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2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-28
Sanatang Abbas ◽  
Sri Anggarini Rasyid ◽  
Tiara Mayang Pratiwi Lio

Penyakit Hepatitis B adalah inflamasi yang terjadi pada organ hati yang dapat disebabkan oleh virus hepatitis B. Pada saat terjadi inflamasi sitokin yang ada dalam tubuh akan merespon atau mengenali jenis patogen berupa virus yang masuk ke dalam tubuh. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) adalah salah satu sitokin pro-inflamasi yang berperan dalam proses inflamasi hati, dan Interleukin-6 (IL-6) adalah sitokin yang disekresikan dari jaringan tubuh pada fase infeksi akut atau kronik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeteksi gen TNF-α dan IL-6 pada penderita hepatitis B dengan metode polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Jenis penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah semi kuantitatif, dengan desain penelitian eksperimental. Populasi pada penelitian adalah seluruh penderita suspek yang melakukan pemeriksaan rapid Hepatitis B (HbsAg) di Laboratorium Klinik Maxima Kota Kendari sebanyak 7 orang. Teknik penarikan sampel menggunakan total sampling dengan kriteria inklusi sampel yaitu pasien yang tidak memiliki riwayat penyakit lain selain hepatitis B. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa dari ketujuh sampel penderita hepatitis B yang diperiksa menggunakan metode PCR 3 sampel dengan hasil positif (45%) terhadap gen TNF-α dan 7 (100%) hasil negative terhadap gen Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Sehingga dapat di simpulkan bahwa jenis sitokin yang berperan saat terjadi inflamasi ketika seseorang terinfeksi Virus Hepatitis B adalah Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α).

Peters Oluwale Oladosu ◽  
Njoku Moses ◽  
Obi Peter Adigwe ◽  
Henry Omoregie Egharevba

The menace of COVID-19 continues to ravage the world despite deployment of vaccines, and the development of oral antiviral pills whose effectiveness are still being evaluated. As the problems persist, Scientists are continuously searching for new resources and re-evaluating old ones that be used to effectively contain the pandemic. A search through literature has shown a huge amount of scientific resources in medicinal plant research which could be leverage.  Many medicinal plants have been demonstrated to possess various antiviral activities against influenza virus, SARS-CoV, herpes simplex virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, echovirus, adenovirus, Newcastle disease virus, duck plague virus, measles virus, polio viruses, yellow fever viruses, Sindbis virus, human cytomegalovirus, Rift valley fever virus, feline herpesvirus, lumpy skin disease virus, and canine distemper virus. Medicinal plants are known to be a reservoir of bioactive compounds with useful pharmacological actives. This revision has identified one hundred and twelve (112) plants found with various antiviral activities. These plants cut across different families. An intriguing observation is the reported presence of antiviral in different classes of phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, glucosides, polyphenols, saponins, essential oils, peptides and polysaccharides. There is the need for concerted paradigm shift to natural products of plant origin towards developing novel antiviral agents against COVID-19 especially with the reported safety challenge of adverse events and serious adverse events associated with already developed vaccines and pills.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. e00697
Kristin M. Olson ◽  
Lauren M. Keim ◽  
Tyson T. Holm ◽  
Derrick D. Eichele

2021 ◽  
Vol 948 (1) ◽  
pp. 012071
A Z Mustopa ◽  
H H Putri ◽  
Kusdianawati ◽  
B R Budiarto ◽  
A Kusumawati ◽  

Abstract Hepatitis B is an inflammatory liver disease caused by HBV (Hepatitis B Virus). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) induces immune system forming antibodies. HBV subgenotype B3 is common in Asian Countries. Thus, the development of HBsAg subgenotype B3 vaccine was done because its prevalence is high in Indonesia (especially in Javanese) and other Asian countries. The research methods were preparation of the HBsAg gene subgenotype B3, cloning and transformation the HBsAg gene in Escherichia coli MC1061, and transformation in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis). HBsAg gene subgenotype B3 was obtained from the pIDT-HBsAg subgenotype B3 plasmid. The HBsAg gene subgenotype B3 successfully cloned and transformed into E. coli MC1061 and L. lactis. The PCR results of the transformant E. coli MC1061 (pNZ8148-HBsAg subgenotype B3) colonies were found in colonies 8, 17, and 20 indicated by the presence of 1226 bps bands. 8 colonies were obtained from PCR results of L. lactis transformants (pNZ8148-HBsAg subgenotype B3). The construction of the HBsAg subgenotype B3 gene has 100% similarity compare to the hepatitis B virus isolated from Java on 1839. Therefore, the construction of pNZ8148-HBsAg subgenotype B3 using host cells L. lactis can be used as a vaccine candidate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Anabella Fantilli ◽  
Sarah Daniela López Villa ◽  
Alina Zerega ◽  
Guadalupe Di Cola ◽  
Luis López ◽  

Abstract Background The hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been described as a causing factor for acute-on-chronic-liver-failure (ACLF) in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD), such as chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, which could end in the failure of one or more organs and high short-term mortality. There are scarce data about the association of HEV in patients with chronic liver disorders in South America. Case presentation A 56-year-old hypertensive male with a history of type 2 diabetes was diagnosed with alcohol-related-liver cirrhosis in February 2019. A year later, the patient was admitted to hospital due to fatigue, jaundice and acholia. No evidence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein–Barr virus, herpes zoster virus and cytomegalovirus infections were found. Nevertheless, in February and March, 2020 the patient was positive for HEV-IgM and HEV-IgG, and HEV genotype 3 RNA was detected in sera. Afterwards, he presented grade I hepatic encephalopathy and, therefore, was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E-on-chronic liver disease. The patient reported a recent travel to the Argentine coast, where he consumed seafood. Besides, he reveled to have consumed pork meat and had no history of blood transfusion. Conclusion This report describes a unique case of hepatitis E virus infection in a patient with alcohol-related cirrhosis. This is the first report of a patient with HEV-related ACLF in Argentina and it invokes the importance of HEV surveillance and treatment among patients with CLD, such as alcohol-related cirrhosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sara Wood ◽  
Sophie E. Harrison ◽  
Natasha Judd ◽  
Mark A. Bellis ◽  
Karen Hughes ◽  

Abstract Background The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted that individuals with behavioural risk factors commonly associated with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as smoking, harmful alcohol use, obesity, and physical inactivity, are more likely to experience severe symptoms from COVID-19. These risk factors have been shown to increase the risk of NCDs, but less is known about their broader influence on communicable diseases. Taking a wide focus on a range of common communicable diseases, this review aimed to synthesise research examining the impact of behavioural risk factors commonly associated with NCDs on risks of contracting, or having more severe outcomes from, communicable diseases. Methods Literature searches identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined the association between behavioural risk factors (alcohol, smoking, illicit drug use, physical inactivity, obesity and poor diet) and the contraction/severity of common communicable diseases, including infection or associated pathogens. An a priori, prospectively registered protocol was followed (PROSPERO; registration number CRD42020223890). Results Fifty-three systematic reviews were included, of which 36 were also meta-analyses. Reviews focused on: tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, invasive bacterial diseases, pneumonia, influenza, and COVID-19. Twenty-one reviews examined the association between behavioural risk factors and communicable disease contraction and 35 examined their association with communicable disease outcomes (three examined their association with both contraction and outcomes). Fifty out of 53 reviews (94%) concluded that at least one of the behavioural risk factors studied increased the risk of contracting or experiencing worse health outcomes from a communicable disease. Across all reviews, effect sizes, where calculated, ranged from 0.83 to 8.22. Conclusions Behavioural risk factors play a significant role in the risk of contracting and experiencing more severe outcomes from communicable diseases. Prevention of communicable diseases is likely to be most successful if it involves the prevention of behavioural risk factors commonly associated with NCDs. These findings are important for understanding risks associated with communicable disease, and timely, given the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for improvements in future pandemic preparedness. Addressing behavioural risk factors should be an important part of work to build resilience against any emerging and future epidemics and pandemics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (42) ◽  
pp. 7271-7284
Caterina Sagnelli ◽  
Mariantonietta Pisaturo ◽  
Caterina Curatolo ◽  
Alessio Vinicio Codella ◽  
Nicola Coppola ◽  

2021 ◽  
Jing Lin ◽  
Miaofang Su ◽  
Jiaolong Zheng ◽  
Haicong Wu ◽  
Lei Gu ◽  

Abstract Background: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis (CAEBVH) in adult patients is a rare and highly lethal disease characterized by hepatitis and hepatomegaly.Aims: To investigate the clinicopathological features and pathogenic mechanisms in patients with CAEBVH.Methods:10 adult patients confirmed CAEBVH infection were collected. The clinicopathological characteristics were summarized and analyzed by clinical data. Flow cytometry to detect peripheral blood immune cell phenotypes, second-generation sequencing methods to explore pathogenic mechanisms, and immunohistochemical methods to verify pathogenic mechanisms.Results: The clinical features included splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, abnormal liver function, and CD8+T lymphopenia. HE also showed lymphocytic infiltration in liver tissue. EBER-ISH in lymphocytes of liver tissues were positive. Whole exon sequencing showed mutant genes were primarily enriched in 'T cell activation' and 'Complement and coagulation cascades'. The expression of CD8 in the CAEBVH group was higher than the controls in liver tissue (p<0.05). The same as the expression of Fas, FasL, Caspase-8, and TUNEL assay (p<0.05). Complement 1q (C1q) of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Glisson's capsule (GC), as well as Complement 3d (C3d) of LSECs, were a higher expression in CAEBV infection than controls (p<0.05).Conclusion: Fas/FasL and complement activation were involved in adult patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Helen J. E. Baddeley ◽  
Mark Isalan

As CRISPR/Cas systems have been refined over time, there has been an effort to apply them to real world problems, such as developing sequence-targeted antiviral therapies. Viruses pose a major threat to humans and new tools are urgently needed to combat these rapidly mutating pathogens. Importantly, a variety of CRISPR systems have the potential to directly cleave DNA and RNA viral genomes, in a targeted and easily-adaptable manner, thus preventing or treating infections. This perspective article highlights recent studies using different Cas effectors against various RNA viruses causing acute infections in humans; a latent virus (HIV-1); a chronic virus (hepatitis B); and viruses infecting livestock and animal species of industrial importance. The outlook and remaining challenges are discussed, particularly in the context of tacking newly emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.

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