Entropy Theory
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2022 ◽  
pp. 127404
Farhad Bahmanpouri ◽  
Silvia Barbetta ◽  
Carlo Gualtieri ◽  
Marco Ianniruberto ◽  
Naziano Filizola ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10 ◽  
Jue Li ◽  
Hui Wei ◽  
Yongsheng Yao ◽  
Xin Hu ◽  
Lei Wang

In view of the deficiency that traditional pavement performance evaluation index did not consider the influence of their difference on weight, the grade of the evaluation index also did not take into account intermediate state and the impact of uncertainty on the evaluation results, a determination method of pavement performance evaluation index weight based on entropy theory was developed. The unascertained measurement function of evaluation index was performed by left-half ladder distribution, and unascertained measurement matrix was obtained. The index weight was calculated by minimum entropy theory, and the practicability of this method was verified through a concrete example finally. The results show that there were different weights in different samples, which depended on index measurement function and were the overall characterization of comprehensive measurement of every index. The method which is based on the given weighting factor did not conform to the engineering facts. It was difficult to identify the importance of the pavement performance evaluation index in different samples. The balance of the various indexes is better to be considered in the proposed method, and the comprehensive situation of pavement performance is really reflected, which improves the evaluation of the reliability.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Bhaveer Bhana ◽  
Stephen Vincent Flowerday

Purpose The average employee spends a total of 18.6 h every two months on password-related activities, including password retries and resets. The problem is caused by the user forgetting or mistyping the password (usually because of character switching). The source of this issue is that while a password containing combinations of lowercase characters, uppercase characters, digits and special characters (LUDS) offers a reasonable level of security, it is complex to type and/or memorise, which prolongs the user authentication process. This results in much time being spent for no benefit (as perceived by users), as the user authentication process is merely a prerequisite for whatever a user intends to accomplish. This study aims to address this issue, passphrases that exclude the LUDS guidelines are proposed. Design/methodology/approach To discover constructs that create security and to investigate usability concerns relating to the memory and typing issues concerning passphrases, this study was guided by three theories as follows: Shannon’s entropy theory was used to assess security, chunking theory to analyse memory issues and the keystroke level model to assess typing issues. These three constructs were then evaluated against passwords and passphrases to determine whether passphrases better address the security and usability issues related to text-based user authentication. A content analysis was performed to identify common password compositions currently used. A login assessment experiment was used to collect data on user authentication and user – system interaction with passwords and passphrases in line with the constructs that have an impact on user authentication issues related to security, memory and typing. User–system interaction data was collected from a purposeful sample size of 112 participants, logging in at least once a day for 10 days. An expert review, which comprised usability and security experts with specific years of industry and/or academic experience, was also used to validate results and conclusions. All the experts were given questions and content to ensure sufficient context was provided and relevant feedback was obtained. A pilot study involving 10 participants (experts in security and/or usability) was performed on the login assessment website and the content was given to the experts beforehand. Both the website and the expert review content was refined after feedback was received from the pilot study. Findings It was concluded that, overall, passphrases better support the user during the user authentication process in terms of security, memory issues and typing issues. Originality/value This research aims at promoting the use of a specific type of passphrase instead of complex passwords. Three core aspects need to be assessed in conjunction with each other (security, memorisation and typing) to determine whether user-friendly passphrases can support user authentication better than passwords.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (11) ◽  
pp. 1540
Yeon-Moon Choo ◽  
Hae-Seong Jeon ◽  
Jong-Cheol Seo

Korean river design standards set general design standards for rivers and river-related projects in Korea, which systematize the technologies and methods involved in river-related projects. This includes measurement methods for parts necessary for river design, but does not include information on shear stress. Shear stress is one of the factors necessary for river design and operation. Shear stress is one of the most important hydraulic factors used in the fields of water, especially for artificial channel design. Shear stress is calculated from the frictional force caused by viscosity and fluctuating fluid velocity. Current methods are based on past calculations, but factors such as boundary shear stress or energy gradient are difficult to actually measure or estimate. The point velocity throughout the entire cross-section is needed to calculate the velocity gradient. In other words, the current Korean river design standards use tractive force and critical tractive force instead of shear stress because it is more difficult to calculate the shear stress in the current method. However, it is difficult to calculate the exact value due to the limitations of the formula to obtain the river factor called the tractive force. In addition, tractive force has limitations that use an empirically identified base value for use in practice. This paper focuses on the modeling of shear-stress distribution in open channel turbulent flow using entropy theory. In addition, this study suggests a shear stress distribution formula, which can easily be used in practice after calculating the river-specific factor T. The tractive force and critical tractive force in the Korean river design standards should be modified by the shear stress obtained by the proposed shear stress distribution method. The present study therefore focuses on the modeling of shear stress distribution in an open channel turbulent flow using entropy theory. The shear stress distribution model is tested using a wide range of forty-two experimental runs collected from the literature. Then, an error analysis is performed to further evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model. The results reveal a correlation coefficient of approximately 0.95–0.99, indicating that the proposed method can estimate shear-stress distribution accurately. Based on this, the results of the distribution of shear stress after calculating the river-specific factors show a correlation coefficient of about 0.86 to 0.98, which suggests that the equation can be applied in practice.

2021 ◽  
Fang Zhang ◽  
Zhao Xinpeng ◽  
Dongsheng Wang ◽  
Nana Han ◽  
Zihan Yu ◽  

Emoke Imre ◽  
István Talata ◽  
Daniel Barreto ◽  
Maria Datcheva ◽  
Wiebke Baille ◽  

Why fractal distribution is so frequent? It is true that fractal dimension is always less than 3? Why fractal dimension of 2.5 to 2.9 seems to be steady-state or stable? Why the fractal distributions are the limit distributions of the degradation path? Is there an ultimate distribution? It is shown that the finite fractal grain size distributions occurring in the nature are identical to the optimal grading curves of the grading entropy theory and, the fractal dimension n varies between –¥ and ¥. It is shown that the fractal dimensions 2.2–2.9 may be situated in the transitional stability zone, verifying the internal stability criterion of the grading entropy theory. Micro computed tomography (μCT) images and DEM (distinct element method) studies are presented to show the link between stable microstructure and internal stability. On the other hand, it is shown that the optimal grading curves are mean position grading curves that can be used to represent all possible grading curves.

2021 ◽  
Micah Brush ◽  
Thomas J. Matthews ◽  
Paulo A.V. Borges ◽  
John Harte

AbstractHuman activity and land management practices, in particular land use change, have resulted in the global loss of biodiversity. These types of disturbances affect the shape of macroecological patterns, and analyzing these patterns can provide insights into how ecosystems are affected by land use change. The Maximum Entropy Theory of Ecology (METE) simultaneously predicts many of these patterns using a set of ecological state variables: the number of species, the number of individuals, and the total metabolic rate. The theory’s predictions have been shown to be successful across habitats and taxa in undisturbed natural ecosystems, although previous tests of METE in relation to disturbance have focused primarily on systems where the state variables are changing relatively quickly. Here, we assess predictions of METE applied to a different type of disturbance: land use change. We use METE to simultaneously predict the species abundance distribution (SAD), the metabolic rate distribution of individuals (MRDI), and the species–area relationship (SAR) and compare these predictions to arthropod data from 96 sites at Terceira Island in the Azores archipelago across four different land uses of increasing management intensity: 1. native forest, 2. exotic forest, 3. semi-natural pasture, and 4. intensive pasture. Across these patterns, we find that the forest habitats are the best fit by METE predictions, while the semi-natural pasture consistently provided the worst fit. The intensive pasture is intermediately well fit for the SAD and MRDI, and comparatively well fit for the SAR, though the residuals are not normally distributed. The direction of failure of the METE predictions at the pasture sites is likely due to the hyperdominance of introduced spider species present there. We hypothesize that the particularly poor fit for the semi-natural pasture is due to the mix of arthropod communities out of equilibrium and the changing management practices throughout the year, leading to greater heterogeneity in composition and complex dynamics that violate METE’s assumption of static state variables. The comparative better fit for the intensive pasture could then result from more homogeneous arthropod communities that are well adapted to intensive management, and thus whose state variables are less in flux.

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