Explosive Mixture
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 157-164
Dr. Christ Barriga P. ◽  
Ing. Mabel Calderón V.

The gasifiable emulsion is a technological and productive response to the need to reduce operating costs in the mining project, among the improvements with respect to ANFO are a higher detonation velocity (VOD), better fragmentation and reduction of nitrous fumes. In the test mining operation, a commercial explosive mixture called "Q "73 (70% emulsion and 30% ANFO) is used, where the ANFO is composed of 97% ammonium nitrate and 3% diesel, and the explosive mixture "Q "82 (80% emulsion and 20% ANFO) is also used, 7 blasting processes were carried out with a diameter of 12.25 in. in a waste area, the most characteristic rocks found in the blasting project in the copper mine in southern Peru are Toba Cristal (TC), Andesite Basaltic Propylitic (BA-PRO), Andesite Basaltic Argillic (BA-ARG). The results obtained show a reduction of the Power Factor by 1.32%, with respect to the commercial mixtures "Q "73 and "Q "82 an optimum increase in the detonation velocity of 9.92% and 0.59% was obtained, also the high-resolution images of the fumes after blasting indicate a low presence of orange fumes taking a great relevance in the mining sector on a large scale, achieving better results in the blasting phase.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 6980
Paweł Wolny ◽  
Norbert Tuśnio ◽  
Artur Lewandowski ◽  
Filip Mikołajczyk ◽  
Sławomir Kuberski

On 2 October 2003 in Saint-Romain-en-Jarez (France) a fire in a farm building triggered an explosion in which 26 people were injured. Police investigation, based solely on an analysis of the effects and on general engineering knowledge, showed that the explosion was caused by an uncontrollably generated mixture of ammonium nitrate (AN) and molten plastic crates which formed an explosive mixture similar to ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO). This is the only commonly known example of an ammonium nitrate blast taking place at its end user destination. Is such an explanation of the incident plausible and could a similar blast possibly happen anywhere else? The experimental results support this thesis of French investigators but raise further doubts. Laboratory reconstruction of the self-acting process of generating the explosive material confirmed the investigators’ report. However, other materials at the incident site could have influenced the final outcome too. The lab-recreated explosion of a mixture of AN and molten plastic partially confirmed the report’s thesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-83
Benmalek BOULESNAM ◽  
Fahima HAMI ◽  
Djalal TRACHE ◽  

The growing threat of terrorism in many parts of the world has called for the urgent need to find rapid and reliable means of analyzing explosives. This is in view to help forensic scientists to identify different swabs from post-blast debris. The present study aims to achieve an efficient separation and identification of a mixture of sixteen explosive compounds (including nitroaromatics, nitramines, and nitrate esters) by high performance liquid chromatography using a diode array detection (HPLC/DAD) and an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-120 C18 column at two wavelengths (235 and 214 nm). Relevant chromatographic parameters such as capacity factors, resolution, selectivity and number of theoretical plates have been optimized in order to achieve the best separation of the different components. In this respect, the effects of various parameters such as gradient time, column temperature, flow rate of mobile phase and initial percentage organic mobile phase on the separation of these compounds were investigated. It was revealed that the method allowed a fairly acceptable separation of all the compounds in less than 15 minutes except for two isomers, namely 4-A-2,6-DNT, 2-A-4,6-DNT and 2,6- DNT which could not be resolved by the used C18 column. This shortcoming notwithstanding, the developed method produced satisfactory results and demonstrated sensitive and robust separation, furthermore indicating that the HPLC developed method can be both fast and efficient for the analysis of complex mixtures of explosive compounds.

M.R. Salimova ◽  
A.V. Fedosov ◽  
N.Kh. Abdrakhmanov ◽  
N.V. Vadulina ◽  

The problem of technological installations operational safety in the gas processing industry, which is currently subject to high requirements, is studied in the article. This is due to the circulation of harmful and hazardous substances at the installations, as well as the possibility of gas leakage when interacting with which air can create an explosive mixture. Statistical data is presented concerning the incidents in the oil and gas due to violations of safety rules and deviations from normal operating mode at gas dehydration units. The number of fires, emissions of hazardous substances and explosions is also noted. The object of research is presented — gas adsorption dehydration unit. Process flow diagram of adsorption gas dehydration with a brief description of the process is attached. Physical and chemical production factors of hazards arising during operation of the adsorption gas dehydration unit, the toxicity of substances and their effect on the human body are considered. During the research, the main focus is on the quality of the adsorbent used for gas dehydration. Due to the poor quality of the adsorbent (partial crushing and coking of the adsorbent layer), an increase in the pressure drop in the adsorber is possible, which may result in an additional load on the equipment parts, which can lead to destruction. It should also be noted that the quality of the adsorbent affects the amount of dust emitted. With repeated use, the adsorbent particles are reduced in size and carried away with the gas flow. Industrial dust is a particle of solid substances suspended in the air for a long time. In case of prolonged contact with industrial dust, there is a risk of chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, lungs. In the final part of the study, a new adsorbent NaLSX is proposed for use, which has improved characteristics than adsorbents used in industry. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of adsorbents affecting the operational safety and productivity of the gas adsorption dehydration unit is presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 342 ◽  
pp. 01003
Stefan Ilici ◽  
Edward Gheorghiosu ◽  
Daniela Rus ◽  
Ciprian Jitea

The technical-economic efficiency of rock extraction works depends significantly on the drilling and blasting works as well as the adjacent costs. The cost of the explosive is an important component in these and the generalization of the widespread use of the use of bulk explosives (ANFO) has generated a significant reduction in the cost. Making the explosive close to the place of use in fixed or semi-stationary installations on the quarry stage eliminates the costs related to storage or long-term storage, transport, escort, security. However, installations for the manufacture of ANFO type explosives must consistently produce a simple quality explosive mixture. The quality lies in the participation of the precursors as well as in the degree of homogenization, stability and a good behavior to external stimuli that can lead to sensibility to initiation stimuli or inhibition of sensitivity where the harmful influence of moisture in the raw material or environment must be emphasized. The paper presents tests and results obtained in recent years for such installations used by several companies in Romania performed under the supervision of INSEMEX specialists. These assessments were completed with the certification of explosives manufacturing facilities for the specified operating parameters as well as for explosives.

2021 ◽  
Vol 342 ◽  
pp. 04004
Cătălin Mihai Popa ◽  
Silviu Marin Nan ◽  
Mihaela Părăian ◽  
Adrian Jurca ◽  
Florin Păun

During the technological processes of processing, production, handling and storage of combustible dusts, complex explosive mixtures may occur, the characteristics of which, in most cases, cannot be assimilated with the existing data in the specialized literature. If these combustible dusts are mixed with air in appropriate proportions and are initiated by an efficient source of ignition, they can burn rapidly and with considerable explosive force. One of the most common sources of ignition of potentially explosive atmospheres generated by the dust / air mixture is static electricity, materialized by electrostatic discharges. In order to assess the risk of ignition of an explosive mixture of air / dust, it is necessary to know the sensitivity of the explosive atmosphere to ignition, ie the value of the minimum ignition energy of the explosive mixture, which is then compared with the energy resulting from an electrostatic discharge. The paper presents a comparative analysis regarding the methods of determining the minimum ignition energy for air / fuel dust mixtures, using different devices, on the same type of dust.

2021 ◽  
Vol 343 ◽  
pp. 10001
Gabriel Vasilescu ◽  
Robert Laszlo ◽  
Attila Kovacs ◽  
Edward Gheorghiosu ◽  
Daniela Rus ◽  

The paper presents the results of the theoretical and practical research regarding the evaluation of the explosion risk specific to the activity of preparation/storage activity of the ANFO type explosive mixture, based on the identification and systematic analysis of the potential dangers that can generate explosion events, in order to establish and substantiate the possible accidents main scenarios, as well as reference scenarios. From a structural point of view, each accident scenario, defined at the level of the industrial site analyzed, is configured procedurally in synthetic form, comprising typical sections of methodological approach, respectively: location, description of the consequences (unimportant, important), evaluation of the risk of explosion (identification, estimation and appreciation) and measures to prevent damage/measures to reduce the risk of explosion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 343 ◽  
pp. 10009
Nicolae-Ioan Vlasin ◽  
Emilian Ghicioi ◽  
Vlad Mihai Păsculescu ◽  
Marius Simion Morar ◽  
Laurenţiu Munteanu

In the virtual environment, respectively in a rectangular tube with a hole at one end, a computational simulation was performed comprising two stages: the first stage aims at simulating a methane gas leak through a hole in the floor of the tube and its diffusion in the air of which the inner volume of the virtual environment is constituted. At the full end of the tube is arranged an electric ignition source that activates in parallel with the gas source, being observed the formation of the explosive mixture in the proximity of the ignition source and the moment of initiation of the explosive atmosphere. The second stage of the simulation is marked by a higher level of velocities characteristic of the explosive process of the airmethane mixture, which involves the use of different settings. The host of the computer simulation is the Fluent application of the ANSYS platform. Post-processing is performed both on the ANSYS platform, through the Fluent and Results applications and through the facilities offered by the Tecplot 360 application.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 7608
Miroslava Vandličková ◽  
Iveta Marková ◽  
Linda Makovická Osvaldová ◽  
Stanislava Gašpercová ◽  
Jozef Svetlík ◽  

The article considers the granulometric analysis of selected samples of tropical wood dust from cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii), ebony (Diospyros crassiflora), and marblewood (Marmaroxylon racemosum) using a Makita 9556CR 1400 W grinder and K36 sandpaper, for the purpose of selecting the percentages of the various fractions (<63; 63; 71; 200; 315; 500 μm) of wood dust samples. Tropical wood dust samples were made using a hand orbital sander Makita 9556CR 1400 W, and sized using the automatic mesh vibratory sieve machine Retsch AS 200 control. Most dust particles (between 50–79%) from all wood samples were under 100 μm in size. This higher percentage is associated with the risk of inhaling the dust, causing damage to the respiratory system, and the risk of a dust-air explosive mixture. Results of granulometric fractions contribution of tropical woods sanding dust were similar. Ignition temperature was changed by particle sizes, and decreased with a decrease in particle sizes. We found that marblewood has the highest minimum ignition temperature (400–420 °C), and padauk has the lowest (370–390 °C).

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