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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 333
Luca Oggioni ◽  
David Sanchez del Rio Kandel ◽  
Giorgio Pariani

In the framework of earth observation for scientific purposes, we consider a multiband spatial compressive sensing (CS) acquisition system, based on a pushbroom scanning. We conduct a series of analyses to address the effects of the satellite movement on its performance in a context of a future space mission aimed at monitoring the cryosphere. We initially apply the state-of-the-art techniques of CS to static images, and evaluate the reconstruction errors on representative scenes of the earth. We then extend the reconstruction algorithms to pushframe acquisitions, i.e., static images processed line-by-line, and pushbroom acquisitions, i.e., moving frames, which consider the payload displacement during acquisition. A parallel analysis on the classical pushbroom acquisition strategy is also performed for comparison. Design guidelines following this analysis are then provided.

2022 ◽  
Stefanie WY Yip ◽  
James F Griffith ◽  
Ryan KL Lee ◽  
King Lok Liu

Four-dimensional (4D) CT uniquely allows cinematic visualization of the entirety of joint motion throughout dynamic movement, which can reveal subtle or transient internal joint derangements not evident on static images. As developmental anomalies of the posterior arch can predispose to cervical spinal instability and neurological morbidity, precise assessment of spinal movement during motion is of clinical relevance. We describe the use of 4D-CT in a subject with partial absence of posterior C1 arch. This, to our knowledge, is the first such report. In at-risk individuals, 4D-CT has the potential to enable an assessment of spinal instability with a higher level of clarity and, in this sense, its more routine implementation may be a future direction.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Kirsten D. Gillette ◽  
Erin M. Phillips ◽  
Daniel D. Dilks ◽  
Gregory S. Berns

Previous research to localize face areas in dogs’ brains has generally relied on static images or videos. However, most dogs do not naturally engage with two-dimensional images, raising the question of whether dogs perceive such images as representations of real faces and objects. To measure the equivalency of live and two-dimensional stimuli in the dog’s brain, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we presented dogs and humans with live-action stimuli (actors and objects) as well as videos of the same actors and objects. The dogs (n = 7) and humans (n = 5) were presented with 20 s blocks of faces and objects in random order. In dogs, we found significant areas of increased activation in the putative dog face area, and in humans, we found significant areas of increased activation in the fusiform face area to both live and video stimuli. In both dogs and humans, we found areas of significant activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (ectosylvian fissure in dogs) and the lateral occipital complex (entolateral gyrus in dogs) to both live and video stimuli. Of these regions of interest, only the area along the ectosylvian fissure in dogs showed significantly more activation to live faces than to video faces, whereas, in humans, both the fusiform face area and posterior superior temporal sulcus responded significantly more to live conditions than video conditions. However, using the video conditions alone, we were able to localize all regions of interest in both dogs and humans. Therefore, videos can be used to localize these regions of interest, though live conditions may be more salient.

2022 ◽  
pp. 627-663
Giulia Giorgi

The chapter proposes an empirically oriented analysis of the memetic production on Instagram. Defined as multimodal cultural artifacts, combining visual and textual material to convey humoristic messages, internet memes proliferate across the web, spawning new popular formats and layouts. However, many scholars still rely on outdated conceptualisations or limited samples for their studies. To anchor investigation on memes to the actual production, the research answers the questions: (1) Which meme formats are currently circulating online? (2) How do popular meme formats convey their message? To this end, a dataset of static images collected on Instagram was examined with qualitative visual and discourse analysis. Findings point at the possibility to adopt a bottom-up approach to recognize and classify memes, exploiting shared features of content and form. Furthermore, this categorization offers insights on the most productive mechanisms of meme production: contextually, results show a tendency towards formats that trigger identification, leveraging on relatable life situations.

Kevin Loewke ◽  
Justina Hyunjii Cho ◽  
Camelia D. Brumar ◽  
Paxton Maeder-York ◽  
Oleksii Barash ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 223-235
Merve Eflatun ◽  

Interdisciplinary approaches and distinctive representation methods are needed to expand the range of meaning in the architecture and to consider the design process in unique frameworks. Literature disrupts the static images produced for the city in the context of the imaginative weight and the various dynamics it makes with the reader also uses the city, space, and architecture to create a different dimension of representation. This situation, which is inspected in the article regarding the relationship between literature, city, and architecture, will be examined through the "Laughable Places" workshop, that is part of the e-workshop days held at Gebze Technical University in February 2021. In this sense, firstly the relationship between literature and architecture and the revealing of their potentials are handled through the imaginative, representational and textual dimensions. Than through various workshops where the relationship between fictional narrative and architecture is applied, it is reviewed in which contexts fictional narrative can be included in the intellectual process of design. This review has been grouped according to the method in the workshop setups, using the fictional narrative based on literary works or the writing fictional narratives by participants. The workshop process was interpreted through the hybridity of the two approaches.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259367
Vladislava Segen ◽  
Marios Avraamides ◽  
Timothy Slattery ◽  
Giorgio Colombo ◽  
Jan Malte Wiener

Online data collection offers a wide range of benefits including access to larger and more diverse populations, together with a reduction in the experiment cycle. Here we compare performance in a spatial memory task, in which participants had to estimate object locations following viewpoint shifts, using data from a controlled lab-based setting and from an unsupervised online sample. We found that the data collected in a conventional laboratory setting and those collected online produced very similar results, although the online data was more variable with standard errors being about 10% larger than those of the data collected in the lab. Overall, our findings suggest that spatial memory studies using static images can be successfully carried out online with unsupervised samples. However, given the higher variability of the online data, it is recommended that the online sample size is increased to achieve similar standard errors to those obtained in the lab. For the current study and data processing procedures, this would require an online sample 25% larger than the lab sample.

2021 ◽  
pp. 217-228
Corey Moore

Platforms such as YouTube feature materials titled “Teahouse in Ancient China - Historical Ambience XXABSTRACT Music” or “Tea Ceremony Music”. Prima facie, these have parallels with the modern Western concept of the “coffee shop playlist”, which has become quite commonplace as a study or work aid. However, the passive listening habits associated with these kinds of playlists contrast with the varied entertainment culture experienced in the functioning teahouses of modern China, where performative aspects are the focus, for example. In this paper, I explore how Chinese teahouse music is presented on YouTube, drawing comparisons between playlists accompanied by static images and samples of recorded performances found on the platform. Finally, I discuss the potential problems arising from such representations of the Chinese teahouse.

2021 ◽  
Sophia Shatek ◽  
Amanda K Robinson ◽  
Tijl Grootswagers ◽  
Thomas A. Carlson

The ability to perceive moving objects is crucial for survival and threat identification. The association between the ability to move and being alive is learned early in childhood, yet not all moving objects are alive. Natural, non-agentive movement (e.g., clouds, fire) causes confusion in children and adults under time pressure. Recent neuroimaging evidence has shown that the visual system processes objects on a spectrum according to their ability to engage in self-propelled, goal-directed movement. Most prior work has used only moving stimuli that are also animate, so it is difficult to disentangle the effect of movement from aliveness or animacy in representational categorisation. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between movement and aliveness using both behavioural and neural measures. We examined electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while participants viewed static images of moving or non-moving objects that were either natural or artificial. Participants classified the images according to aliveness, or according to capacity for movement. Behavioural classification showed two key categorisation biases: moving natural things were often mistaken to be alive, and often classified as not moving. Movement explained significant variance in the neural data, during both a classification task and passive viewing. These results show that capacity for movement is an important dimension in the structure of human visual object representations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10549
Vasileios Panis ◽  
Erwan Donal

Cardiac imaging techniques include a variety of distinct applications with which we can visualize cardiac function non-invasively. Through different applications of physical entities such as sound waves, X-rays, magnetic fields, and nuclear energy, along with highly sophisticated computer hardware and software, it is now possible to reconstruct the dynamic aspect of cardiac function in many forms, from static images to high-definition videos and real-time three-dimensional projections. In this review, we will describe the fundamental principles of the most widely used techniques and, more specifically, which imaging modality and on what occasion we should use them in order to analyze different aspects of cardiac function.

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