки или сочетания композиции натуральных белков растительного происхождения, способных выступать в качестве возобновляемого источника незаменимых аминокислот, в целях полноценной замены белков животного происхождения, в частности молочных, в соответствии с принципами экономической целесообразности является основной движущей силой исследований и разработок. Актуальность обзора сырьевых источников и формирование критериев выбора растительного сырья с целью применения в моделях конструирования рецептур обоснованы стремительным ростом популярности продукции растительного происхождения. Безмолочные белковые напитки и десерты сформировали существенную потребительскую нишу, стали обязательной частью диеты современных потребителей не только комплементарно или в качестве перекуса, но и в качестве отдельного полноценного приема пищи, что формирует устойчивые привычки здорового пищевого поведения. Nutritional habits and needs for nutrients develop throughout a person's life under the influence of various factors, but the fact of the body's biological need for essential amino acids, and as a result, for accessible, complete proteins, remains undeniable. The search for new sources of protein and the development of technologies for its production, reproduction, processing, saving are always in the center of attention of the food industry. The demand of the growing world population for affordable food resources rich in complete protein only increases every year. The choice of the optimal formula, processing method or combination of a composition of natural proteins of plant origin, capable of acting as a renewable source of essential amino acids, in order to fully replace proteins of animal origin, and, in particular, dairy proteins, in accordance with the principles of economic feasibility, is the main driving force of research and development. The relevance of the review of raw materials and the formation of criteria for the selection of vegetable raw materials for the purpose of application in models for designing formulations is justified by the rapid growth in the popularity of products of vegetable origin. Dairy-free protein drinks and desserts have formed a significant consumer niche, have become an obligatory part of the diet of modern consumers, not only as a complementary or as a snack, but also as a separate full meal, which forms stable healthy eating habits.


2022 ◽  
Vol 07 ◽  
Author(s):  
Punit Kumar ◽  
Sujata Malik ◽  
Kashyap Kumar Dubey

Background: The present world population is about 7.9 billion and it is increasing continuously. Thus, there is an urgent requirement to enhance the agricultural output sustainably. Agricultural approaches such as the use of advanced agriculture methods, high productivity varieties, and enhanced application of fertilizers and pesticides have significantly increased food grain production but in an unsustainable way. Chemical-based conventional fertilizers and pesticides have been found associated with environmental pollution and other unwanted effects on the ecosystem, soil quality, and soil microflora, etc. Nanomaterials may be used to replace conventional fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture. Objective: The aim of this review is to provide information about the harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and the use of nanomaterials in agriculture. Including this, the health risks of nanomaterials are discussed. Method: This review article includes a survey of literature from different online sources (for example, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar, etc.). Results: The improvement in agricultural output using chemical fertilizers and pesticides is considered unsustainable as it is increasing the cost of production, affecting the soil quality, disturbing nutrient availability in crops, and causing environmental pollution. Nanotechnology is a potent innovative practice and nanomaterials may be used in agriculture as nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors. Although these approaches have the potential to enhance agricultural productivity in a sustainable way, nanomaterials are also assumed to exhibit potential health risks to humans. Reports have indicated that nanomaterials have been found associated with many systematic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurotoxicity, and toxicity to the reproductive system, etc. Conclution: It is well accepted that chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture cause environmental toxicity and affect ecosystem activity. Nanomaterials have the potential to enhance agricultural output, but these are also associated with health risks. Thus, detailed scientific studies must be conducted about the potential health risk of nanomaterials before their commercial applications in agriculture.


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