Radiological Findings
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2021 ◽  
Abdulrahman Alshaya ◽  
Hayaa Alyahya ◽  
Reema Alzoman ◽  
Rawa Faden ◽  
Omar Alshaya ◽  

Abstract Background: Patients admitted with neurocritical illness are presumed to be at high risk for venothromboembolism (VTE). The administration of chemical and/or mechanical VTE prophylaxis is a common practice in critically ill patients. Recent data did not show a significant difference in the incidence of VTE between chemical compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in critically ill patients with limited data in neurocritically ill population. The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of VTE between chemical alone compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in neurocritically ill patients. This was a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary teaching hospital. Data were obtained from electronic medical records for all patients admitted with neurocritical illness from 1/1/2016 to 1/12/2020. Patients were excluded if they did not receive VTE prophylaxis during admission or were younger than 18 YO. Major outcomes were symptomatic VTE based on clinical and radiological findings, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS. Minor outcomes included severe or life-threatening bleeding based on GUSTO criteria, and mortality at 28-days. Results: Two hundred and twelve patients were included in this study. Patients did not have any significant differences in their baseline characteristics. The incidence of VTE was not different between chemical only compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis groups (19/166 (11.3%) vs 7/46 (15.2%); P=0.49. No difference between groups in their ICU LOS 6 [3 – 16.2] vs 6.5 [3 – 19]; P=0.52, nor their mortality (18/166 (10.7%) vs 3/46 (6.5%); P=0.38, respectively. Less bleeding events were seen in the chemical prophylaxis group compared to the combined VTE prophylaxis group (19/166 (11.3%) vs 12/46 (26.1%); P= 0.013. Conclusion: Our findings observed no difference between the administration of chemical prophylaxis alone compared to combined VTE prophylaxis in neurocritically ill patients. More data are needed to confirm this finding with more robust methodology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 1679
Khwairakpam Selina Devi ◽  
Akoijam Joy Singh ◽  
Longjam Nilachandra Singh ◽  
Kanti Rajkumari ◽  
Margaret Chabungbam ◽  

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is condition characterised by progressive degeneration of joint cartilage, eventually leading to deformity of the joint. OA causes pain and disability and impacts on quality-of-life. Intra-articular platelet rich plasma gives favourable outcomes in OA knee; however, efficacy may be affected by method of preparation. Hence, this study comparing single spin and double spin platelet-rich plasma (PRP).Methods: A randomised controlled trial done among patients of OA who visited Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal during August 2019-July 2021. Patients with OA knee having radiological findings of Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade 2 and 3 (n=62) randomized into single spin PRP, (n=31) and double spin PRP, (n=31) groups and intra-articular PRP injection was given.Results: Baseline characteristics were not statistically significant. At the end of 1 week, improvement in mean difference of VAS was observe however not statistically significant (p=0.71). At end of 12 weeks and 24 weeks, there were statistically significant improvement in both mean difference of VAS (p=0.00) and WOMAC (p=0.002). Post intervention, out of the single spin PRP group, (64.51%, n=20) had complaints of adverse effects swelling, pain, redness whereas (6.45%, n=2) patients who received double spin PRP had adverse effects.Conclusions: Platelet rich plasma obtained by double spin method has long term improvement in both pain and function in patients with KL grade 2 and 3 OA knee than PRP from single spin method. Patient who received single spin PRP has more frequent post injection flare ups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Riccardo Nistri ◽  
Elena Barbuti ◽  
Virginia Rinaldi ◽  
Laura Tufano ◽  
Valeria Pozzilli ◽  

Objective: To describe a temporal association between COVID-19 vaccine administration and multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses.Methods: This case series study was collected in four MS Centres in Central Italy, using data from 16 MS patients who received COVID-19 vaccination and presented both clinically and radiologically confirmed relapses between March and June 2021. We collected patients' relevant medical history, including demographics, MS clinical course, disease-modifying treatment (DMT) received (if applicable), and data from MRI scans obtained after the COVID-19 vaccination.Results: Three out of 16 patients received a diagnosis of MS with a first episode occurring after COVID-19 vaccination; 13 had already a diagnosis of MS and, among them, 9 were on treatment with DMTs. Ten patients received BNT162b2/Pfizer-BioNTech, 2 patients mRNA-1273/Moderna, and 4 patients ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AstraZeneca. All MS relapses occurred from 3 days to 3 weeks after receiving the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccination or the booster. All patients had evidence of radiological activity on MRI.Discussion: Clinical and radiological findings in these cohort of MS patients confirmed disease re/activation and suggested a temporal association between disease activity and COVID-19 vaccination. The nature of this temporal association, whether causative or incidental, remains to be established.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1124
Shaiane Silva Tomazoni ◽  
Douglas Scott Johnson ◽  
Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior

Introduction: Photobiomodulation therapy, alone (PBMT) or combined with a static magnetic field (PBMT-sMF), has been demonstrated to be effective in the regeneration of tissues, modulation of inflammatory processes, and improvement in functional capacity. However, the effects of PBMT-sMF on the pulmonary system and COVID-19 patients remain scarce. Therefore, in this case report, we demonstrated the use of PBMT-sMF for peripheral oxygen saturation, pulmonary function, massive lung damage, and fibrosis as a pulmonary complication after COVID-19. Case report: A 53-year-old Mexican man who presented with decreased peripheral oxygen saturation, massive lung damage, and fibrosis after COVID-19 received PBMT-sMF treatment once a day for 45 days. The treatment was irradiated at six sites in the lower thorax and upper abdominal cavity and two sites in the neck area. We observed that the patient was able to leave the oxygen support during the treatment, and increase his peripheral oxygen saturation. In addition, the patient showed improvements in pulmonary severity scores and radiological findings. Finally, the patient presented with normal respiratory mechanics parameters in the medium-term, indicating total pulmonary recovery. Conclusions: The use of PBMT-sMF may potentially lead to safe treatment of and recovery from pulmonary complications after COVID-19, with regard to the structural and functional aspects.

2021 ◽  
Zhe Zhang ◽  
Siyuan Fan ◽  
Haitao Ren ◽  
Lixin Zhou ◽  
Hongzhi Guan

Abstract Background Encephalitis associated with antibodies against alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is an extremely rare type of antibody-mediated encephalitis. This research aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of anti-AMPAR encephalitis. Methods This retrospective study enrolled nine patients with anti-AMPAR encephalitis. Demographic information, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment and response were collected and analyzed. These patients were followed up with an average period of 72 weeks to gather prognostic information. Results Nine patients (7 females and 2 males) were enrolled with the mean age of disease onset as 59 years old. Three clinical syndromes, including limbic encephalitis (n=7; 78%), pure amnesia (n=1; 11%) and fulminant encephalitis (n=1; 11%) were identified. New symptoms of dysphagia and deafness were identified in the clinical spectrum of anti-AMPAR encephalitis. All patients had positive blood AMPAR antibodies, and six of them (67%) had paired positive antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were abnormal in 75% of the patients with no specific patterns recognized. Six patients (67%) had tumors, including lung cancers or thymomas. After immunotherapy and oncotherapy, partial improvement of neurological symptoms was observed among all 6 patients with available records during their hospitalization. During a mean follow-up of 72 weeks, 3 patients had marked improvement of modified Rankin Scale (mRS), one patient had unchanged mRS, 4 patients died and the other one was lost. Conclusions Anti-AMPAR encephalitis mainly presents as limbic encephalitis. Anti-AMPAR encephalitis is paraneoplastic in 67% cases and intensive screening for tumors is recommended for all anti-AMPAR patients. Although patients showed a good short-term therapeutic response, the overall prognosis was not satisfactory.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. 3690-3694
Yui Tomita ◽  
Eriko Takabayashi ◽  
Sayaka Yuzawa ◽  
Atsutaka Okizaki

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andrea Elias-Mas ◽  
Maria Isabel Alvarez-Mora ◽  
Conxita Caro-Benito ◽  
Laia Rodriguez-Revenga

FMR1 premutation is defined by 55–200 CGG repeats in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. FMR1 premutation carriers are at risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease called fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) in adulthood. In the last years an increasingly board spectrum of clinical manifestations including psychiatric disorders have been described as occurring at a greater frequency among FMR1 premutation carriers. Herein, we reviewed the neuroimaging findings reported in relation with psychiatric symptomatology in adult FMR1 premutation carriers. A structured electronic literature search was conducted on FMR1 premutation and neuroimaging yielding a total of 3,229 articles examined. Of these, 7 articles were analyzed and are included in this review. The results showed that the main radiological findings among adult FMR1 premutation carriers presenting neuropsychiatric disorders were found on the amygdala and hippocampus, being the functional abnormalities more consistent and the volumetric changes more inconsistent among studies. From a molecular perspective, CGG repeat size, FMR1 mRNA and FMRP levels have been investigated in relation with the neuroimaging findings. Based on the published results, FMRP might play a key role in the pathophysiology of the psychiatric symptoms described among FMR1 premutation carriers. However, additional studies including further probes of brain function and a broader scope of psychiatric symptom measurement are required in order to obtain a comprehensive landscape of the neuropsychiatric phenotype associated with the FMR1 premutation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 76 (07) ◽  
pp. 431
Chané Nel ◽  
Liam Robinson

A 64-year-old male patient, who is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive on treatment, presented with atwo-year history of a painful swelling involving the left parotid gland. Cone beam computerised tomographic (CBCT) imaging was performed (Figures A-D). What are the pertinent radiological findings and your diagnostic hypothesis?

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Long Jiahuan Xanicia ◽  
Long Jiahuan Xanicia ◽  
Ng Kok Kit

Renal lymphangiectasia (RLM) is a rare condition characterized by dilatation of perirenal, parapelvic or intrarenal lymphatics. We report an unusual case of bilateral RLM in a 20-year-old Malay male who presented with 1 month duration of bilateral flank pain. Bedside ultrasound showed bilateral perinephric collections, which were further confirmed on computer tomography intravenous pyelogram (CT IVP). Other causes of perinephric collections were ruled out based on laboratory and radiological findings, and he was managed conservatively as for RLM with surveillance ultrasound kidneys at 3 to 6 monthly intervals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Takao Koiso ◽  
Masayuki Goto ◽  
Toshitsugu Terakado ◽  
Yoji Komatsu ◽  
Yuji Matsumaru ◽  

AbstractThe number of patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) that are taking antithrombotics (ATs), antiplatelets (APs) and/or anticoagulants (ACs), has increased, but the influence of it for outcome remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate an influence of AT for tICH. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with tICH treated between 2012 and 2019, and analyzed demographics, neurological status, clinical course, radiological findings, and outcome data. A total of 393 patients with tICH were included; 117 were on AT therapy (group A) and 276 were not (group B). Fifty-one (43.6%) and 159 (57.6%) patients in groups A and B, respectively, exhibited mRS of 0–2 at discharge (p = 0.0113). Mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in group A than in group B (25.6% vs 16.3%, p = 0.0356). Multivariate analysis revealed that higher age (OR 32.7, p < 0.0001), female gender (OR 0.56, p = 0.0285), pre-injury vitamin K antagonist (VKA; OR 0.42, p = 0.0297), and hematoma enlargement (OR 0.27, p < 0.0001) were associated with unfavorable outcome. AP and direct oral anticoagulant were not. Hematoma enlargement was significantly higher in AC-users than in non-users. Pre-injury VKA was at high risk of poor prognosis for patients with tICH. To improve outcomes, the management of VKA seems to be important.

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