Leptospira Interrogans
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2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (6) ◽  
pp. 1137-1141
Risako Yamashita ◽  
Toshinori Yoshida ◽  
Mio Kobayashi ◽  
Suzuka Uomoto ◽  
Saori Shimizu ◽  

Neuroleptospirosis is a rare disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans in humans; however, it has not been fully studied in animals. A young wild raccoon dog was found convulsing in the recumbent position and died the next day. Histologic examination revealed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in the cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The lesions consisted of mixed infiltrates of Iba1-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T cells, with a small number of CD79α-positive B cells and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils. In the frontal cortex, perivascular cuffs and adjacent microglial nodules were distributed diffusely, especially in the molecular layer. Glial nodules were comprised of Iba1- and myeloperoxidase-positive activated microglia. Immunohistochemistry revealed leptospires in mononuclear cell perivascular cuffs, but not in glial nodules. Neuroleptospirosis was accompanied by Leptospira-related nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and coronary periarteritis, as well as Toxocara tanuki in the small intestine and nonspecific foreign-body granulomas in the lungs and stomach.

K Senthilkumar ◽  
G Ravikumar ◽  
RP Aravindhbabu

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that causes abortions, infertility and mastitis in cattle. This research was aimed at investigating the temporal and spatial pattern, sex, age, breed wise distribution of leptospirosis in Tamil Nadu. A seroreactivity of 28.2% was noticed among cattle in seven agro-climatic zones. The temporal trend of leptospirosis recorded during the post-monsoon season (30.5%) was significant when compared to the pre-monsoon season (25.8%). The spatial distribution revealed a high proportion of leptospirosis (31.2%) in the North East zone in comparison with the other zones. The serogroups Australis (37.9%), Hebdomadis (30.6%), Hardjo (29.9%), Javanica (28.1%) and Pomona (19.7%) were predominant in all the agro-climatic zones. The observation of 44.2% seroreactivity in buffaloes is most probably associated with the wallowing behaviour. A high seroreactivity of 31.1% in Holstein Friesian than that compared with the native breed discloses a breed susceptibility. A seroreactivity of 30.2% in animals aged above three years shows an age-related susceptibility, but there was no significant difference between the sexes. The seroreactivity among the animals in an organised farm (33.8%) is higher than in individually reared animals (25.5%) indicating the impact of the rearing system. The three Leptospira strains isolated were identified as the Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis, Canicola and Sejroe. This study depicted the epidemiology of leptospirosis in cattle and emphasises the need of leptospirosis to be included in cattle health surveillance programmes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 77 (3) ◽  
pp. 99-107
Olexandr Hulai ◽  
Vitalii Hulai ◽  
Nataliia Tkachuk

Leptospira interrogans spirochetes belong to a group of pathogens of particularly dangerous infections that cause leptospirosis in many species of wild, farm and domestic animals, as well as humans. Significant economic damage caused by this disease to livestock around the world, numerous cases of death from leptospirosis, and mainly waterborne transmission of the infection determine the topicality of studying all the aspects of the existence of L. interrogans in freshwater ecosystems. The objective of our study was to determine the nature of ecological relationships between L. interrogans and green algae. We used green algae of the Desmodesmus brasiliensis species as a model object. In the experiments, sterile algae culture filtrates were added to L. interrogans containers grown at 27–28 °C. Comparison of the content of spirochete cells in the experiment and control samples, conducted 24 hours after exposure, showed that the reproduction of L. interrogans is markedly inhibited in the samples containing algae secretions at the dilutions of 1:10 and 1:100. In order to reduce resistance to the allelopathic influence of D. brasiliensis algae, leptospira strains were located as follows: Pomona, Australis, Hebdomadis, Canicola, Sejroe, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Tarassovi. The obtained results indicate a complex intraspecific structure of L. interrogans and their high ecological plasticity. In addition, experimental data indicate that, due to the release of biologically active substances into the aquatic environment, green algae have the potential to affect the dynamics of a number of leptospirosis pathogens in situ. Given the important epidemiological and epizootic significance of pathogenic leptospira, further research is necessary to determine the patterns of their interactions and existence in the environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. e31
Songtham Anuntakarun ◽  
Vorthon Sawaswong ◽  
Rungrat Jitvaropas ◽  
Kesmanee Praianantathavorn ◽  
Witthaya Poomipak ◽  

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In Thailand, Leptospira interrogans is a major cause of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis patients present with a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, mild infections to severe illness involving organ failure. For better understanding the difference between Leptospira isolates causing mild and severe leptospirosis, illumina sequencing was used to sequence genomic DNA in both serotypes. DNA of Leptospira isolated from two patients, one with mild and another with severe symptoms, were included in this study. The paired-end reads were removed adapters and trimmed with Q30 score using Trimmomatic. Trimmed reads were constructed to contigs and scaffolds using SPAdes. Cross-contamination of scaffolds was evaluated by ContEst16s. Prokka tool for bacterial annotation was used to annotate sequences from both Leptospira isolates. Predicted amino acid sequences from Prokka were searched in EggNOG and David gene ontology database to characterize gene ontology. In addition, Leptospira from mild and severe patients, that passed the criteria e-value < 10e-5 from blastP against virulence factor database, were used to analyze with Venn diagram. From this study, we found 13 and 12 genes that were unique in the isolates from mild and severe patients, respectively. The 12 genes in the severe isolate might be virulence factor genes that affect disease severity. However, these genes should be validated in further study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (38) ◽  
Ivana Piredda ◽  
Fabio Scarpa ◽  
Daria Sanna ◽  
Marco Casu ◽  
Maria Nicoletta Ponti ◽  

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by a pathogenic group of bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira . Here, we report four draft genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona isolated on Sardinia (Italy) from four different species of mammals (i.e., dolphin, wild boar, cow, and fox).

Jo Ann Wong

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Humans acquire the infection either through direct contact with the urine of infected animals, commonly rats or indirect contact of contaminated water or soil. It is a rare cause of acute hepatitis in the UK with fewer than 100 reported cases a year and hence diagnosis is commonly delayed. A 51-year-old fit Caucasian gentleman was admitted with a one-week history of painless jaundice, dark urine and pale-coloured stools. This was associated with feeling unwell, anorexia, nausea and intermittent epigastric discomfort. He binges on alcohol on a weekend. He works as a telephone engineer which occasionally exposes him to sewage water. On clinical examination, he was icteric with mild right hypochondriac tenderness. Liver biopsy was performed and histologically it was suggestive of leptospirosis. He was started on a five-day course of intravenous ceftriaxone followed by two days course of oral doxycycline. His IgM leptospirosis result finally came back as positive. Due to the rarity of leptospirosis in the UK, the serological testing of leptospirosis is only performed in the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory in Porton Down, Salisbury leading to a delay in getting the result. The patient underwent an invasive procedure which can be avoided if the leptospirosis serology was ordered early and result available quickly. Fortunately, the patient made a full recovery after two months. Leptospirosis should be considered in an individual with acute hepatitis and a history of exposure to sewage.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S22

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 933
Elisabeth Schmidt ◽  
Anna Obiegala ◽  
Christian Imholt ◽  
Stephan Drewes ◽  
Marion Saathoff ◽  

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease with more than 1 million human cases annually. Infections are associated with direct contact to infected animals or indirect contact to contaminated water or soil. As not much is known about the prevalence and host specificity of Leptospira spp. in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), our study aimed to evaluate Leptospira spp. prevalence and genomospecies distribution as well as the influence of season, host abundance and individual characteristics on the Leptospira prevalence. Bank voles, which are abundant and widely distributed in forest habitats, were collected in the years 2018 to 2020 in North-West Germany, covering parts of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The DNA of 1817 kidney samples was analyzed by real-time PCR targeting the lipl32 gene. Positive samples were further analyzed by targeting the secY gene to determine Leptospira genomospecies and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the sequence type (ST). The overall prevalence was 7.5% (95% confidence interval: 6.4–8.9). Leptospira interrogans (83.3%), L. kirschneri (11.5%) and L. borgpetersenii (5.2%) were detected in bank voles. Increasing body weight as a proxy for age increased the individual infection probability. Only in years with high bank vole abundance was this probability significantly higher in males than in females. Even if case numbers of human leptospirosis in Germany are low, our study shows that pathogenic Leptospira spp. are present and thus a persisting potential source for human infection.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2722
Diana Žele-Vengušt ◽  
Renata Lindtner-Knific ◽  
Nina Mlakar-Hrženjak ◽  
Klemen Jerina ◽  
Gorazd Vengušt

A total of 249 serum samples from 13 wild animal species namely fallow deer (Dama dama, n = 1), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 80), red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 22), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra, n = 21), mouflon (Ovis musimon, n = 4), brown hare (Lepus europaeus, n = 2), nutria (Myocastor coypus, n = 1), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 97), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 12), European badger (Meles meles, n = 2), golden jackal (Canis aureus, n = 2) Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx, n = 2) and grey wolf (Canis lupus, n = 3) were analysed for the presence of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto. Serum samples were examined via the microscopic agglutination test for the presence of specific antibodies against Leptospira serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Sejroe, Australis, Autumnalis, Canicola, Saxkoebing and Tarassovi. Antibodies to at least one of the pathogenic serovars were detected in 77 (30.9%; CI = 25–37%) sera. The proportion of positive samples varied intraspecifically and was the biggest in large carnivores (lynx, wolf and jackal; 86%), followed by mezzo predators: stone marten (67%) and red fox (34%), and large herbivores: red deer (32%), roe deer (25%), alpine chamois (10%) and mouflon (0%). Out of the 77 positive samples, 42 samples (53.8%) had positive titres against a single serovar, while 35 (45.4%) samples had positive titres against two or more serovars. The most frequently detected antibodies were those against the serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. The present study confirmed the presence of multiple pathogenic serovars in wildlife throughout Slovenia. It can be concluded that wild animals are reservoirs for at least some of the leptospiral serovars and are a potential source of leptospirosis for other wild and domestic animals, as well as for humans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Garoma Desa ◽  
Yosef Deneke ◽  
Feyissa Begna ◽  
Tadele Tolosa

A cross-sectional study was conducted on selected dairy farms in and around Jimma town, Oromia, southwestern Ethiopia from November 2019 to May 2020 to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo). Furthermore, information was gathered on individual animal and herd level by using pretested semistructured questionnaire to assess associated risk factors. A stratified and simple random sampling procedure was used for the selection of dairy farms and individual animal’s, respectively. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) was used in this study to detect antibody against L. hardjo. Out of 384 animal’s sera, 94 animals were seropositive against L. hardjo antibodies. From 77 dairy farms selected for the study, 57 of them were distinguished as positive for L. hardjo. The overall seroprevalence of leptospirosis caused by L. hardjo was 24.48% (95% CI: 20.18%–28.78%) and 74.03% (95% CI: 64.23%–83.82%) at individual animal and farm level, respectively. The result of multilogistic regression analysis revealed that management system ( p  < 0.05; OR = 4.25 (95% CI: 2.31–7.82)), hygienic status of the farm ( p  < 0.05; OR = 0.35 (95% CI: 0.20–0.61)), age of animals ( p  < 0.05; OR = 8.30 (95% CI: 1.87–36.89)), history of abortion ( p  < 0.05; OR = 8.37 (95% CI: 1.73–40.42)), herd size ( p  < 0.05; OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.17–4.61)), and access of rodents to the farm ( p  < 0.05; OR = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.03–0.86)) were significantly associated with the occurrence of L. hardjo infection. However, breed, parity, and introduction of new animals to the farm were insignificantly associated ( p  > 0.05). Management system of the animal, hygienic status of the farm, herd size, age of animals, previous history of abortion, and access of rodents to the farm were identified as potential risk factors of L. hardjo disease occurrence. Thus, limiting rodents contact with cattle and their feed and water as well as good sanitary practices and husbandry management should be undertaken.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1198
Siti Roszilawati Ramli ◽  
Boyke Bunk ◽  
Cathrin Spröer ◽  
Robert Geffers ◽  
Michael Jarek ◽  

The ability of Leptospirae to persist in environments and animal hosts but to cause clinically highly variable disease in humans has made leptospirosis the most common zoonotic disease. Considering the paucity of data on variation in complete genomes of human pathogenic Leptospirae, we have used a combination of Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing to obtain complete genome sequences of six human clinical L. interrogans isolates from Malaysia. All six contained the larger (4.28–4.56 Mb) and smaller (0.34–0.395 Mb) chromosome typical of human pathogenic Leptospirae and 0–7 plasmids. Only 24% of the plasmid sequences could be matched to databases. We identified a core genome of 3271 coding sequences and strain-specific accessory genomes of 50–352 coding sequences. These sequences enabled detailed genomic strain typing (Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny, DNA–DNA hybridization, and multi locus sequence typing) and phylogenetic classification (whole-genome SNP genotyping). Even though there was some shared synteny and collinearity across the six genomes, there was evidence of major genome rearrangement, likely driven by horizontal gene transfer and homologous recombination. Mobile genetic elements were identified in all strains in highly varying numbers, including in the rfb locus, which defines serogroups and contributes to immune escape and pathogenesis. On the other hand, there was high conservation of virulence-associated genes including those relating to sialic acid, alginate, and lipid A biosynthesis. These findings suggest (i) that the antigenic variation, adaption to various host environments, and broad spectrum of virulence of L. interrogans are in part due to a high degree of genomic plasticity and (ii) that human pathogenic strains maintain a core set of genes required for virulence.

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