adhesion test
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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 1035-1045
D Dananirroh ◽  
Urmatul Waznah ◽  
W Wirasti ◽  
S Slamet

AbstractMusa paradisiaca Linn, also known as the banana plant in Indonesia, is a herbaceous plant that belongs to the Musaceaa family. Cotton banana peel (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) can be used as a wound medicine. For use, it is still simple, namely by applying the inside of the banana peel to the injured body part, and by scraping the banana peel from the inside to bandage the wound. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a dosage form of this cotton banana peel so that it is easier and provides comfort in its use. Purpose: To find out the skin of cotton banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) is formulated in cream preparations. The method in this study was experimental, the sample was extracted by maceration using 96% ethanol as solvent. The viscous extract obtained was used at concentrations of 0.08%, 0.10%, and 0.12%. The results showed that cotton banana peel extract (Musa paradisiaca Linn) could be made as a cream and fulfilled the physical evaluation of the preparation. The results of the homogeneity test were that the preparations were made homogeneous, the pH of the cream was obtained at pH 5-7 still fulfilling the skin pH range of 4-7, the adhesion test results obtained more than 5 seconds, the dispersion test results obtained 6-7 cm, the viscosity test at formula I is 3564 – 4253 cPas, Formula II is 4042 – 4746 cPas, Formula III is 4466 – 5254 cPas. The conclusion of this study, the formulation of the ethanol extract cream of cotton banana peel (Musa paradisiaca Linn) met the requirements for physical evaluation of the preparation including homogeneity test, pH test, organoleptic test, dispersibility test, adhesion test, viscosity test and stability test.Keywords: Formulation, banana peel, cream, evaluation. AbstrakMusa paradisiaca Linn atau dikenal dengan nama tumbuhan pisang di Indonesia adalah tumbuhan herba yang termasuk dalam keluarga Musaceaa. Kulit buah pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) dapat digunakan sebagai obat luka. Untuk penggunaan masih sederhana yaitu dengan mengoleskan bagian dalam dari kulit buah pisang pada bagian tubuh yang luka, dan dengan cara mengorek kulit buah pisang dari dalam untuk membalut luka. Untuk itu perlu adanya pengembangan bentuk sediaan dari kulit pisang kapas ini sehingga lebih memudahkan dan memberikan kenyamanan dalam penggunaannya. Tujuan Untuk mengetahui kulit buah pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) diformulasikan dalam sediaan krim. Metode pada penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksprimental, sampel di ekstraksi dengan cara maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol 96%. Ekstrak kental yang diperoleh digunakan pada konsentrasi 0.08%, 0.10%, dan 0.12%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak kulit pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) dapat dibuat sebagai krim dan memenuhi evaluasi fisik sediaan. Hasil uji homogenitas bahwa sediaan yang dibuat homogen, pH krim diperoleh pH 5-7 masih memenuhi kisaran pH kulit 4-7, uji daya lekat hasil yang diperoleh lebih dari 5 detik, uji daya sebar hasil yang diperoleh 6 – 7 cm, uji viskositas pada formula I yaitu 3564 – 4253 cPas, Formula II yaitu 4042 – 4746 cPas, Formula III yaitu 4466 – 5254 cPas. Kesimpulan pada penelitian ini, formulasi sediaan krim ekstrak etanol kulit pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) memenuhi syarat evaluasi fisik sediaan meliputi uji homogenitas , uji pH, uji organoleptis, uji daya sebar, uji daya lekat, uji viskositas dan uji stabilias.Kata kunci: Formulasi, kulit pisang, krim, evaluasi.

2021 ◽  
Vol 111 ◽  
pp. 102977
Vanessa Lührs ◽  
Sebastian Stößlein ◽  
Karsten Thiel ◽  
Ingo Grunwald ◽  
Andreas Hartwig

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 499-508
Elok Afrinda Iskarimah ◽  
Urmatul Waznah ◽  
W Wirasti ◽  
Dwi Bagus Pambudi

AbstractInfectious diseases that often occur are infections caused by the Staphylococus aureus bacteria, these bacteria are found on the skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. The avocado plant (Persea americana Mill.) is a plant whose seeds contain several chemical compounds that can be used as antibacterial agents. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial effectiveness of the avocado seed extract cream (Persea americana Mill.) Against the growth of Staphylococus aureus. Test the inhibition of bacteria using the well method. The extraction method uses the meseration method with 96% ethanol as solvent. The research results were analyzed using the One-Way ANOVA test. Avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill.) can be formulated into cream preparations that meet several physical tests of the preparation which include organoleptic test, homogenity test, pH test, viscosity test, adhesion test and spreadability test. The formulation of avocado seed extract cream (Persea americana Mill.) in this study was able to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with the largest zone of inhibition found at a concentration of 10% is 19.1 mm. At a concentration of 6% is 15.1 mm, at a concentration of 8% is 18.2 mm. With the results of one-way ANOVA statistical tests obtained sig 0,00 <0,05 which means that the diameter of the inhibition between formulas was significant.Keywords: Antibacterial, avocado seed extract, cream, Staphylococcus aureus. AbstrakPenyakit infeksi yang sering terjadi adalah infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Staphylococus aureus, bakteri ini terdapat pada kulit, saluran pernafasan, dan saluran pencernaan. Tumbuhan alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang bagian bijinya memiliki beberapa senyawa kimia yang dapat digunakan sebagai antibakteri. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui efektivitas antibakteri dari sediaan krim ekstrak biji alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococus aureus. Uji daya hambat bakteri menggunakan metode sumuran. Metode ekstraksi meggunakan metode meserasi dengan pelarut etanol 96%. Hasil penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji One-Way ANOVA. Ekstrak biji alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) dapat diformulasikan ke dalam sediaan krim yang memenuhi beberapa uji fisik sediaan meliputi uji organoleptis, uji homogenitas, uji pH, uji viskositas, uji daya lekat dan uji daya sebar. Formulasi sediaan krim ekstrak biji alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) pada penelitian ini mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dengan zona hambat terbesar terdapat pada konsentrasi 10% sebesar 19,1 mm. Pada konstrasi 6% sebesar 15,1 mm, pada konsentrasi 8% sebesar 18,2 mm. Dengan hasil uji statistik one-way ANOVA diperoleh sig 0,00<0,05 yang berarti diameter hambat antar formula terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan.Kata kunci: Antibakteri, ekstrak biji alpukat, krim, Staphylococcus aureus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
M. P. Carbonell-Blasco ◽  
M. A. Pérez-Limiñana ◽  
C. Ruzafa-Silvestre ◽  
F. Arán-Ais ◽  
E. Orgilés-Calpena

AbstractPolyurethanes, one of the most used polymers worldwide, are strongly dependent of non-renewable fossil resources. Thus, boosting the production of new polyurethanes based on more sustainable raw materials is crucial to move towards the footwear industry decarbonisation. The aim of this study is to synthesise and characterise reactive hotmelt polyurethanes from biomass and CO2-based polyols as bioadhesives for the footwear industry. The influence of biobased polyols on the polyurethane structure, and therefore, on their final properties was analysed by different experimental techniques such us Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Melting viscosity, Softening temperature and T-peel strength test, in order to assess their viability for the upper to sole bonding process. The results obtained indicated that the incorporation of different amounts of the biobased polyols produces changes in the structure and final performance of the polyurethanes. Therefore, adhesion test carried out by the T-peel test 72 h after the upper -to- sole bonding of the sustainable adhesives show high final adhesion values. These sustainable raw materials provide polyurethane adhesives with additional beneficial non-toxicity and sustainable characteristics, without harming their properties during their useful life.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6877
Klemen Bohinc ◽  
Anže Abram ◽  
Anamarija Zore ◽  
Roman Štukelj ◽  
Ana Lenarčič ◽  

Orthotic and prosthetic materials should have good mechanical and antibacterial properties. Therefore, in our study, we consider four common foamed closed-cells and two solid polymeric materials regarding their mechanical behaviour and tendency for bacterial adhesion. For all materials, the surface roughness, hydrophobicity, zeta potential, tensile properties, hardness and CIE color parameters were measured. We found that foamed polymeric materials have higher roughness, higher hydrophobicity, lower Young’s modulus, lower maximum tensile strength and lower hardness than solid materials. Bacterial adhesion test measurements based on observation by scanning electron microscopy show much a lower adhesion extent of S. aureus on solid materials than on foamed materials. The measured biophysical properties could be the key data for users to select the optimal materials.


Objective: This research was conducted to examine the characteristics of the eugenol gel preparation in the Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) gel base and to determine the profile of the release of eugenol from the HPMC gel base. Methods: Eugenol was made into gel preparations using HPMC base with concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7%. The evaluation included the tests of product characteristic and eugenol release. The product characteristic test included organoleptic examination (texture, color, and odor) and tests of spreadability, adhesion, and pH. The release test was carried out using cell diffusion and cellophane membranes. Results: All formulas met the pH requirements of topical products that were safe to use. The spreadability test is between 2.97-6.27 cm, adhesion test of products>4 s. The percentage of determination of eugenol content in the gel formula (F1 105.81%), (F2 93.28%) and (F3 98.87%). The cumulative amount of eugenol was F1 (2.563 mg/cm2), F2 (2.224 mg/cm2), and F3 (1.895 mg/cm2). Conclusion: The variation of HPMC as a gel base has effects on the adhesion, spreadability, and the eugenol gel release profile, where the greater the HPMC concentration, the smaller the spreadability, the greater the adhesion, and the lower the eugenol release profile. Based on the data obtained, the Formula 1 had a better release rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Davide Bottone ◽  
Valentina Donadei ◽  
Henna Niemelä ◽  
Heli Koivuluoto ◽  
Stefan Seeger

AbstractPassive icephobic surfaces can provide a cost and energy efficient solution to many icing problems that are currently handled with expensive active strategies. Water-repellent surface treatments are promising candidates for this goal, but commonly studied systems, such as superhydrophobic surfaces and Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPS), still face challenges in the stability and durability of their properties in icing environments. In this work, environmental icing conditions are simulated using an Icing Wind Tunnel, and ice adhesion is evaluated with a Centrifugal Adhesion Test. We show that superhydrophobic coral-like Silicone Nanofilament (SNF) coatings exhibit extremely low ice adhesion, to the point of spontaneous ice detachment, and good durability against successive icing cycles. Moreover, SNFs-based SLIPS show stably low ice adhesion for the whole duration of the icing test. Stability of surface properties in a cold environment is further investigated with water wettability at sub-zero surface temperature, highlighting the effect of surface chemistry on superhydrophobicity under icing conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 ◽  
pp. 107319
Olli Orell ◽  
Jarno Jokinen ◽  
Marke Kallio ◽  
Mikko Kanerva

Damjan Hatic ◽  
Xiaoyin Cheng ◽  
Thomas Stephani ◽  
Markus Rauhut ◽  
Jan Gäbler ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (09) ◽  
pp. 1270-1281
Mahmoud Abbas ◽  
Rehab M. El-Maghraby ◽  
Esraa Hassan ◽  
Reda F. M. Elshaarawy ◽  

Bronze alloys are made of copper-based materials with another metal, usually tin. Many surface modification techniques such as chemical etching, oxidation, electro deposition and sol-gel could be employed to improve surface properties. The organic compound that was used in this study was extracted from chili peppers. FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectroscopy and UV (Ultraviolet) spectroscopy investigations were applied on the extracted compound and results showed that this compound is mainly capsaicin [N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-8-methylnon-trans-6-enamide) (HMMTE)]. Electrochemical deposition was employed under cell voltage equal to 30 volts in a two-electrodes cell where bronze was the anode and stainless steel was the cathode in a solution of 10 ml/L (HMMTE)/distilled-water. Modification of tin-bronze for 1 hr. in 10 ml/L HMMTE/ distilled water solution increased the contact angle from 48° to 132˚. Attension Biolin device (Model: Theta Optical Tensiometers) was used to measure the contact angle at ambient temperature. Electrochemical measurements revealed that a significant improvement in corrosion resistance of tin-bronze in 3.5% NaCl had been achieved. The corrosion rate of tin-bronze decreased from 10.22 mpy to 1.39 mpy. Surface morphology of the samples was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEN) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). X-ray diffraction was employed to determined present phases. Surface investigations results confirmed that a layer of red cuprous oxide (Cu2O) was formed on the surface layer after modification which led to the improvement in corrosion resistance. Salt spray test was carried out using Alpha+ Salt Spray Testing Equipment for 13 days on the base and surface modified samples according to ASTM B117. A green layer from [CuCl2 and Cu46Cl24(OH)68-(H2O)4] was observed on the nonmodified specimen (could be patina and bronze disease) while the red layer [Cu2O] is still observed on the modified specimen. Adhesion test (using X-Cut Tape Adhesion test according to ASTM D3359) was also investigated.

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