immune defence
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaonan Guan ◽  
Regiane R. Santos ◽  
Hannele Kettunen ◽  
Juhani Vuorenmaa ◽  
Francesc Molist

With the ban of zinc oxide (ZnO) at high dosages in piglet diets in Europe by 2022, alternative nutritional solutions are being tested to support piglet immune defence during their weaning, the most critical and stressful moment of pig production. The present study evaluated the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO; 2,500 mg/kg diet) and resin acid concentrate (RAC; 200 mg/kg diet) on the immune defence of weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Piglets were challenged at days 7 and 21 post-weaning, and blood was sampled 1.5 and 3.0 h after each challenge to determine serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The levels of serum tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) increased at days 7 and 21, and those of IL-6 at day 21 when challenged piglets were fed a diet supplemented with ZnO. In challenged piglets fed with RAC, the serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were increased at days 7 and 21, except for that of IL-1β, which was not affected at day 21. The increased levels of these cytokines indicate the successful immune-modulatory effect of ZnO and RAC, which appears as a candidate to replace ZnO in weaned piglets' diets.

Leandro Barros ◽  
Cristina Ferreira ◽  
Marc Veldhoen

AbstractT cells located in non-lymphoid tissues have come to prominence in recent years. CD8+ tissue-resident memory (Trm) cells are important for tissue immune surveillance, provide an important line of defence against invading pathogens and show promise in cancer therapies. These cells differ in phenotype from other memory populations, are adapted to the tissue they home to where they found their cognate antigen and have different metabolic requirements for survival and activation. CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells also consist of specialised populations, found in non-lymphoid tissues, with distinct transcriptional programmes. These cells have equally adapted to function in the tissue they made their home. Both Trm and Treg cells have functions beyond immune defence, involving tissue homeostasis, repair and turnover. They are part of a multicellular communication network. Intriguingly, occupying the same niche, Treg cells are important in the establishment of Trm cells, which may have implications to harness the immune surveillance and tissue homeostasis properties of Trm cells for future therapies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 130913
Zhijun Zhang ◽  
Qinyu Han ◽  
Jun Wei Lau ◽  
Zhimin Wang ◽  
Ming Hu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Giulia Rinaldi ◽  
Neila Alvarez de Haro ◽  
Andrew Paul Desbois ◽  
Calum T. Robb ◽  
Adriano G. Rossi

Fish erythrocytes remain nucleated for their life-span, unlike mammalian erythrocytes which undergo enucleation. Asides transportation of oxygen, fish erythrocytes are capable of several immune defence processes. Nucleated fish erythrocytes represent prime candidates for carrying out ETotic responses. ETosis is an evolutionary conserved innate immune defence process found in both vertebrates and invertebrates, which involves the extrusion of DNA studded with antimicrobial proteins into the extracellular space serving to trap and kill microorganisms. In this report, we demonstrate that fish erythrocytes isolated from Danio rerio (zebrafish) produce ETotic-like responses when exposed to chemical and physiological stimuli. Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) erythrocytes produce similar ETotic responses. We have termed these ET-like formations Fish Erythrocyte Extracellular Traps (FEETs). Interestingly, we discovered that mammalian inducers of NETosis, such as the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12‐myristate 13‐acetate and the calcium ionophore ionomycin induced FEETs. Moreover, we found that FEETs are dependent upon activation of PKC and generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Thus, this brief report represents the first demonstration that fish erythrocytes can exhibit ETotic-like responses, unveiling a previously unknown function of nucleated erythrocytes, and sheds new light on the innate immune arsenal of erythrocytes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 1565
Leon M. T. Dicks ◽  
Matthew J. Grobbelaar

Contrary to the general belief that the sole function of probiotics is to keep intestinal microbiota in a balanced state and stimulate the host’s immune response, several studies have shown that certain strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have direct and/or indirect antiviral properties. LAB can stimulate the innate antiviral immune defence system in their host, produce antiviral peptides, and release metabolites that prevent either viral replication or adhesion to cell surfaces. The SARS-CoV (COVID-19) pandemic shifted the world’s interest towards the development of vaccines against viral infections. It is hypothesised that the adherence of SARS-CoV spike proteins to the surface of Bifidobacterium breve could elicit an immune response in its host and trigger the production of antibodies. The question now remains as to whether probiotic LAB could be genetically modified to synthesize viral antigens and serve as vaccines—this concept and the role that LAB play in viral infection are explored in this review.

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