mechanical homeostasis
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Author(s):  
Peter Nietmann ◽  
Jonathan E.F. Bodenschatz ◽  
Andrea M. Cordes ◽  
Jannis Gottwald ◽  
Helen Rother-Nöding ◽  
...  

Soft Matter ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jay D. Humphrey ◽  
Christian J. Cyron

Assessing potential mechanical homeostasis requires appropriate solutions to the initial-boundary value problems that define the biophysical situation of interest and appropriate definitions of what is meant by homeostasis, including its range.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12928
Author(s):  
Constança Júnior ◽  
Maria Narciso ◽  
Esther Marhuenda ◽  
Isaac Almendros ◽  
Ramon Farré ◽  
...  

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive disease that disrupts the mechanical homeostasis of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). These effects are particularly relevant in the lung context, given the dynamic nature of cyclic stretch that the ECM is continuously subjected to during breathing. This work uses an in vivo model of pulmonary fibrosis to characterize the macro- and micromechanical properties of lung ECM subjected to stretch. To that aim, we have compared the micromechanical properties of fibrotic ECM in baseline and under stretch conditions, using a novel combination of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and a stretchable membrane-based chip. At the macroscale, fibrotic ECM displayed strain-hardening, with a stiffness one order of magnitude higher than its healthy counterpart. Conversely, at the microscale, we found a switch in the stretch-induced mechanical behaviour of the lung ECM from strain-hardening at physiological ECM stiffnesses to strain-softening at fibrotic ECM stiffnesses. Similarly, we observed solidification of healthy ECM versus fluidization of fibrotic ECM in response to stretch. Our results suggest that the mechanical behaviour of fibrotic ECM under stretch involves a potential built-in mechanotransduction mechanism that may slow down the progression of PF by steering resident fibroblasts away from a pro-fibrotic profile.


Author(s):  
Jonas F. Eichinger ◽  
Maximilian J. Grill ◽  
Iman Davoodi Kermani ◽  
Roland C. Aydin ◽  
Wolfgang A. Wall ◽  
...  

AbstractLiving soft tissues appear to promote the development and maintenance of a preferred mechanical state within a defined tolerance around a so-called set point. This phenomenon is often referred to as mechanical homeostasis. In contradiction to the prominent role of mechanical homeostasis in various (patho)physiological processes, its underlying micromechanical mechanisms acting on the level of individual cells and fibers remain poorly understood, especially how these mechanisms on the microscale lead to what we macroscopically call mechanical homeostasis. Here, we present a novel computational framework based on the finite element method that is constructed bottom up, that is, it models key mechanobiological mechanisms such as actin cytoskeleton contraction and molecular clutch behavior of individual cells interacting with a reconstructed three-dimensional extracellular fiber matrix. The framework reproduces many experimental observations regarding mechanical homeostasis on short time scales (hours), in which the deposition and degradation of extracellular matrix can largely be neglected. This model can serve as a systematic tool for future in silico studies of the origin of the numerous still unexplained experimental observations about mechanical homeostasis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 135 (9) ◽  
pp. 1189-1207
Author(s):  
J.C. Ribeiro-Silva ◽  
A.A. Miyakawa ◽  
Jose E. Krieger

Abstract Smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractility is essential to vessel tone maintenance and blood pressure regulation. In response to vasoconstrictors, calcium-dependent mechanisms promote the activation of the regulatory myosin light chain, leading to increased cytoskeleton tension that favors cell shortening. In contrast, SMC maintain an intrinsic level of a contractile force independent of vasoconstrictor stimulation and sustained SMC contraction beyond the timescale of calcium-dependent mechanisms suggesting the involvement of additional players in the contractile response. Focal adhesions (FAs) are conceivable candidates that may influence SMC contraction. They are required for actin-based traction employed by cells to sense and respond to environmental cues in a process termed mechanotransduction. Depletion of FA proteins impairs SMC contractility, producing arteries that are prone to dissection because of a lack of mechanical stability. Here, we discuss the role of calcium-independent FA signaling mechanisms in SMC contractility. We speculate that FA signaling contributes to the genesis of a variety of SMC phenotypes and discuss the potential implications for mechanical homeostasis in normal and diseased states.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Ishikawa ◽  
Makoto Takeo ◽  
Ayako Iwadate ◽  
Junko Koya ◽  
Miho Kihira ◽  
...  

AbstractOrganogenesis and regeneration are fundamental for developmental progress and are associated with morphogenesis, size control and functional properties for whole-body homeostasis. The liver plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis of the entire body through various functions, including metabolic functions, detoxification, and production of bile, via the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of hepatic lobules and has high regenerative capacity. The regeneration occurs as hypertrophy, which strictly controls the size and lobule structure. In this study, we established a three-dimensional sinusoidal network analysis method and determined valuable parameters after partial hepatectomy by comparison to the static phase of the liver. We found that mechanical homeostasis, which is crucial for organ morphogenesis and functions in various phenomena, plays essential roles in liver regeneration for both initiation and termination of liver regeneration, which is regulated by cytokine networks. Mechanical homeostasis plays critical roles in the initiation and termination of organogenesis, tissue repair and organ regeneration in coordination with cytokine networks.


Author(s):  
Jonas F. Eichinger ◽  
Lea J. Haeusel ◽  
Daniel Paukner ◽  
Roland C. Aydin ◽  
Jay D. Humphrey ◽  
...  

AbstractThere is substantial evidence that growth and remodeling of load bearing soft biological tissues is to a large extent controlled by mechanical factors. Mechanical homeostasis, which describes the natural tendency of such tissues to establish, maintain, or restore a preferred mechanical state, is thought to be one mechanism by which such control is achieved across multiple scales. Yet, many questions remain regarding what promotes or prevents homeostasis. Tissue equivalents, such as collagen gels seeded with living cells, have become an important tool to address these open questions under well-defined, though limited, conditions. This article briefly reviews the current state of research in this area. It summarizes, categorizes, and compares experimental observations from the literature that focus on the development of tension in tissue equivalents. It focuses primarily on uniaxial and biaxial experimental studies, which are well-suited for quantifying interactions between mechanics and biology. The article concludes with a brief discussion of key questions for future research in this field.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sae‐Il Murtada ◽  
Yuki Kawamura ◽  
Guangxin Li ◽  
Martin A. Schwartz ◽  
George Tellides ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Marcos Latorre ◽  
Bart Spronck ◽  
Jay D. Humphrey

Arteries are exposed to relentless pulsatile haemodynamic loads, but via mechanical homeostasis they tend to maintain near optimal structure, properties and function over long periods in maturity in health. Numerous insults can compromise such homeostatic tendencies, however, resulting in maladaptations or disease. Chronic inflammation can be counted among the detrimental insults experienced by arteries, yet inflammation can also play important homeostatic roles. In this paper, we present a new theoretical model of complementary mechanobiological and immunobiological control of vascular geometry and composition, and thus properties and function. We motivate and illustrate the model using data for aortic remodelling in a common mouse model of induced hypertension. Predictions match the available data well, noting a need for increased data for further parameter refinement. The overall approach and conclusions are general, however, and help to unify two previously disparate literatures, thus leading to deeper insight into the separate and overlapping roles of mechanobiology and immunobiology in vascular health and disease.


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