Peanut Seed
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2021 ◽  
Nicholas Tuschak Basinger ◽  
Taylor Randell ◽  
Eric P. Prostko

The United States produced $1.28 billion worth of peanuts in 2019 of which Georgia produced 51% of the total production (USDA-NASS 2021). Peanut is susceptible to weed competition due to slow canopy establishment, prostrate growth habit, and wide critical period for weed control from 3 to 8 weeks after planting (Burke et al. 2007; Everman et al. 2008). Georgia-06G is the dominant peanut cultivar planted in the southeast and in 2020, 87% of the acres grown for certified peanut seed available for sale to growers was Georgia-06G (Anonymous, 2020a). Peanut is commonly in rotation with cotton in the region and therefore, similar weed issues between these systems persist. This includes Palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) which has been documented to be resistant to multiple herbicide modes of action making its control difficult (Heap 2021). To minimize yield loss from weeds, preemergence (PRE) herbicides are frequently used in peanut to inhibit weed germination and provide residual weed control (Grichar et al. 2001). In response to resistance issues, producers have continued to integrate PRE herbicides into their herbicide programs to minimize weed emergence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (14) ◽  
pp. 7266
Weitao Li ◽  
Li Huang ◽  
Nian Liu ◽  
Manish K. Pandey ◽  
Yuning Chen ◽  

Sucrose content is a crucial indicator of quality and flavor in peanut seed, and there is a lack of clarity on the molecular basis of sucrose metabolism in peanut seed. In this context, we performed a comprehensive comparative transcriptome study on the samples collected at seven seed development stages between a high-sucrose content variety (ICG 12625) and a low-sucrose content variety (Zhonghua 10). The transcriptome analysis identified a total of 8334 genes exhibiting significantly different abundances between the high- and low-sucrose varieties. We identified 28 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in sucrose metabolism in peanut and 12 of these encoded sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs). The remaining 16 genes encoded enzymes, such as cell wall invertase (CWIN), vacuolar invertase (VIN), cytoplasmic invertase (CIN), cytosolic fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase (FBP), sucrose synthase (SUS), cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), hexokinase (HK), and sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (SPP). The weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified seven genes encoding key enzymes (CIN, FBA, FBP, HK, and SPP), three SWEET genes, and 90 transcription factors (TFs) showing a high correlation with sucrose content. Furthermore, upon validation, six of these genes were successfully verified as exhibiting higher expression in high-sucrose recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Our study suggested the key roles of the high expression of SWEETs and enzymes in sucrose synthesis making the genotype ICG 12625 sucrose-rich. This study also provided insights into the molecular basis of sucrose metabolism during seed development and facilitated exploring key candidate genes and molecular breeding for sucrose content in peanuts.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (7) ◽  
pp. 182
Junsik Ahn ◽  
Soyeon Oh ◽  
Yang Joo Kang ◽  
KiBum Kim ◽  
Sung-Kwon Moon ◽  

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds were germinated to investigate the effect of the fermentation period of oak tree sawdust on germination viability and seedling characteristics. Its germination rate, seedling weight, length, and total vigor index were assessed. The seeds were sown in oak tree sawdust fermented for 0, 30, 45, and 60 days. The germination rates of the seeds in fermented sawdust were significantly different. The seeds in the 45-day fermented sawdust produced the heaviest biomass weight (4.6 g) with the longest true leaf (1.7 cm) and hypocotyl (3.4 cm) resulting in the highest total vigor index (925.8). In contrast, seeds in 0-day fermented sawdust had the lowest total vigor index (18.3). Microbiome analysis showed that the microbial community in the sawdust changed as the fermentation progressed, indicating that the microbial community seems to affect seed germination physiology. Taken together, 45-day fermented sawdust is recommended for optimal peanut seed germination and seedling growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhongfeng Li ◽  
Xingguo Zhang ◽  
Kunkun Zhao ◽  
Kai Zhao ◽  
Chengxin Qu ◽  

Seed size/weight, a key domestication trait, is also an important selection target during peanut breeding. However, the mechanisms that regulate peanut seed development are unknown. We re-sequenced 12 RNA samples from developing seeds of two cultivated peanut accessions (Lines 8106 and 8107) and wild Arachis monticola at 15, 30, 45, and 60 days past flowering (DPF). Transcriptome analyses showed that ∼36,000 gene loci were expressed in each of the 12 RNA samples, with nearly half exhibiting moderate (2 ≤ FPKM < 10) expression levels. Of these genes, 12.2% (4,523) were specifically expressed during seed development, mainly at 15 DPF. Also, ∼12,000 genes showed significant differential expression at 30, 45, and/or 60 DPF within each of the three peanut accessions, accounting for 31.8–34.1% of the total expressed genes. Using a method that combined comprehensive transcriptome analysis and previously mapped QTLs, we identified several candidate genes that encode transcription factor TGA7, topless-related protein 2, IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 5, and putative pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (PPR) protein. Based on sequence variations identified in these genes, SNP markers were developed and used to genotype both 30 peanut landraces and a genetic segregated population, implying that EVM0025654 encoding a PPR protein may be associated with the increased seed size/weight of the cultivated accessions in comparison with the allotetraploid wild peanut. Our results provide additional knowledge for the identification and functional research into candidate genes responsible for the seed size/weight phenotype in peanut.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
pp. e0250293
Maurício Hideki Okada ◽  
Gustavo Roberto Fonseca de Oliveira ◽  
Maria Márcia Pereira Sartori ◽  
Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol ◽  
João Nakagawa ◽  

The scarcity of information on the maturation physiology of the peanut seed (Arachis hypogaea L.; Virgínia group) makes harvesting high quality seeds a challenge for the seed industry. During two consecutive crop seasons, we studied the acquisition of physiological quality of peanut seeds during maturation in tropical conditions. We bring new insights about the period of late maturation of seeds and the influence of the maternal environment on physiological quality. We monitored water content, dry weight, ability of germination, desiccation tolerance, vigor and longevity. In addition, we monitored temperature and precipitation throughout plant growth. We demonstrate that the physiological quality of peanut seeds is acquired during development, with a maximum between 57 and 76 days after flowering in the late stage of maturation. This final period represents about 25% of the development, considered the best time to harvest peanut seeds with the highest quality. Our findings also support the idea that the adequate proportion of rainfall and thermal sum in the maternal environment are factors that favor the acquisition of peanut seed longevity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 096703352097942
Muhammad Bilal ◽  
Zou Xiaobo ◽  
Muhmmad Arslan ◽  
Haroon Elrasheid Tahir ◽  
Yue Sun ◽  

In the present research work, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric algorithms such as partial least-squares (PLS) regression and some effective variable selection algorithms (synergy interval-PLS (Si-PLS), Backward interval-PLS (Bi-PLS), and genetic algorithm-PLS (GA-PLS)) were used for the quantification of antioxidant properties of peanut seed samples. The compositional parameters, such as DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, TPC, FCA, TFC, and TAC, were quantified using NIR spectroscopy. The developed models were assessed using correlation coefficients of the calibration (R2) and prediction (r2); root mean standard error of cross-validation, RMSECV; root mean square error of prediction, RMSEP and residual predictive deviation, RPD. The efficiency of the developed model was significantly enhanced with the use of Si-PLS, Bi-PLS, and GA-PLS as compared to the classical PLS model. The results of the R2 and r2 set varied from 0.76 to 0.95 and 0.72 to 0.94, respectively. The obtained results revealed that NIR spectroscopy, coupled with different chemometric algorithms, has the potential to be used for rapid assessment of the antioxidant properties of peanut seed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 404 ◽  
pp. 124155 ◽  
Sandeep Sharma ◽  
Babita Choudhary ◽  
Sonam Yadav ◽  
Avinash Mishra ◽  
Vinod K. Mishra ◽  

Janagam Indumathi ◽  
M. Shashikumar ◽  
G. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy ◽  
A. Jagadeesh Babu ◽  
M. Gnana Prakash

Aim: The aims of this study were to develop and standardize the sausages prepared from meat of spent broiler breeder hens and also to improve the functionality by using ground peanut seed as partial animal fat substitute basing on physico-chemical, proximate and sensory properties of the product. Design of the Study: Conducted six numbers of trails to develop and standardize the functional chicken sausages fortified with ground peanut seed by utilizing cheaply available meat from spent broiler breeder hens. Place and Duration of Study: Work done at Department of Livestock Products Technology, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh India. The duration of study was 2 years (From 2018 to 2019). Methodology: Ground peanut seed used at three different levels as fat replacer in order to study the influence of its addition on physico chemical, proximate, fatty acid composition and sensory evaluation of functional chicken sausages. Results: Results showed that functional chicken sausages fortified with ground peanut seed at 10% level were found to have significantly (P<0.05) higher pH, cooking yield, emulsion stability, hardness, crude protein, crude fiber, total ash, PUFA/SFA ratio, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids and significantly lower moisture, crude fat, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids when compared to the control and rest of the peanut seed fortified sausages with no significant difference was observed in sensory scores. Conclusion: Replacing chicken fat with ground peanut seeds is possible to develop a healthy fatty acid profile and fiber-enriched chicken sausages.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Parinee Jeammuangpuk ◽  
Parichart Promchote ◽  
Juangjun Duangpatra ◽  
Tanapon Chaisan ◽  
Damrongvudhi Onwimol ◽  

Low temperature condition during December to January can limit seed emergence and seedling establishment for peanut production in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of peanut seed priming on seed germination and vigor under optimal and low temperature conditions before and after 9 months of storage. Tainan 9 peanut seeds were primed with salicylic acid (SA), ascorbate (ASA), CaCl2, or chitosan and tested for germination at 25°C (optimal temperature) and 15°C (low temperature) before and after a 9-month storage period. Seed priming with 50 mg·L−1 SA and 50 mg·L−1 ASA for 12 hours before germinating improved germination at 15°C when compared to untreated seeds both before and after 9-month storage. The high seed quality, illustrated by high germination percentage, high seed vigor, and low mean germination time related to the low autoxidation substrates: lipoxygenase (LOX), malondialdehyde (MDA), and high antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). It suggests that peanut seed priming with salicylic acid and/or ascorbate can improve seedling emergence and growth under low temperature conditions.

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