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Aging ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Kolland ◽  
Edith Hofer ◽  
Lukas Pirpamer ◽  
Daniela Eibl ◽  
Christian Enzinger ◽  
...  

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4452
Author(s):  
Vanessa Derenji de Mello ◽  
Tuomas Selander ◽  
Jaana Lindström ◽  
Jaakko Tuomilehto ◽  
Matti Uusitupa ◽  
...  

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, and retinal microaneurysms (MA) are one of the first detected abnormalities associated with DR. We recently showed elevated serum triglyceride levels to be associated with the development of MA in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). The purpose of this metabolomics study was to assess whether serum fatty acid (FA) composition, plasmalogens, and low-grade inflammation may enhance or decrease the risk of MA. Originally, the DPS included 522 individuals (mean 55 years old, range 40–64 years) with impaired glucose tolerance who were randomized into an intervention (n = 265) or control group (n = 257). The intervention lasted for a median of four years (active period), after which annual follow-up visits were conducted. At least five years after stopping the intervention phase of DPS, participants classified as MA negative (n = 115) or MA positive (n = 51) were included in the current study. All these participants were free of diabetes at baseline (WHO 1985) and had high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum FA composition, and selected lipid metabolites measured during the active study period. Among the markers associated with MA, the serum plasmalogen dm16:0 (p = 0.006), the saturated odd-chain FA 15.0 (pentadecanoic acid; p = 0.015), and omega-3 very long-chain FAs (p < 0.05) were associated with a decreased occurrence of MA. These associations were independent of study group and other risk factors. The association of high serum triglycerides with the MA occurrence was attenuated when these MA-associated serum lipid markers were considered. Our findings suggest that, in addition to n-3 FAs, odd-chain FA 15:0 and plasmalogen dm16:0 may contribute to a lower risk of MA in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. These putative novel lipid biomarkers have an association with MA independently of triglyceride levels.


Author(s):  
Taylor M Triolo ◽  
Laura Pyle ◽  
Hali Broncucia ◽  
Taylor Armstrong ◽  
Liping Yu ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective ECL assays are high-affinity autoantibody (Ab) tests that are more specific than Abs detected by traditional radiobinding assays (RBA) for risk screening and prediction of progression to type 1 diabetes. We sought to characterize the association of high-risk HLA haplotypes and genotypes with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) positivity and levels in relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods We analyzed 602 participants from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study who were positive for at least one RBA diabetes related Ab (GADA or IAA) and for whom ECL and HLA data were available. ECL and RBA Ab levels were converted to SD units away from mean (Z-scores) for analyses. Results Mean age at initial visit was 19.4+13.7 years; 344 (57.1%) were female and 104 (17.3%) carried the high-risk HLA- DR3/4*0302 genotype. At initial visit 424/602 (70.4%) participants were positive for either ECL-GADA or ECL-IAA, and 178/602 (29.6%) were ECL negative. ECL and RBA-GADA positivity were associated with both HLA-DR3 and DR4 haplotypes (all p&lt;0.05), while ECL and RBA-GADA z-score titers were higher in participants with HLA-DR3 haplotypes only (both p&lt;0.001). ECL-IAA (but not RBA-IAA) positivity was associated with the HLA-DR4 haplotype (p&lt;0.05). Conclusions ECL-GADA positivity is associated with the HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4 haplotypes and levels are associated with the HLA-DR3 haplotype. ECL-IAA positivity is associated with HLA-DR4 haplotype. These studies further contribute to the understanding of genetic risk and islet autoimmunity endotypes in type 1 diabetes.


Obesity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jacqueline F. Hayes ◽  
Deborah F. Tate ◽  
Mark A. Espeland ◽  
Jessica Gokee LaRose ◽  
Amy A. Gorin ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 089198872110447
Author(s):  
Brian G. Collin ◽  
Dheeraj Raju ◽  
Steven Katsikas

Objective: The current study assessed the effects of statin and CoQ10 supplement use on changes in cognitive functioning in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention study. Methods: 1,573 subjects were administered medical histories, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Logical Memory subtest, and the Trail Making Test, Parts A (TMT-A) and B (TMT-B) 3-4 times over 5-10 years. Results: Linear mixed models did not yield significant effects for statin or CoQ10 supplement use on changes in mental status, learning and memory, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: Statin and/or CoQ10 supplement use was not associated with neuropsychological test performance in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention study.


Author(s):  
Elijah H. Bolin ◽  
Yevgeniya Gokun ◽  
Paul A. Romitti ◽  
Sarah C. Tinker ◽  
April D. Summers ◽  
...  

Cephalalgia ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 033310242110335
Author(s):  
Brooke L Reidy ◽  
James Peugh ◽  
Andrew D Hershey ◽  
Christopher S Coffey ◽  
Leigh A Chamberlin ◽  
...  

Objective Identify preventive medication treatment response trajectories among youth participating in the Childhood and Adolescent Migraine Prevention study. Methods Data were evaluated from 328 youth (ages 8–17). Childhood and Adolescent Migraine Prevention study participants completed headache diaries during a 28-day baseline period and a 168-day active treatment period during which youth took amitriptyline, topiramate, or placebo. Daily headache occurrence trajectories were established across baseline and active treatment periods using longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling. We tested potential treatment group differences. We also compared final models to trajectory findings from a clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline for youth with chronic migraine to test for reproducibility. Results Daily headache occurrence showed stability across baseline. Active treatment models revealed decreases in headache frequency that were most notable early in the trial period. Baseline and active treatment models did not differ by treatment group and replicated trajectory cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline trial findings. Conclusions Replicating headache frequency trajectories across clinical trials provides strong evidence that youth can improve quickly. Given no effect for medication, we need to better understand what drives this clinically meaningful improvement. Results also suggest an expected trajectory of treatment response for use in designing and determining endpoints for future clinical trials. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01581281


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ikuko Tanaka ◽  
Yoshiya Tanaka ◽  
Satoshi Soen ◽  
Hisaji Oshima

ABSTRACT Objectives A post hoc analysis of the Teriparatide Once-Weekly Efficacy Research for Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis (TOWER-GO) study was performed to examine the effect of once-weekly administration of 56.5 μg teriparatide on primary prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). Methods Of the subjects of the TOWER-GO study, 73 were included. The percentage changes from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were evaluated over 72 weeks with once-weekly teriparatide and once-weekly alendronate. Results The percentage change of lumbar spine BMD from baseline at 72 weeks was significantly increased in both groups. Bone formation markers were significantly increased by teriparatide administration, although they were slightly decreased by alendronate administration. Bone resorption markers were gradually decreased by teriparatide, whereas alendronate markedly decreased them within 4 weeks. No major safety concerns arose. Conclusions In this primary prevention study of GIOP, comparable increases in BMD were observed between alendronate and once-weekly teriparatide. More desirable changes in bone markers were observed with teriparatide administration. These data suggest that once-weekly teriparatide is effective in primary prevention of GIOP.


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