medical applications
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2022 ◽  
Madalina-Simona Baltatu

The book presents the characterization and classification of metallic biomaterials; with focus on titanium-based alloys, cobalt-based alloys, stainless steels and biodegradable alloys. Emphasis is placed on the synthesis, assessment of properties and medical applications such as multifunctional implants. The book references 423 original resources and includes their direct web link for in-depth reading.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yangming Zhang ◽  
Linguang Zhou ◽  
Jialin Xia ◽  
Ce Dong ◽  
Xiaozhou Luo

The commensal microbiome is essential for human health and is involved in many processes in the human body, such as the metabolism process and immune system activation. Emerging evidence implies that specific changes in the microbiome participate in the development of various diseases, including diabetes, liver diseases, tumors, and pathogen infections. Thus, intervention on the microbiome is becoming a novel and effective method to treat such diseases. Synthetic biology empowers researchers to create strains with unique and complex functions, making the use of engineered microbes for clinical applications attainable. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances about the roles of the microbiome in certain diseases and the underlying mechanisms, as well as the use of engineered microbes in the prevention, detection, and treatment of various diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Fatima Isiaka ◽  
Zainab Adamu ◽  
Muhammad A. Adamu

The paper seeks to demonstrates the likelihood of embedding a 3D gaze point on a 3D visual field, the visual field is inform of a game console where the user has to play from one level to the other by overcoming obstacles that will lead them to the next level. Complex game interface is sometimes difficult for the player to progress to next level of the game and the developers also find it difficult to regulate the game for an average player. The model serves as an analytical tool for game adaptations and also players can track their response to the game. Custom eye tracking and 3D object tracking algorithms were developed to enhance the analysis of the procedure. This is a part of the contributions to user interface design in the aspect of visual transparency. The development and testing of human computer interaction uses and application is more easily investigated than ever, part of the contribution to this is the embedding of 3-D gaze point on a 3-D visual field. This could be used in a number of applications, for instance in medical applications that includes long and short sightedness diagnosis and treatment. Experiments and Test were conducted on five different episodes of user attributes, result show that fixation points and pupil changes are the two most likely user attributes that contributes most significantly in the performance of the custom eye tracking algorithm the study. As the advancement in development of eye movement algorithm continues user attributes that showed the least likely appearance will prove to be redundant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 802
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara ◽  
Marzena Suder ◽  
Agnieszka Dołhańczuk-Śródka ◽  
Małgorzata Rajfur ◽  
Katarzyna Grata ◽  

Innovative engineering design for biologically active hydroxyapatites requires enhancing both mechanical and physical properties, along with biocompatibility, by doping with appropriate chemical elements. Herein, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and elucidate the model of naturally occurring hydroxyapatite and the effects of doped trace elements on the function of normal human fibroblasts, representing the main cells of connective tissues. The substrates applied (geological apatites with hexagonal prismatic crystal habit originated from Slyudyanka, Lake Baikal, Russia (GAp) and from Imilchil, The Atlas Mountains, Morocco (YAp)) were prepared from mineral natural apatite with a chemical composition consistent with the building blocks of enamel and enriched with a significant F− content. Materials in the form of powders, extracts and single-crystal plates have been investigated. Moreover, the effects on the function of fibroblasts cultured on the analyzed surfaces in the form of changes in metabolic activity, proliferation and cell morphology were evaluated. Apatite plates were also evaluated for cytotoxicity and immune cell activation capacity. The results suggest that a moderate amount of F− has a positive effect on cell proliferation, whereas an inhibitory effect was attributed to the Cl− concentration. It was found that for (100) GAp plate, fibroblast proliferation was significantly increased, whereas for (001) YAp plate, it was significantly reduced, with no cytotoxic effect and no immune response from macrophages exposed to these materials. The study of the interaction of fibroblasts with apatite crystal surfaces provides a characterization relevant to medical applications and may contribute to the design of biomaterials suitable for medical applications and the evaluation of their bioavailability.

Mahdis Parsafar ◽  
Sayed Khatiboleslam Sadrnezhaad ◽  
Nahid Hassanzadeh Nemati

: Due to the increasing number of diseases related to the spine, we expect to see more research on the implants used in this area. These implants should have features such as strength, fatigue resistance, chemical stability and biocompatibility, which fortunately are seen in an alloy called nitinol. In this study, six lumbar vertebral implants were made of nitinol and these samples been studied by some experiments such as: X-ray diffraction and biocompatibility (evaluation of cytotoxicity by MTT assay). Finally, we came to the conclusion that the mentioned alloy with suitable microstructure is appropriate for medical applications specially as an orthopedic implant. According to the X-ray diffraction pattern, the samples have austenitic structures in the room temperature and the predominant phase of the porous sample is B2-NiTi. Since the sample should be biocompatible after placement in the body and should not cause an immune system reaction, this test was also examined and the samples were tested in vitro with an MTT kit and the biocompatibility was assessed. The results of biocompatibility tests also indicate the suitability of the implant in terms of cellular characteristics. These properties have made this alloy superior to other alloys in orthopedic implant utilization, especially in areas under continuous loading. It is hoped that the construction of this type of implant will pave the way for facilitating the treatment of spinal abnormalities.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Asma Akbar ◽  
Farzaneh Malekian ◽  
Neda Baghban ◽  
Sai Priyanka Kodam ◽  
Mujib Ullah

The use of extracellular vesicles (EV) in nano drug delivery has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In this study, we discuss the sources of extracellular vesicles, including plant, salivary and urinary sources which are easily available but less sought after compared with blood and tissue. Extensive research in the past decade has established that the breadth of EV applications is wide. However, the efforts on standardizing the isolation and purification methods have not brought us to a point that can match the potential of extracellular vesicles for clinical use. The standardization can open doors for many researchers and clinicians alike to experiment with the proposed clinical uses with lesser concerns regarding untraceable side effects. It can make it easier to identify the mechanism of therapeutic benefits and to track the mechanism of any unforeseen effects observed.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 185
Hamed Hosseinian ◽  
Samira Hosseini ◽  
Sergio O. Martinez-Chapa ◽  
Mazhar Sher

In recent years, wearable contact lenses for medical applications have attracted significant attention, as they enable continuous real-time recording of physiological information via active and noninvasive measurements. These devices play a vital role in continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP), noninvasive glucose monitoring in diabetes patients, drug delivery for the treatment of ocular illnesses, and colorblindness treatment. In specific, this class of medical devices is rapidly advancing in the area of drug loading and ocular drug release through incorporation of electrospun fibers. The electrospun fiber matrices offer a high surface area, controlled morphology, wettability, biocompatibility, and tunable porosity, which are highly desirable for controlled drug release. This article provides an overview of the advances of contact lens devices in medical applications with a focus on four main applications of these soft wearable devices: (i) IOP measurement and monitoring, (ii) glucose detection, (iii) ocular drug delivery, and (iv) colorblindness treatment. For each category and application, significant challenges and shortcomings of the current devices are thoroughly discussed, and new areas of opportunity are suggested. We also emphasize the role of electrospun fibers, their fabrication methods along with their characteristics, and the integration of diverse fiber types within the structure of the wearable contact lenses for efficient drug loading, in addition to controlled and sustained drug release. This review article also presents relevant statistics on the evolution of medical contact lenses over the last two decades, their strengths, and the future avenues for making the essential transition from clinical trials to real-world applications.

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