leptospira interrogans
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2021 ◽  
Zhe Li ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Zhongli Du ◽  
Xiaofang Xin ◽  
Qiang Ye ◽  

Abstract Background: Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae is the predominant pathogen causing leptospirosis in China and is still used as the vaccine strain for the current human inactivated vaccine. Unlike the clade ST17, which is distributed worldwide, ST1 is the most prevalent in serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae in China. Purpose and Methods: To further characterize leptospiral pathogens, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and parallel reaction monitoring were used to analyze differences at the proteomic level between serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae vaccine strain 56001 (ST1) and circulating isolate 200502 (ST17) from different periods. Results: Two hundred and eighty-one proteins were differentially expressed between ST17 and ST1, of which 166 were upregulated (>1.2 fold change, P < 0.05) and 115 (>1.2-fold change, P < 0.05) were downregulated. Function prediction revealed that nine upregulated proteins were outer membrane proteins, including several known immunogenic and/or virulence-related proteins, such as ompL1, LipL71 and LipL41. Furthermore, important expression differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism and transport proteins were identified between ST1 and ST17, suggesting that these differences may reflect metabolic diversity and the potential of the pathogens to adapt to different environments. Conclusion: In summary, our findings provide insights into better understanding the component strains of the Chinese human leptospirosis vaccine at the proteomic level. Additionally, these data facilitate evaluating the mechanisms by which pathogenic Leptospira species adapt to the host environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-64
Bibiana Benavides-Benavides ◽  
Hernán Darío Cisneros-López ◽  
Ronald Guillermo Peláez-Sánchez

Introducción: La leptospirosis es una zoonosis emergente, endémica en Colombia, que afecta tanto animales domésticos como silvestres. Es considerada de riesgo laboral, ya que la transmisión al ser humano está asociada a la exposición con animales o ambientes infectados. En el departamento de Nariño, la producción de cuyes para el consumo humano se realiza en sistemas de crianza tradicionales que podrían favorecer la infección por Leptospira interrogans en esta especie. Objetivo: Detectar molecularmente la infección natural por especies patógenas del género Leptospira en cuyes que son destinados para el consumo humano en el municipio de Pasto. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron 270 muestras de tejido renal en cuyes sacrificados en dos mataderos. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) convencional y coloración diferencial de Warthin Starry (W-S). Resultados: En la evaluación de las 270 muestras, 4 (1,5%) fueron positivas para PCR y una de las muestras demostró la presencia de Leptospira bajo tinción W-S. Conclusiones: Mediante el uso de técnicas moleculares se evidenció L. interrogans en el tejido renal de Cavia porcellus. La circulación del patógeno en esta población representa un riesgo de infección para humanos y animales domésticos en contacto con estos sistemas productivos.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jun Saeki ◽  
Aki Tanaka

Canine leptospirosis was suspected in 11 dogs in Osaka Prefecture, Japan and 9 dogs died within a month, from October 12 to November 10, 2017. Eight of the dogs had been taken on walks along the same riverbed and 4 dogs lived in the same town. Logistic regression analysis between a comparative group and the incident cases group showed that the odds of leptospirosis infection was 13.3 times higher (p = 0.044) in the dogs taken on walks along the riverbed than in the dogs not being walked along the riverbed. It is suggesting that these walks had been a risk factor. Microscopic agglutination tests showed that antibody titers against Leptospira interrogans serovar Australis were 1:2,560 and 1:10,240 in 2 dogs. Therefore, L. interrogans serovar Australis was suspected to be the causative agent, for which no canine vaccine is available in Japan. These results suggested that L. interrogans serovar Australis can cause local outbreaks. The development of a canine vaccine against various serotypes might help reduce local infections. Leptospirosis is an important infectious disease of dogs and it is also a zoonotic disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
pp. e1009078
André A. Grassmann ◽  
Crispin Zavala-Alvarado ◽  
Everton B. Bettin ◽  
Mathieu Picardeau ◽  
Nadia Benaroudj ◽  

Leptospira interrogans, the causative agent of most cases of human leptospirosis, must respond to myriad environmental signals during its free-living and pathogenic lifestyles. Previously, we compared L. interrogans cultivated in vitro and in vivo using a dialysis membrane chamber (DMC) peritoneal implant model. From these studies emerged the importance of genes encoding the Peroxide responsive regulators PerRA and PerRB. First described in in Bacillus subtilis, PerRs are widespread in Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, where regulate the expression of gene products involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and virulence. Using perRA and perRB single and double mutants, we establish that L. interrogans requires at least one functional PerR for infectivity and renal colonization in a reservoir host. Our finding that the perRA/B double mutant survives at wild-type levels in DMCs is noteworthy as it demonstrates that the loss of virulence is not due to a metabolic lesion (i.e., metal starvation) but instead reflects dysregulation of virulence-related gene products. Comparative RNA-Seq analyses of perRA, perRB and perRA/B mutants cultivated within DMCs identified 106 genes that are dysregulated in the double mutant, including ligA, ligB and lvrA/B sensory histidine kinases. Decreased expression of LigA and LigB in the perRA/B mutant was not due to loss of LvrAB signaling. The majority of genes in the perRA and perRB single and double mutant DMC regulons were differentially expressed only in vivo, highlighting the importance of host signals for regulating gene expression in L. interrogans. Importantly, the PerRA, PerRB and PerRA/B DMC regulons each contain multiple genes related to environmental sensing and/or transcriptional regulation. Collectively, our data suggest that PerRA and PerRB are part of a complex regulatory network that promotes host adaptation by L. interrogans within mammals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Meiqin Chen ◽  
Weili Lu ◽  
Shugen Wu ◽  
Shun Wang ◽  
Tao Lu ◽  

Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a common infectious disease in tropical and semitropical regions, and it is typically neglected. Leptospirosis-associated acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is one of its fatal complications. The use of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans infection has rarely been reported. Case presentation We present the case of a 62-year-old female who was transferred to our hospital with dyspnea, and severe hemoptysis and was supported by a tracheal intubation ventilator. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) reported Leptospira interrogans. A diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by leptospirosis was made. After immediately receiving antibiotics and hormone therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery upon discharge. Conclusion Leptospirosis presenting as severe diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis. mNGS can help identify pathogens and treat them early, which can improve prognosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (2) ◽  
pp. 022015
G Urban ◽  
O.Y. Krotova ◽  
K. C. Savenkov ◽  
A Chernyshkov ◽  
M. N. Savenkova

Abstract The leptospirosis vaccine is the main method of preventing the occurrence and spread of leptospirosis. Compliance with the standards of manufacturing, labeling, and storage is mandatory for immunological preparations. All stages of vaccine production must comply with the rules established by the Ministry of Industry and Trade and ensure its safety for humans. The article presents epidemiological data on leptospirosis in the Russian Federation in the period from 2013 to 2018. A method for producing a vaccine against human leptospirosis is described. The leptospirosis vaccine is polyvalent using membrane technologies and semi-synthetic culture media. It eliminates the use of foreign protein and does not require cleaning. The vaccine is an opalescent liquid with sediment and a pH of 7.2-7.6 and it is not allowed to contain live leptospira. Four strains are used and a new strain has been developed and implemented. Vaccination is carried out according to epidemiological indicators. Leptospirosis suspension forms specific immunity for 1 year. During the production of the updated vaccine, it was necessary to study the virulent properties of the strains. Moreover, analyze the formation of specific antibodies to leptospira in the new vaccine and in the vaccine currently used. From 2018 to 2020, 5 series of experimental vaccines in the form of a 0.5 ml suspension were produced.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. e0009983
Teerasit Techawiwattanaboon ◽  
Praparat Thaibankluay ◽  
Chahya Kreangkaiwal ◽  
Suwitra Sathean-Anan-Kun ◽  
Prasong Khaenam ◽  

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with a global distribution. Surface-exposed outer membrane proteins (SE-OMPs) are crucial for bacterial–host interactions. SE-OMPs locate and expose their epitope on cell surface where is easily accessed by host molecules. This study aimed to screen for surface-exposed proteins and their abundance profile of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. Two complementary approaches, surface biotinylation and surface proteolytic shaving, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were employed to identify SE-OMPs of intact leptospires. For quantitative comparison, in-depth label-free analysis of SE-OMPs obtained from each method was performed using MaxQuant. The total number of proteins identified was 1,001 and 238 for surface biotinylation and proteinase K shaving, respectively. Among these, 39 were previously known SE-OMPs and 68 were predicted to be localized on the leptospiral surface. Based on MaxQuant analysis for relative quantification, six known SE-OMPs including EF- Tu, LipL21, LipL41, LipL46, Loa22, and OmpL36, and one predicted SE-OMPs, LipL71 were found in the 20 most abundant proteins, in which LipL41 was the highest abundant SE-OMP. Moreover, uncharacterized LIC14011 protein (LIP3228 ortholog in serovar Pomona) was identified as a novel predicted surface βb-OMP. High-abundance leptospiral SE-OMPs identified in this study may play roles in virulence and infection and are potential targets for development of vaccine or diagnostic tests for leptospirosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
P. Koscinczuk ◽  
J. J. Casco ◽  
R. P. Cainzo ◽  
D. A. Camoletto

Se describe la resolución clínica de una necrosis lingual asociada a insuficiencia renal aguda por leptospirosis. Un canino Boston terrier, macho entero de 4 años, a la exploración de la cavidad oral presentó alteraciones de la coloración, consistencia, sensibilidad y temperatura, así como ausencia de pulso en la punta de la lengua. En el perfil renal se observaron valores elevados de urea (183 mg/dl) y creatinina (1,8 mg/dl). Las pruebas de Ehrlichia y Leishmania fueron negativas, en tanto la prueba de microaglutinación microscópica, arrojó títulos de 1/3200 de los serovares Ballum castellonis y Canicola canicola de Leptospira interrogans. Los títulos elevados de anticuerpos y las manifestaciones clínicas compatibles, confirmaron el diagnóstico de daño renal agudo. Para el tratamiento se realizó fluidoterapia con Ringer lactato y dextosa al 5%. Ante la sospecha de leptospirosis se administró penicilina con estreptomicina. Una vez estabilizada, se realizó una glosectomía parcial. Sin embargo, como la necrosis continuó avanzando, se decidió administrar 1 mg/kg de dexametasona por vía parenteral cada 12 horas, durante 3 días, y luego dosis decreciente. A los 8 días, el paciente estaba recuperado, aunque todavía poseía densidad urinaria isostenúrica. El valor de urea fue de 87 mg/dl y el de creatinina 0,8 mg/ dl, con un paciente recuperado. Si bien, los corticoides no se recomiendan ante un daño renal agudo, el uso de dexametasona estaría indicado para resolver el daño vascular.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (6) ◽  
pp. 1137-1141
Risako Yamashita ◽  
Toshinori Yoshida ◽  
Mio Kobayashi ◽  
Suzuka Uomoto ◽  
Saori Shimizu ◽  

Neuroleptospirosis is a rare disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans in humans; however, it has not been fully studied in animals. A young wild raccoon dog was found convulsing in the recumbent position and died the next day. Histologic examination revealed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in the cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The lesions consisted of mixed infiltrates of Iba1-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T cells, with a small number of CD79α-positive B cells and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils. In the frontal cortex, perivascular cuffs and adjacent microglial nodules were distributed diffusely, especially in the molecular layer. Glial nodules were comprised of Iba1- and myeloperoxidase-positive activated microglia. Immunohistochemistry revealed leptospires in mononuclear cell perivascular cuffs, but not in glial nodules. Neuroleptospirosis was accompanied by Leptospira-related nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and coronary periarteritis, as well as Toxocara tanuki in the small intestine and nonspecific foreign-body granulomas in the lungs and stomach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. e31
Songtham Anuntakarun ◽  
Vorthon Sawaswong ◽  
Rungrat Jitvaropas ◽  
Kesmanee Praianantathavorn ◽  
Witthaya Poomipak ◽  

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In Thailand, Leptospira interrogans is a major cause of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis patients present with a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, mild infections to severe illness involving organ failure. For better understanding the difference between Leptospira isolates causing mild and severe leptospirosis, illumina sequencing was used to sequence genomic DNA in both serotypes. DNA of Leptospira isolated from two patients, one with mild and another with severe symptoms, were included in this study. The paired-end reads were removed adapters and trimmed with Q30 score using Trimmomatic. Trimmed reads were constructed to contigs and scaffolds using SPAdes. Cross-contamination of scaffolds was evaluated by ContEst16s. Prokka tool for bacterial annotation was used to annotate sequences from both Leptospira isolates. Predicted amino acid sequences from Prokka were searched in EggNOG and David gene ontology database to characterize gene ontology. In addition, Leptospira from mild and severe patients, that passed the criteria e-value < 10e-5 from blastP against virulence factor database, were used to analyze with Venn diagram. From this study, we found 13 and 12 genes that were unique in the isolates from mild and severe patients, respectively. The 12 genes in the severe isolate might be virulence factor genes that affect disease severity. However, these genes should be validated in further study.

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