Temporal Distance
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2021 ◽  
pp. 194855062110440
Author(s):  
Ramzi Fatfouta ◽  
Yaacov Trope

Mask wearing plays a vital role in the fight against the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Despite its ubiquity in everyday social life, it is still unknown how masked faces are mentally represented. Drawing on construal-level theory, we test the hypothesis that masked faces and unmasked faces are implicitly associated with psychological distance and proximity in memory, respectively. Four preregistered, high-powered experiments ( N = 354 adults) using the Implicit Association Test lend convergent support to this hypothesis across all four dimensions of psychological distance: social distance, spatial distance, temporal distance, and hypothetical distance. A mini meta-analysis validates the reliability of the findings (Hedge’s g = 0.46). The present work contributes to the growing literature on construal-level effects on implicit social cognition and enriches the current discussion on mask wearing in the pandemic and beyond.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shruti Shridhar ◽  
Vikrampal Singh ◽  
Richa Bhatt ◽  
Sankhanava Kundu ◽  
Balaji Jayaprakash

Memory of an ordered sequence of distinct events requires encoding the temporal order as well as the intervals that separates these events. In this study, using order place association task where the animal learns to associate the location of the food pellet to the order of entry into the event arena, we probe the nature of temporal order memory in mice. In our task, individual trials, become distinct events, as the animal is trained to form unique association between entry order and a correct location. The inter-trial intervals (> 30 mins) are chosen deliberately to minimise the working memory contributions. We develop this paradigm initially using 4 order place associates and later extend it to 5 paired associates. Our results show that animals not only acquire these explicit (entry order to place) associations but also higher order associations that can only be inferred implicitly from the temporal order of these events. As an indicator of such higher order learning during the probe trail the mice exhibit predominantly prospective errors that declines proportionally with temporal distance. On the other hand, prior to acquiring the sequence the retrospective errors are dominant. Additionally, we also tested the nature of such acquisitions when temporal order CS is presented along with flavour as a compound stimulus comprising of order and flavour both simultaneously being paired with location. Results from these experiments indicate that the animal learns both order-place and flavour-place associations. Comparing with pure order place training, we find that the additional flavour in compound training did not interfere with the ability of the animals to acquire the order place associations. When tested remotely, pure order place associations could be retrieved only after a reminder training. Further higher order associations representing the temporal relationship between the events is markedly absent in the remote time.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 440-460
Author(s):  
Padzmahal G. Jayani

This study aimed to know the “Teachers’ Perception on Modular Distance Learning Approach at Mindanao State University-Sulu: Its Readiness and Challenges”. This study contained five (5) objevtives:1) to determine the profile of the respondents; 2) to determine the perceptions of the teachers towards the modular distance learning approach; 3) to find out the challenges encountered by the teachers with modular distance learning approach; 4) to determine the level of readiness on modular distance learning approach as perceived by the teachers; and 5) to find out if there is a significant difference between perception of readiness and challenges in terms of age. This study is supported by Michael G. Moore’s Transactional Distance Theory developed by Daniel Bornt (completed August 22, 2011) and Constructivist Theory by Saul McLeod, published 2019. Moore’s theory has a direct bearing on e-learning. It explains and quantifies the learning relationship between instructor and student in the e-learning situation, where there is a substantial physical or temporal distance between the two. First formulated in 1997, it considered the many different forms of distance learning as part of a group which could similarly analyzed. Transactional distance as distinguished from physical or temporal distance – refers to the psychological or communicative space that separates instructor from learner in the transaction between them, occurring in the structured or planned learning situation (Moore, 1997, p.1) and the constructivist learning theory underpins a variety of student-centered teaching methods and techniques which contrast with traditional education, whereby knowledge is simply passively transmitted by teachers to students. This study used convenient sampling technique. This sampling is also known as availability sampling. There were forty eight (48) teachers who served as the respondents from different colleges and department of Mindanao State University-Sulu, they were chosen depending on their availability at school. To gather data the researcher used survey questionnaire or the descriptive survey method.  The questionnaire is guided by the objectives of the study. It consist of twenty five (25) items. This research instrument helped the researcher to determine the readiness and challenges of teachers’ perception on modular distance learning approach at Mindanao State University-Sulu. When the questionnaire were collected, the researcher made tabulations of the gathered data and subjected them to analysis. SSPS was used in computing and analyzing the data.  Frequency and standard deviation were used to analyze the SOP1 which were the profile of the respondents. Weighted arithmetic mean for the SOP 2, 3 and 4, then the one-way ANOVA for the SOP 5. Based on the findings of the study, the distribution of first category which is age starts in 30 below has the frequency of 26, 31-40 and 41 above have the same frequency of 11, second category which is gender; there are more female respondents with 31 while male respondents have a frequency of 17 and the third category which is college. 9 respondents were from College of Arts and Sciences, both 7 respondents were from College of Education and College of Agriculture. Similarly, 6 respondents were from College of Fisheries and Senior High school Department, College of Computer Studies has frequency of 5 and 4 respondents came from College of Public Affair and College of Public. The study also revealed that the respondents agreed on teacher’s perception on modular distance learning approach with its grand mean of 3.00 with a description of Moderately Agree. The respondents also agreed on the challenges encountered with modular distance learning approach with its grand mean of 3.97 and a description of Agree. The result also concluded that the respondents have high level of readiness on modular distance learning approach with its grand mean of 3.51 with a description of High Readiness. The data indicated that there is no significant difference between perceptions on the level of readiness when the data are grouped according to age. Thus, the data suggest that the null hypothesis is accepted. The data also indicated that there is no significant difference between the perceptions on the challenges encountered during modular distance learning approach when the data are grouped according to age. Thus, the data suggests that the null hypothesis is accepted.


Semiotica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Alcaraz Carrión ◽  
Javier Valenzuela

Abstract This study investigates whether there is a relation between the semantics of linguistic expressions that indicate temporal distance and the spatial properties of their co-speech gestures. To this date, research on time gestures has focused on features such as gesture axis, direction, and shape. Here we focus on a gesture property that has been overlooked so far: the distance of the gesture in relation to the body. To achieve this, we investigate two types of temporal linguistic expressions are addressed: proximal (e.g., near future, near past) and distal (e.g., distant past, distant future). Data was obtained through the NewsScape library, a multimodal corpus of television news. A total of 121 co-speech gestures were collected and divided into the two categories. The gestures were later annotated in terms of gesture space and classified in three categories: (i) center, (ii) periphery, and (iii) extreme periphery. Our results suggest that gesture and language are coherent in the expression of temporal distance: when speakers locate an event far from them, they tend to gesture further from their body; similarly, when locating an event close to them, they gesture closer to their body. These results thus reveal how co-speech gestures also reflect a space-time mapping in the dimension of distance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (3) ◽  
pp. 352-365
Author(s):  
Amber M. Sánchez ◽  
Christopher W. Coleman ◽  
Alison Ledgerwood

Construal level theory has been extraordinarily generative both within and beyond social psychology, yet the individual effects that form the empirical foundation of the theory have yet to be carefully probed and precisely estimated using large samples and preregistered analysis plans. In a highly powered and preregistered study, we tested the effect of temporal distance on abstraction, using one of the most common operationalizations of temporal distance (thinking about a future point in time that is one day vs. one year from today) and one of the most common operationalizations of abstraction (preference for more abstract vs. concrete action representations, as assessed by the Behavioral Identification Form). Participants preferred significantly more abstract action representations in the distant (vs. near) future condition, with an effect size of d = .276, 95% CI [.097, .455]. We discuss implications, future directions, and constraints on the generality of these results.


2021 ◽  
pp. 109861112110130
Author(s):  
Christi L. Gullion ◽  
Erin A. Orrick ◽  
Stephen A. Bishopp

Increasing transparency and accountability in policing is a top priority for police administrators, community groups, academics, and many others. The internal affairs process is an accountability tool designed to hold officers and agencies accountable to the citizens they serve, yet very little is known about the effect of internal investigative units on such outcomes as subsequent complaints and temporal distances between complaints. This current study examines two critical aspects of the internal affairs process, the likelihood of subsequent complaints and temporal distance between the first and a subsequent complaint of misconduct. Officers’ complaint data were collected from the internal affairs unit of a large, metropolitan police agency in the southwestern United States. Results indicate that a longer time to initial complaint and regional patrol assignment were related to a reduced likelihood of receiving future complaints. Moreover, of those officers who received a subsequent complaint after their initial complaint, more than half did so within the first year, and 94% did so within the first three years of receiving their initial complaint. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings on policy and training opportunities, supervision, mentoring, accountability, and Early Intervention (EI) systems.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ramzi Fatfouta ◽  
Yaacov Trope

Mask wearing plays a vital role in the fight against the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Despite its ubiquity in everyday social life, it is still unknown how masked faces are mentally represented. Drawing on construal level theory, we test the hypothesis that masked faces and unmasked faces are implicitly associated with psychological distance and proximity in memory, respectively. Four fully preregistered, high-powered experiments (N = 354 adults) using the Implicit Association Test lend convergent support to this hypothesis across all four dimensions of psychological distance: Social distance, spatial distance, temporal distance, and hypothetical distance. A mini meta-analysis validates the reliability of the findings (Hedge’s g = 0.46). The present work provides novel and valuable evidence on the psychological effects of mask wearing, which will be crucial for ongoing political debates and public-health efforts regarding this public health measure.


Author(s):  
Juliana Bidadanure

The field of intergenerational ethics has been largely centered on the question of what we owe those who are temporally distant. This interest was prompted by the growing awareness that many natural resources were nonrenewable and that future generations risked being disadvantaged or harmed in a variety of central respects. This understandable emphasis on temporal distance should, however, not lead one to disregard matters of justice between contemporary generations (between baby boomers and millennials, for instance) as straightforward or uninteresting. Inequalities between young and old crystallize significant and complex political and economic tensions in the sphere of employment, pensions, healthcare, housing, and political representation. This chapter introduces and responds to significant philosophical puzzles about the fair distribution of resources between individuals at different stages of their lives. The author provides a conceptual framework to approach matters of both age group and birth cohort justice and looks at how one of the chief values of distributive justice—equality—plays out in the field of justice between coexisting generations.


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