Cd8 T Cell
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eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Isaac J jensen ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Patrick W McGonagill ◽  
Qiang Shan ◽  
Micaela G Fosdick ◽  

The global health burden due to sepsis and the associated cytokine storm is substantial. While early intervention has improved survival during the cytokine storm, those that survive can enter a state of chronic immunoparalysis defined by transient lymphopenia and functional deficits of surviving cells. Memory CD8 T cells provide rapid cytolysis and cytokine production following re-encounter with their cognate antigen to promote long-term immunity, and CD8 T cell impairment due to sepsis can pre-dispose individuals to re-infection. While the acute influence of sepsis on memory CD8 T cells has been characterized, if and to what extent pre-existing memory CD8 T cells recover remains unknown. Here, we observed that central memory CD8 T cells (TCM) from septic patients proliferate more than those from healthy individuals. Utilizing LCMV immune mice and a CLP model to induce sepsis, we demonstrated that TCM proliferation is associated with numerical recovery of pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cells following sepsis-induced lymphopenia. This increased proliferation leads to changes in composition of memory CD8 T cell compartment and altered tissue localization. Further, memory CD8 T cells from sepsis survivors have an altered transcriptional profile and chromatin accessibility indicating long-lasting T cell intrinsic changes. The sepsis-induced changes in the composition of the memory CD8 T cell pool and transcriptional landscape culminated in altered T cell function and reduced capacity to control L. monocytogenes infection. Thus, sepsis leads to long-term alterations in memory CD8 T cell phenotype, protective function and localization potentially changing host capacity to respond to re-infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (44) ◽  
pp. e2116147118
Novalia Pishesha ◽  
Thibault J. Harmand ◽  
Paul W. Rothlauf ◽  
Patrique Praest ◽  
Ryan K. Alexander ◽  

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in over 100 million infections and millions of deaths. Effective vaccines remain the best hope of curtailing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, morbidity, and mortality. The vaccines in current use require cold storage and sophisticated manufacturing capacity, which complicates their distribution, especially in less developed countries. We report the development of a candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that is purely protein based and directly targets antigen-presenting cells. It consists of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (SpikeRBD) fused to an alpaca-derived nanobody that recognizes class II major histocompatibility complex antigens (VHHMHCII). This vaccine elicits robust humoral and cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Both young and aged mice immunized with two doses of VHHMHCII-SpikeRBD elicit high-titer binding and neutralizing antibodies. Immunization also induces strong cellular immunity, including a robust CD8 T cell response. VHHMHCII-SpikeRBD is stable for at least 7 d at room temperature and can be lyophilized without loss of efficacy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alexander Hellesen ◽  
Sigrid Aslaksen ◽  
Lars Breivik ◽  
Ellen Christine Røyrvik ◽  
Øyvind Bruserud ◽  

ObjectivesCD8+ T cells targeting 21-hydroxylase (21OH) are presumed to play a central role in the destruction of adrenocortical cells in autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD). Earlier reports have suggested two immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes within 21OH: LLNATIAEV (21OH342-350), restricted by HLA-A2, and EPLARLEL (21OH431-438), restricted by HLA-B8. We aimed to characterize polyclonal CD8+ T cell responses to the proposed epitopes in a larger patient cohort with AAD.MethodsRecombinant fluorescent HLA-peptide multimer reagents were used to quantify antigen-specific CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry. Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) Elispot and biochemical assays were used to functionally investigate the 21OH-specific T cells, and to map the exactly defined epitopes of 21OH.ResultsWe found a significantly higher frequency of HLA-A2 restricted LLNATIAEV-specific cells in patients with AAD than in controls. These cells could also be expanded in vitro in an antigen specific manner and displayed a robust antigen-specific IFNγ production. In contrast, only negligible frequencies of EPLARLEL-specific T cells were detected in both patients and controls with limited IFNγ response. However, significant IFNγ production was observed in response to a longer peptide encompassing EPLARLEL, 21OH430-447, suggesting alternative dominant epitopes. Accordingly, we discovered that the slightly offset ARLELFVVL (21OH434-442) peptide is a novel dominant epitope restricted by HLA-C7 and not by HLA-B8 as initially postulated.ConclusionWe have identified two dominant 21OH epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells in AAD, restricted by HLA-A2 and HLA-C7, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first HLA-C7 restricted epitope described for an autoimmune disease.

2021 ◽  
Saskia Meyer ◽  
Isaac Blaas ◽  
Ravi Chand Bollineni ◽  
Marina Delic-Sarac ◽  
Trung T Tran ◽  

T-cell epitopes with broad population coverage may form the basis for a new generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, published studies on immunoprevalence are limited by small test cohorts, low frequencies of antigen-specific cells and lack of data correlating eluted HLA ligands with T-cell responsiveness. Here, we investigate CD8 T-cell responses to 48 peptides eluted from prevalent HLA alleles, and an additional 84 predicted binders, in a large cohort of convalescents (n=83) and pre-pandemic control samples (n=19). We identify nine conserved SARS-CoV-2 specific epitopes restricted by four of the most prevalent HLA class I alleles in Caucasians, to which responding CD8 T cells are detected in 70-100% of convalescents expressing the relevant HLA allele, including two novel epitopes. We find a strong correlation between immunoprevalence and immunodominance. Using a new algorithm, we predict that a vaccine including these epitopes would induce a T cell response in 83% of Caucasians. Significance Statement: Vaccines that induce broad T-cell responses may boost immunity as protection from current vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is waning. From a manufacturing standpoint, and to deliver the highest possible dose of the most immunogenic antigens, it is rational to limit the number of epitopes to those inducing the strongest immune responses in the highest proportion of individuals in a population. Our data show that the CD8 T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 is more focused than previously believed. We identify nine conserved SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8 T cell epitopes restricted by four of the most prevalent HLA class I alleles in Caucasians and demonstrate that seven of these are endogenously presented.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 5142
Ying-Chun Shen ◽  
Ching-Ping Yeh ◽  
Yung-Ming Jeng ◽  
Chiun Hsu ◽  
Chih-Hung Hsu ◽  

Purpose: Tumor-infiltrating tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (CD8 TRM; CD103+ CD8+) are considered tumor-specific and may correlate better with the tumor response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). This study evaluated the association of tumor-infiltrating CD8 TRM and their subsets with the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Experimental Design: Consecutive HCC patients who received ICB in prospective trials were analyzed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor sections were stained for DAPI, CD8, CD103, CD39, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) using a multiplex immunohistochemical method. The densities of CD8 T cells, CD8 TRM, and CD39+ or PD-L1+ subsets of CD8 TRM were correlated with tumor response and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 73 patients were identified, and 48 patients with adequate pretreatment tumor specimens and complete follow-up were analyzed. A median of 32.7% (range: 0–92.6%) of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells were TRM. In subset analyses, 66.6% ± 34.2%, 69.8% ± 33.4%, and 0% of CD8 TRM cells coexpressed CD39, PD-L1, and PD-1, respectively. The objective response rates for CD8 T cell-high, CD8 TRM-high, CD39+ CD8 TRM-high, and PD-L1+ CD8 TRM-high groups were 41.7%, 37.5%, 37.5%, and 29.2%, respectively. Patients with CD8 T cell-high, but not those with CD8 TRM-high, CD39+ CD8 TRM-high, or PD-L1+ CD8 TRM-high, tumors, had significantly prolonged OS (p = 0.0429). Conclusions: Compared with total tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells, tumor-infiltrating CD8 TRM or their subsets failed to provide additional advantages in predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy for HCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (10) ◽  
pp. e1009468
Veronika I. Zarnitsyna ◽  
Rama S. Akondy ◽  
Hasan Ahmed ◽  
Donald J. McGuire ◽  
Vladimir G. Zarnitsyn ◽  

Understanding how immunological memory lasts a lifetime requires quantifying changes in the number of memory cells as well as how their division and death rates change over time. We address these questions by using a statistically powerful mixed-effects differential equations framework to analyze data from two human studies that follow CD8 T cell responses to the yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D). Models were first fit to the frequency of YFV-specific memory CD8 T cells and deuterium enrichment in those cells 42 days to 1 year post-vaccination. A different dataset, on the loss of YFV-specific CD8 T cells over three decades, was used to assess out of sample predictions of our models. The commonly used exponential and bi-exponential decline models performed relatively poorly. Models with the cell loss following a power law (exactly or approximately) were most predictive. Notably, using only the first year of data, these models accurately predicted T cell frequencies up to 30 years post-vaccination. Our analyses suggest that division rates of these cells drop and plateau at a low level (0.1% per day, ∼ double the estimated values for naive T cells) within one year following vaccination, whereas death rates continue to decline for much longer. Our results show that power laws can be predictive for T cell memory, a finding that may be useful for vaccine evaluation and epidemiological modeling. Moreover, since power laws asymptotically decline more slowly than any exponential decline, our results help explain the longevity of immune memory phenomenologically.

2021 ◽  
Sidar Aydin ◽  
Javier Pareja ◽  
Vivianne M. Schallenberg ◽  
Armelle Klopstein ◽  
Thomas Gruber ◽  

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) are early hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). High numbers of CD8+ T cells are found in MS lesions and antigen (Ag)-presentation at the BBB was proposed to promote CD8+ T-cell entry into the CNS. Employing live cell imaging and primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (pMBMECs) as in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of CNS autoimmunity, we here show that pMBMECs process and present antigens leading to effector CD8+ T-cell differentiation. Under physiological flow, endothelial Ag-presentation prohibited CD8+ T-cell crawling and diapedesis leading to pMBMEC apoptosis. Reduced motility of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells was also observed in CNS microvessels in neuroinflammation in vivo. Luminal MHC class I Ag-presentation at the BBB thus prohibits CD8+ T-cell entry into the CNS and rather triggers CD8+ T cell mediated focal BBB breakdown.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (615) ◽  
Vandana Kalia ◽  
Yevgeniy Yuzefpolskiy ◽  
Adithya Vegaraju ◽  
Hanxi Xiao ◽  
Florian Baumann ◽  

2021 ◽  
Srividhya Swaminathan ◽  
Katie Lineburg ◽  
George Ambalathingal ◽  
Pauline Crooks ◽  
Emma Grant ◽  

Understanding the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to overcome the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Efforts are being made to understand the potential cross-protective immunity of memory T cells, induced by prior encounters with seasonal coronaviruses, in providing protection against severe COVID-19. In this study we assessed T-cell responses directed against highly conserved regions of SARS-CoV-2. Epitope mapping revealed 16 CD8 + T-cell epitopes across the nucleocapsid (N), spike (S) and ORF3a proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and five CD8 + T-cell epitopes encoded within the highly conserved regions of the ORF1ab polyprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative sequence analysis showed high conservation of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab T-cell epitopes in seasonal coronaviruses. Paradoxically, the immune responses directed against the conserved ORF1ab epitopes were infrequent and subdominant in both convalescent and unexposed participants. This subdominant immune response was consistent with a low abundance of ORF1ab encoded proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Overall, these observations suggest that while cross-reactive CD8 + T cells likely exist in unexposed individuals, they are not common and therefore are unlikely to play a significant role in providing broad pre-existing immunity in the community.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lydia Scharf ◽  
Christina B. Pedersen ◽  
Emil Johansson ◽  
Jacob Lindman ◽  
Lars R. Olsen ◽  

HIV-2 is less pathogenic compared to HIV-1. Still, disease progression may develop in aviremic HIV-2 infection, but the driving forces and mechanisms behind such development are unclear. Here, we aimed to reveal the immunophenotypic pattern associated with CD8 T-cell pathology in HIV-2 infection, in relation to viremia and markers of disease progression. The relationships between pathological differences of the CD8 T-cell memory population and viremia were analyzed in blood samples obtained from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau, including HIV-2 viremic and aviremic individuals. For comparison, samples from HIV-1- or dually HIV-1/2-infected and seronegative individuals were obtained from the same cohort. CD8 T-cell exhaustion was evaluated by the combined expression patterns of activation, stimulatory and inhibitory immune checkpoint markers analyzed using multicolor flow cytometry and advanced bioinformatics. Unsupervised multidimensional clustering analysis identified a cluster of late differentiated CD8 T-cells expressing activation (CD38+, HLA-DRint/high), co-stimulatory (CD226+/-), and immune inhibitory (2B4+, PD-1high, TIGIThigh) markers that distinguished aviremic from viremic HIV-2, and treated from untreated HIV-1-infected individuals. This CD8 T-cell population displayed close correlations to CD4%, viremia, and plasma levels of IP-10, sCD14 and beta-2 microglobulin in HIV-2 infection. Detailed analysis revealed that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals had higher frequencies of exhausted TIGIT+ CD8 T-cell populations lacking CD226, while reduced percentage of stimulation-receptive TIGIT-CD226+ CD8 T-cells, compared to seronegative individuals. Our results suggest that HIV-2 infection, independent of viremia, skews CD8 T-cells towards exhaustion and reduced co-stimulation readiness. Further knowledge on CD8 T-cell phenotypes might provide help in therapy monitoring and identification of immunotherapy targets.

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