The highly fragmented blockchain and cryptocurrency ecosystem necessitates interoperability mechanisms as a requirement for blockchain-technology acceptance. The immediate implication of interchain interoperability is automatic swapping between cryptocurrencies. We performed a systematic review of the existing literature on Blockchain interoperability and atomic cross-chain transactions. We investigated different blockchain interoperability approaches, including industrial solutions, categorized them and identified the key mechanisms used, and list several example projects for each category. We focused on the atomic transactions between blockchain, a process also known as atomic swap. Furthermore, we studied recent implementations along with architectural approaches for atomic swap and deduced research issues and challenges in cross-chain interoperability and atomic swap. Atomic swap can instantly transfer tokens and significantly reduce the associated costs without using any centralized authority, and thus facilitates the development of a sustainable payment system for wider financial inclusion.
With the improvement of inclusive financial system, China’s economy has made significant development and growth. It worth in-depth investigation on environmental impact of financial inclusion, since growing GDP usually accompanied by more intensive carbon emission. This paper aims to reveal whether financial inclusion contributes to the carbon reduction in China using county-level dataset. A fixed-effect panel regression approach is adopted to examine the impact of financial inclusion on county-level regional carbon emissions. The estimation results imply that financial inclusion plays an important role in reducing carbon emissions. The mediation effect analysis reveals two channels through which financial inclusion imposes negative impact on the level of regional carbon emissions. One is to elevate the carbon sequestration capacity by increasing vegetation coverage, and the other is to improve the industrial structure through enhanced financial support. In addition to being a bridge between economic opportunity and output, financial inclusion can also act as an effective measure for addressing climate change.
Twelve (12) out of the Twenty-three (23) local government areas (LGAs) in Benue State do not have the presence of banks over a long period of time. This situation has deprived the inhabitants of these LGAs of access to formal financial services until the advent of agency banking. This study therefore, investigates the impact of agency banking on financial inclusion and economic activities in Benue State focusing on the agency banking activities of First Bank Ltd. The study is anchored on the agency theory and it used a survey design. The study has utilized both primary and secondary data that were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools and structural equation models. Findings of the study have revealed that agency banking activities of First Bank Ltd have immensely enhanced financial inclusion and economic activities in Benue State. However, challenges such as shortages of cash, security problems, network failures, and lack of financial literacy are militating against the smooth operations of the agency banking in the State. On the basis of these findings, the study has recommended among others that, other banks operating in the State should be encouraged to venture into agency banking in the state so as to have a wider coverage of agency banking in the State. Also, government should provide security and partner with the private sector to provide national carrier communication network system to overcome the network failure challenge. Finally, banks should intensify efforts to educate the masses about the validity and potency of agency banking.
The goal of this article is to examine the antecedents of behavioral intention toward mobile money, as well as the mediating role of trust on behavioral intention and ﬁnancial inclusion in Vietnam during the COVID-19 period, using an expanded uniﬁed theory of technology acceptance and use (UTAUT2). The data were collected by an online self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SmartPLS 3.3.3. To determine the exogenous constructs’ relevance and performance, a matrix analysis of importanceperformancewas used. The ﬁndings indicate that behavioral desire to use mobile money is primarily driven by awareness, structural assurance, habit, and performance expectation. The behavioral intention of mobile money will substantially inﬂuence its adoption, and trust will not act as a mediator between behavioral intention and ﬁnancial inclusion. The extended UTAUT2 was used for the ﬁrst time to analyze mobile money in Vietnam. Additionally, the new research provides a more comprehensive explanation for users’ ﬁnancial inclusion than past research provided.
PurposeThe paper aims to study the outreach and performance of business correspondent (BC) models, which are implemented as a subsidiary agent of banks to accelerate the financial inclusion (FI) mission in India. In this regard, the study illustrates BC's products and services rendered to customers, forms of delivery channels and BC's view on banking services and Kiosk-based BC programs.Design/methodology/approachThe current paper is an empirical study based on surveying 200 Kiosk-based BCs working in the state of Kerala. After the preliminary screening analysis of the data with outlier deletion, removal of missing values and normality test, both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were executed followed by reliability test, convergent and discriminant validity tests. Covariance-based structural equation modeling (CBSEM) was performed for CFA and inferential tests were carried out by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) and analysis of a moment structures (AMOS) and Eviews.FindingsChiefly, eight operational forms of BCs were found from the field survey. Hypothetical tests show the significant impact of the serviceability of banks on BC's profitability. Validity tests such as average variance extracted (AVE), composite reliability (CR), maximum shared variance (MSV) and average shared variance (ASV) were established after the removal of the cross-loaded items of the questionnaire from the rotated component matrix. BCs perform main banking services especially bank account opening facility and Akshaya E-Centers are widely used for this model as Kiosk banking in the surveyed state.Originality/valueSo far, no study has encompassed empirical research on performance analysis and outreach of the BC model in the state of Kerala where this BC model well functions. Since the study is a novel form of banking channelization for FI, the study can contribute to understanding the further feasibility and future dimension of the model based on experimental views of BCs.
Problem definition: Recent developments in mobile payment services (MPS) have shown an increasing role of mobile-government (m-government) initiatives in improving the market performance of mobile network operators (MNOs) and financial inclusion. High costs and operational challenges have discouraged MNOs from fully committing to the development of MPS, but government involvement under m-government may increase MNO user bases by providing the scale and scope necessary to incentivize MNOs. Academic/practical relevance: Extant research on mobile payment has ignored the role of governments as important stakeholders in the mobile financial ecosystem. Our research contributes to the literature by examining the role of governments as business partners in MPS launches and the effect of government involvement on MNO user bases. Methodology: Using a unique proprietary data set from the mobile network industry, we design a quasi-experiment to examine the causal effects of government involvement in MPS on MNOs’ total mobile connections. More importantly, we adopt a changes-in-changes (CIC) estimation approach to further establish nonlinear treatment effects of government involvement based on MNO size and MPS type. Results: We find that government involvement expands MNO user bases beyond MPS launches. Such effects increase with MNO size and MPS variety, favoring larger MNOs and, to a certain degree, MNOs with diverse offerings of government-involved MPS. Government involvement in MPS launches also directly benefits MNOs with microloan services. In addition, government regulations and policies to encourage financial inclusion can also expand MNO user bases. Managerial implications: Governments play a critical role in promoting technologies and financial services both as a regulator and as a business partner. To improve market performance, MNOs should take advantage of the scale and scope of government services by partnering with government agencies in launching MPS. MNOs should also embrace government policies and regulations to increase user bases.