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2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 100001
Chiharu Ueda ◽  
Junsu Park ◽  
Kazuya Hirose ◽  
Subaru Konishi ◽  
Yuka Ikemoto ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 842
Ahmed Ali Nada ◽  
Anita Eckstein Andicsová ◽  
Jaroslav Mosnáček

Electrically conductive materials that are fabricated based on natural polymers have seen significant interest in numerous applications, especially when advanced properties such as self-healing are introduced. In this article review, the hydrogels that are based on natural polymers containing electrically conductive medium were covered, while both irreversible and reversible cross-links are presented. Among the conductive media, a special focus was put on conductive polymers, such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polyacetylene, and polythiophenes, which can be potentially synthesized from renewable resources. Preparation methods of the conductive irreversible hydrogels that are based on these conductive polymers were reported observing their electrical conductivity values by Siemens per centimeter (S/cm). Additionally, the self-healing systems that were already applied or applicable in electrically conductive hydrogels that are based on natural polymers were presented and classified based on non-covalent or covalent cross-links. The real-time healing, mechanical stability, and electrically conductive values were highlighted.

2022 ◽  
Jasjot Singh ◽  
Hadeer Elhabashy ◽  
Pathma Muthukottiappan ◽  
Markus Stepath ◽  
Martin Eisenacher ◽  

Lysosomes are well-established as the main cellular organelles for the degradation of macromolecules and emerging as regulatory centers of metabolism. They are of crucial importance for cellular homeostasis, which is exemplified by a plethora of disorders related to alterations in lysosomal function. In this context, protein complexes play a decisive role, regulating not only metabolic lysosomal processes, but also lysosome biogenesis, transport, and interaction with other organelles. Using cross-linking mass spectrometry, we analyzed lysosomes and early endosomes. Based on the identification of 5,376 cross-links, we investigated protein-protein interactions and structures of lysosome- and endosome-related proteins. In particular, we present evidence for a tetrameric assembly of the lysosomal hydrolase PPT1 and heterodimeric/-multimeric structures of FLOT1/FLOT2 at lysosomes and early endosomes. For FLOT1-/FLOT2-positive early endosomes, we identified >300 proteins presenting putative cargo, and confirm the latrophilin family of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors as substrates for flotillin-dependent endocytosis.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 208
Sidra Saleemi ◽  
Mohamed Amine Aouraghe ◽  
Xiaoxiao Wei ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Li Liu ◽  

The cross-linked hierarchical structure in biological systems provides insight into the development of innovative material structures. Specifically, the sarcoplasmic reticulum muscle is able to transmit electrical impulses in skeletal muscle due to its cross-linked hierarchical tubular cell structure. Inspired by the cross-linked tubular cell structure, we designed and built chemical cross-links between the carbon nanotubes within the carbon nanotube yarn (CNT yarn) structure by an esterification reaction. Consequently, compared with the pristine CNT yarn, its electrical conductivity dramatically enhanced 348%, from 557 S/cm to 1950 S/cm. Furthermore, when applied with three voltages, the electro-thermal temperature of esterified CNT yarn reached 261 °C, much higher than that of pristine CNT yarn (175 °C). In addition, the esterified CNT yarn exhibits a linear and stable piezo-resistive response, with a 158% enhanced gauge factor (the ratio of electrical resistance changing to strain change ~1.9). The superconductivity, flexibility, and stable sensitivity of the esterified flexible CNT yarn demonstrate its great potential in the applications of intelligent devices, smart clothing, or other advanced composites.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 178
Dominik Sziklai ◽  
Judit Sallai ◽  
Zsombor Papp ◽  
Dalma Kellermayer ◽  
Zsolt Mártonfalvi ◽  

Titin is a multifunctional filamentous protein anchored in the M-band, a hexagonally organized supramolecular lattice in the middle of the muscle sarcomere. Functionally, the M-band is a framework that cross-links myosin thick filaments, organizes associated proteins, and maintains sarcomeric symmetry via its structural and putative mechanical properties. Part of the M-band appears at the C-terminal end of isolated titin molecules in the form of a globular head, named here the “M-complex”, which also serves as the point of head-to-head attachment of titin. We used high-resolution atomic force microscopy and nanosurgical manipulation to investigate the topographical and internal structure and local mechanical properties of the M-complex and its associated titin molecules. We find that the M-complex is a stable structure that corresponds to the transverse unit of the M-band organized around the myosin thick filament. M-complexes may be interlinked into an M-complex array that reflects the local structural and mechanical status of the transversal M-band lattice. Local segments of titin and the M-complex could be nanosurgically manipulated to achieve extension and domain unfolding. Long threads could be pulled out of the M-complex, suggesting that it is a compact supramolecular reservoir of extensible filaments. Nanosurgery evoked an unexpected volume increment in the M-complex, which may be related to its function as a mechanical spacer. The M-complex thus displays both elastic and plastic properties which support the idea that the M-band may be involved in mechanical functions within the muscle sarcomere.

Swagata Mondal ◽  
Jacob J. Lessard ◽  
Chhuttan L. Meena ◽  
Gangadhar J. Sanjayan ◽  
Brent S. Sumerlin

2022 ◽  
Weijie Zhang ◽  
Pengyun Gong ◽  
Yichu Shan ◽  
Lili Zhao ◽  
Honeke Hu ◽  

We developed SpotLink software for identifying site non-specific cross-links at the proteome scale. Contributed by the dual pointer dynamic pruning (DPDP) algorithm and the quality control of cross-linking sites, SpotLink identified more than 3000 cross-links from human proteome database with rich site information in a few days. We demonstrated that SpotLink outperformed other approaches in terms of sensitivity and precision on a simulated dataset and a protein complexes dataset with known structures. Additionally, we discovered some valuable protein-protein interaction (PPI) information contained in the protein complexes dataset and HeLa dataset, indicating the unique identification advantages of site non-specific cross-linking. The excellent performance of SpotLink will increase the usage of site non-specific cross-linking in the near future. SpotLink is publicly available on GitHub [].

Shiva Prasad U ◽  
Akshay Gharat ◽  
Minal Babar ◽  
Priyansh Saxena ◽  
Vaibhav Arya

The Primarily focus on Graphene Aerogel, its synthesis and structural integrity together with high electrical conduction. Graphene could be a new nanocarbon that has, single-, bi- or few- layers of carbon atoms forming membered rings. Mechanically powerful and electrically semiconductive graphene aerogels will be produced by either essential drying or freeze of gel precursors integration from the reduction of graphene substance with L-ascorbic acid. In distinction to ways in which utilize physical cross-links between GO, this approach provides valency carbon bonding between the graphene sheets. The graphene aerogels put together possess large surface areas and pore volumes, creating those materials to a feasible possibility to be used in energy repository, catalysis, and sensing applications. We've additionally showcased some applications for Graphene Aerogel such as their electrical conductivities, Lithium-ion batteries and electrical phenomenon devices, Supercapacitors and photocatalysis.

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