time to digital converter
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 554
Ying He ◽  
Sung Min Park

This paper presents a nine-bit integrator-based time-to-digital converter (I-TDC) realized in a 180 nm CMOS technology for the applications of indoor home-monitoring light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. The proposed I-TDC exploits a clock-free configuration so as to discard clock-related dynamic power consumption and some notorious issues such as skew, glitch, and synchronization. It consists of a one-dimensional (1D) flash TDC to generate coarse-control codes and an integrator with a peak detection and hold (PDH) circuit to produce fine-control codes. A thermometer-to-binary converter is added to the 1D flash TDC, yielding four-bit coarse codes so that the measured detection range can be represented by nine-bit digital codes in total. Test chips of the proposed I-TDC demonstrate the measured results of the 53 dB dynamic range, i.e., the maximum detection range of 33.6 m and the minimum range of 7.5 cm. The chip core occupies the area of 0.14 × 1.4 mm2, with the power dissipation of 1.6 mW from a single 1.2-V supply.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. C12010
L.A. Kadlubowski ◽  
P. Kmon

Abstract The paper describes a design of a prototype chip in 28 nm CMOS technology, consisting of 8 × 4 pixels with 50 μm pitch, dedicated for the precise measurement of Time-of-Arrival (ToA) and Time-over-Threshold (ToT) with a resolution within the picosecond range. To address this requirement, in-pixel Vernier time-to-digital converter (TDC) has been implemented, which utilizes two ring oscillators per pixel. Overall chip architecture is introduced as well as pixel architecture and selected simulation results. The pixel consists of a recording channel and TDC part. The recording channel is composed of an inverter-based front-end amplifier with Zimmerman feedback, a discriminator, a calibration block and a threshold setting block. TDC part includes two ring oscillators together with their calibration blocks and additional logic with counters/shift registers that allow for precise ToA measurement (using Vernier method) as well as ToT measurement (using one of the oscillators). Alternatively, single photon counting (SPC) mode can be used. Frequency of oscillators is set in three steps. First, two global 8-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are used for initial setting of all ring oscillators. Then, per-oscillator capacitance bank and 6-bit DAC are used for fine setting. Simulation results of core blocks suggest that the ToA resolution on the order of tens of picoseconds may be achieved. The chips are already fabricated and are currently being prepared for measurements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. P11023
F. Martinelli ◽  
P. Valerio ◽  
R. Cardarelli ◽  
E. Charbon ◽  
G. Iacobucci ◽  

Abstract A 33.6 ps LSB Time-to-Digital converter was designed in 130 nm BiCMOS technology. The core of the converter is a differential 9-stage ring oscillator, based on a multi-path architecture. A novel version of this design is proposed, along with an analytical model of linearity. The model allowed us to understand the source of the performance superiority (in terms of linearity) of our design and to predict further improvements. The oscillator is integrated in a event-by-event self-calibration system that allows avoiding any PLL-based synchronization. For this reason and for the compactness and simplicity of the architecture, the proposed TDC is suitable for applications in which a large number of converters and a massive parallelization are required such as High-Energy Physics and medical imaging detector systems. A test chip for the TDC has been fabricated and tested. The TDC shows a DNL≤1.3 LSB, an INL≤2 LSB and a single-shot precision of 19.5 ps (0.58 LSB). The chip dissipates a power of 5.4 mW overall.

2021 ◽  
Ze-Xian Chen ◽  
Zhiquan Wang ◽  
Guolan Peng ◽  
Miin-Shyue Shiau ◽  
Hong-Chong Wu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 92 (10) ◽  
pp. 103704
P. Pérez-Tirador ◽  
K. I. Papadimitriou ◽  
S. Powell ◽  
J. C. Hebden

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