tamarindus indica
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 509-522
Author(s):  
Luciana Nunes Cordeiro ◽  
◽  
Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno ◽  
Lucas Kennedy Silva Lima ◽  
Albericio Pereira de Andrade ◽  
...  

Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.


Author(s):  
Raíssa Carvalho ◽  
Alyce Leal ◽  
Luiz Carlos Palermo ◽  
Claudia Mansur

The objective of this work was to obtain tamarind gum from Tamarindus indica L. seeds, which are waste from the food industry. Tamarind gum was extracted by two methods and the highest yield achieved was 32.6% w/w, containing 69.25% w/w of organic matter, which was composed mostly of the nonionic polysaccharide xyloglucan. The greatest molar mass of the tamarind gum was Mw=7.16 x 105 g/mol with polydispersity index (PI) of 1.7. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of tamarind gum samples were carried out in two brines (total dissolved solids values of 29,711 mg/L and 68,317 mg/L, containing divalent ions) that simulated petroleum reservoir salinity levels, with different temperatures (25, 60 and 80°C). The rheological curves indicated high salt resistance of the gum samples. Under a shear rate of 7.3 s-1 the highest viscosity values found were approximately 86, 41 and 50 cP with at concentration of 5,000 ppm and temperatures of 25, 60 and 80ºC, respectively.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (43) ◽  
pp. 89
Author(s):  
Yélemou Barthelemy ◽  
Tyano Abdoulaye ◽  
Koala Jonas ◽  
Zongo Rebecca Rebecca

The problem of the effectiveness of the established pre-treatments of seeds of local tree species is posed more and more often, with acuity. It appears necessary that studies are led to explore new methods of pre-treatment, or to update the old instructions applied, for a better success and at lower cost, of the production of seedlings. The present study concerned five species: Acacia nilotica, Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Piliostigma reticulatum and Tamarindus indica. The methodology involved subjecting the seeds to three different pretreatments: (i) seeds treated with sulfuric acid (T0), (ii) seeds soaked in hot water for 24 hours (T1), (iii) seeds soaked in hot water for 48 hours (T2). For Acacia nilotica seeds, the different pretreatments did not result in statistically different germination rates. The germination rates are 77%, 65% and 62% (respectively for soaking in hot water for 48 hours, sulfuric acid and soaking in hot water for 24 hours). The different pretreatments also do not result in different germination rates for Tamarindus indica. Indeed, the germination rates after 30 days for this species are good but statistically identical (85% for the pretreatment with sulfuric acid and hot water for 24 hours). For Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa and Piliostigma reticulatum, the sulfuric acid pretreatment gave the best germination rate (49%, 54% and 41% respectively). The results of this study may have practical consequences in terms of management of the different species studied. They show that immersing in boiling water and left for 24 hours and 48 hours yields fairly satisfactory germination rates for Acacia nilotica and Tamarindus indica seeds. These inexpensive techniques, accessible to all, can be considered as means to easily produce seedlings of these species.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 118151-118168
Author(s):  
Carmelice Boff De Almeida ◽  
Odair José Cordeiro ◽  
Isadora Gladcheff Marim ◽  
Renan Colavite Dos Santos ◽  
Daniel Vicente Bobek ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Rifat Battaloğlu ◽  
Özlen Özkurt

In this study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction on fatty acids yield. Fatty acid components of Tamarindus Indica (T. Indica) seed were determined using ultrasound assisted microwave extraction method. T. Indica is cultivated in the tropics and in Egypt and India. Its fruits are 12-15 cm long, brown and leguminous. In addition to its positive effects on the digestive system, it is an excellent source of vitamin C and a rich antioxidant. It has also been proven beneficial in keeping blood sugar balanced. Fatty acid components were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) method. In addition, the effects of the solvent on the fatty acid yield were investigated. When the results of the analysis were examined, the highest yield was obtained when ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol were used as solvents. Another important solvent is acetone. The least product was achieved when hexane was used as solvent. Linoleic acid and arachidic acid were detected in each type of solvent used. Capric acid, ligroseric acid and nervotic acid, which are important fatty acids, are detected only in methyl alcohol extraction. The ultrasound assisted microwave extraction method was found to be much faster than the traditional Soxhlet extraction method.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Braulio Fernandes de Carvalho ◽  
Gustavo Nogueira Barreto

Introdução: Parnaíba encontra-se no extremo norte piauiense, na Faixa Litorânea e na Zona da Mata, uma área de transição entre Cerrado e Caatinga, sob influência Amazônica e do Oceano Atlântico. O município tem 436.907 km2 e população estimada em 153.863 habitantes. Estão presentes várias fitofisionomias: praias, dunas, restingas, tabuleiros litorâneos, brejos e manguezais, associados a uma rica biodiversidade. Apesar disso, é comum encontrar árvores e palmeiras exóticas na composição urbana, muitas das quais apresentam boas adaptabilidade e alta capacidade de multiplicação, o que as torna potencialmente invasoras. Objetivos: Identificar arbustos, árvores e palmeiras exóticas em Parnaíba-PI. Material e métodos: Visitas de campo em amostras das fitofisionomias presentes, e nas principais avenidas da zona urbana, de março a setembro de 2021, associadas a estudo bibliográfico. Resultados: As espécies identificadas foram Nim (Azadirachta indica), Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora), Tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica), Mangueira (Magnifera indica), Jamelão (Syzygium cumini), Moringa (Moringa oleifera), Casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia), Casatanhola (Terminalia catappa), Tamareira (Phoenix dactylifera), Palmeira Imperial (Roystonea oleracea), Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala), Eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.), Jambo-vermelho (Syzygium malaccensis), Coqueiro (Cocos nucifera), Chichá-fedorento (Sterculia foetida), Baobá (Adansonia digitata), Flamboyant (Delonix regia), Mamona (Ricinus communis), Algodão-de-seda (Calotropis procera) e Jaqueira (Artocapus heterophyllus). Conclusão: A substituição de plantas nativas por exóticas, além de uniformizar as paisagens e provocar alterações ecológicas e culturais, é uma das causas da perda de biodiversidade no mundo. O Nim possui azadiractina em seu pólen, tóxico para as abelhas, o que pode provocar alterações populacionais desses polinizadores e prejudicar a manutenção do ecossistema e produção agrícola. Assim como outras plantas exóticas, o Nim possui frutos atrativos para a fauna, o que faz com que seja disperso rapidamente, tornando-se invasor. Deve-se evitar o uso de plantas exóticas e focar no uso de plantas nativas, prezando pela variedade biológica e genética, para maximizar os serviços ecossistêmicos e a sucessão ecológica, além de criar memória afetiva com a população e um banco urbano de sementes nativas.


HERBALISM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-100
Author(s):  
Barbara Sawicka ◽  
Barbara Krochmal-Marczak ◽  
Bernadetta Bienia

Omówiono i opisano wybrane gatunki znajdujące się zarówno w stanie naturalnym, jak i w uprawie, spośród 7500 roślin leczniczych występujących na terenie Indii – prawdziwego emporium roślin leczniczych i aromatycznych. W codziennym użyciu są tam takie gatunki jak: Azadirachta indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Erythrina indica, Gloriosa superba, Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera, Phyllanthus amarus, Ssbania grandiflora, Tamarindus indica, Tridax procumbens i Vitex negundo. Najczęściej zaś uprawiane są: Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Eukaliptus tereticornis, Gloriosa superba, Moringa oleifera, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Ssbania grandiflora, Solanum americanum, Tamarindus indica i Zingiber officinale. Określono też ich wartość użytkową.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Kehinde Oluwakemi Fagbemi ◽  
Daniel Ayandiran Aina ◽  
Olufunmiso Olusola Olajuyigbe

The present study aims to compare two traditional extraction techniques. A volatile compound from Tamarindus indica seed was obtained with Soxhlet extraction (SE) and hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus (HDC). The extraction yield and chemical composition of the essential oil samples were compared. Both oils extracted were analyzed with GC-MS, and forty-one chemical compounds were identified in essential oil components from SE while forty chemical compounds were found in the HDC-extracted oil sample. The major essential oil components present in both the SE and HDC method are cis-vaccenic acid, 2-methyltetracosane, beta-sitosterol, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-, and n-hexadecanoic acid in varying concentrations. Moreover, the essential oils obtained by both methods look similar quantitatively but differ qualitatively. The HDC method produced more oxygenated compounds that contribute to the fragrance of the oil. The major constituents observed in the essential oil extracted by SE methods include cis-vaccenic acid (17.6%), beta-sitosterol (12.71%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (11.82%), n-hexadecanoic acid (8.16%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (5.84%), oleic acid (4.54%), and 11-octadecenoic acid and methyl ester (3.94%). However, in the hydrodistillation technique, the oil was mostly composed of 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (23.72%), cis-vaccenic acid (17.16%), n-hexadecanoic acid (11.53%), beta-sitosterol (4.53%), and octadecanoic acid (3.8%). From the data obtained, HDC seems to be a better method for extraction of Tamarindus indica essential oil compared to the Soxhlet extraction apparatus.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 100-104
Author(s):  
Arnanda Dhafin Rizky ◽  
Sutrisno Sutrisno ◽  
Parlan Parlan

Saponification tamarind seed oil used potassium hydroxide and acidification with hydrochloric acid is produced fatty acid in the form of soft white solid, has melting point 50-55 degrees celcius. The result of this hydrolysis positive test of unsaturation. It has an acid number of 115.36, saponification number of 114.80, and iodine number of 53.34. The success of hydrolysis of oil into fatty acid is characterized by identification of IR spectra showing O-H vibration with moderate intensity and widening, C=O vibration of carboxylic acid with strong intensity. Fatty acids of tamarind seed have the potential as antibacterial to test bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with diameter respectively 7.31 mm and 7.58 mm. Minyak biji asam jawa yang disaponifikasi menggunakan kalium hidroksida dan pengasaman dengan asam klorida dihasilkan asam lemak berupa padatan lunak berwana putih, memiliki titik lebur 50-55 derajat celcius. hasil hidrolisis ini positif uji ketidakjenuhan, bilangan asam 115,36, bilangan penyabunan 114,80, dan bilangan iod 53,34. Keberhasilan hidrolisis minyak menjadi asam lemak ditandai dari identifikasi spektrum IR yang menunjukkan vibrasi ulur O-H dengan intensitas sedang dan melebar serta vibrasi ulur C=O asam karboksilat dengan intensitas kuat. Asam lemak biji asam jawa berpotensi sebagai antibakteri terhadap bakteri uji Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli dengan zona hambat masing-masing 7,31 mm dan 7,58 mm.


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