Conventional Chemotherapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Garyfallia Pantelaiou-Prokaki ◽  
Iga Mieczkowska ◽  
Geske E. Schmidt ◽  
Sonja Fritzsche ◽  
Evangelos Prokakis ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is one of the most aggressive malignant diseases in women with an increased metastatic behavior and poor prognosis compared to other molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Resistance to chemotherapy is the main cause of treatment failure in BLBC. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies counteracting the gain of aggressiveness underlying therapy resistance are urgently needed. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been established as one central process stimulating cancer cell migratory capacity but also acquisition of chemotherapy-resistant properties. In this study, we aimed to uncover epigenetic factors involved in the EMT-transcriptional program occurring in BLBC cells surviving conventional chemotherapy. Results Using whole transcriptome data from a murine mammary carcinoma cell line (pG-2), we identified upregulation of Hdac4, 7 and 8 in tumor cells surviving conventional chemotherapy. Subsequent analyses of human BLBC patient datasets and cell lines established HDAC8 as the most promising factor sustaining tumor cell viability. ChIP-sequencing data analysis identified a pronounced loss of H3K27ac at regulatory regions of master transcription factors (TFs) of epithelial phenotype like Gata3, Elf5, Rora and Grhl2 upon chemotherapy. Interestingly, impairment of HDAC8 activity reverted epithelial-TFs levels. Furthermore, loss of HDAC8 activity sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic treatments, even at low doses. Conclusion The current study reveals a previously unknown transcriptional repressive function of HDAC8 exerted on a panel of transcription factors involved in the maintenance of epithelial cell phenotype, thereby supporting BLBC cell survival to conventional chemotherapy. Our data establish HDAC8 as an attractive therapeutically targetable epigenetic factor to increase the efficiency of chemotherapeutics. Graphical abstract


2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 267-282
Author(s):  
Yi-Xiu Long ◽  
Yue Sun ◽  
Rui-Zhi Liu ◽  
Ming-Yi Zhang ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
...  

Purpose: Immune-related pneumonitis (IRP) has attracted extensive attention, owing to its increased mortality rate. Conventional chemotherapy (C) has been considered as an immunosuppressive agent and may thus reduce IRP’s risk when used in combination with PD-1/L1 inhibitors. This study aimed to assess the risk of IRP with PD-1/L1 inhibitors plus chemotherapy (I+C) versus PD-1/L1 inhibitors alone (I) in solid cancer treatment. Method: Multiple databases were searched for RCTs before January 2021. This NMA was performed among I+C, I, and C to investigate IRP’s risk. Subgroup analysis was carried out on the basis of different PD-1/L1 inhibitors and cancer types. Results: Thirty-one RCTs (19,624 patients) were included. The I+C group exhibited a lower risk of IRP in any grade (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38–0.95) and in grade 3–5 (RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.92) as opposed to the I group. The risk of any grade IRP with PD-1 plus chemotherapy was lower than that with PD-1 monotherapy (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28–0.89), although grade 3–5 IRP was similar. There was no statistically meaningful difference in the risk of any grade IRP between PD-L1 plus chemotherapy and PD-L1 inhibitors monotherapy (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.43–2.09) or grade 3–5 IRP (RR, 0.71;95% CI, 0.24–2.07). In addition, compared with the I group, the I+C group was correlated with a decreased risk in IRP regardless of cancer type, while a substantial difference was only observed in NSCLC patients for grade 3–5 IRP (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.15–0.98). Conclusion: In comparison to PD-1/L1 inhibitor treatment alone, combining chemotherapy with PD-1/L1 inhibitors might reduce the risk of IRP in the general population. Furthermore, PD-1 inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy were correlated with a decreased risk of IRP compared to PD-1 inhibitor treatment alone. In contrast to the I group, the I+C group exhibited a lower risk of IRP, especially for NSCLC patients.


Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Author(s):  
Ryuto Tsuchiya ◽  
Yuki Yoshimatsu ◽  
Rei Noguchi ◽  
Yooksil Sin ◽  
Takuya Ono ◽  
...  

Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a highly aggressive malignancy with complex karyotypes and a postoperative recurrence tendency, owing to its strong invasiveness. Although systemic chemotherapy is considered in patients with unresectable MFS, the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy is hitherto unclear. Recently, drug screening analysis using a large number of tumor cell lines has been attempted to discover novel therapeutic candidate drugs for common cancers. However, the number of MFS cell lines is extremely small because of its low incidence—this hinders the conduction of screening studies and slows down the development of therapeutic drugs. To overcome this problem, we established a novel MFS cell line, NCC-MFS5-C1, which was shown to harbor typical MFS genetic abnormalities and thus had useful properties for in vitro studies. We conducted the largest integrated screening analysis of 210 drugs using NCC-MFS5-C1 cells along with four MFS cell lines, which we previously reported. Bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor) and romidepsin (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) showed stronger antitumor effects than the standard drug, doxorubicin. Therefore, the NCC-MFS5-C1 cell line can potentially contribute to elucidating MFS pathogenesis and developing a novel MFS treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Qiannan Zhao ◽  
Juanjuan Liu ◽  
Sai Wang ◽  
Xiuqin Wang ◽  
Xiufang Jiang

Background. This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine in patients with cervical cancer and its effect on cellular immunoglobulin, serum sugar chain antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Methods. Conventional chemotherapy was performed in control and observation groups. Meantime, the observation group received traditional Chinese medicine. Finally, the clinical efficacy, immunoglobulin, serum tumor markers, and serum TNF-α of the two groups were compared. Results. Compared with the control group, total effective rate in the observation group was increased. After treatment, serum CD8+, TNF-α, CA125, and CEA levels were reduced in the two groups, and the observation group was higher. In the two groups, CD3+ and CD4+ levels were enhanced after treatment, and the observation group was also higher. Compared with the control group, the immunoglobulin IgG, IgA, and IgM levels increased in the observation group. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was reduced compared to the control group. Conclusion. Chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese can help improve the clinical efficacy and immunity in patients with cervical cancer. Moreover, the safety and feasibility of the treatment method are relatively high.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 217
Author(s):  
Niklas Sturm ◽  
Thomas J. Ettrich ◽  
Lukas Perkhofer

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still difficult to treat due to insufficient methods for early diagnosis and prediction of therapy response. Furthermore, surveillance after curatively intended surgery lacks adequate methods for timely detection of recurrence. Therefore, several molecules have been analyzed as predictors of recurrence or early detection of PDAC. Enhanced understanding of molecular tumorigenesis and treatment response triggered the identification of novel biomarkers as predictors for response to conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. In conclusion, progress has been made especially in the prediction of therapy response with biomarkers. The use of molecules for early detection and recurrence of PDAC is still at an early stage, but there are promising approaches in noninvasive biomarkers, composite panels and scores that can already ameliorate the current clinical practice. The present review summarizes the current state of research on biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Author(s):  
Izabela Kościk ◽  
Daniel Jankowski ◽  
Anna Jagusiak

Based on statistics from the National Cancer Institute in the US, the rate of new cases of cancer is 442.4 per 100,000 men and women per year, and more than one-third do not survive the disease. Cancer diagnosis and treatment are the most important challenges in modern medicine. The majority of cancer cases are diagnosed at an early stage. However, the possibility of simultaneous diagnosis and application of therapy (theranostics) will allow for acceleration and effectiveness of treatment. Conventional chemotherapy is not effective in reducing the chemoresistance and progression of various types of cancer. In addition, it causes side effects, which are mainly a result of incorrect drug distribution. Hence, new therapies are being explored as well as new drug delivery strategies. In this regard, nanotechnology has shown promise in the targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells. This review looks at the latest advances in drug delivery-based diagnosis and therapy. Drug delivery nanosystems made of various types of carbon (graphene, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes) are discussed. Their chemical properties, advantages, and disadvantages are explored, and these systems are compared with each other.


INDIAN DRUGS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (11) ◽  
pp. 7-17
Author(s):  
Goutam K. Jena ◽  
Chinam N. Patra ◽  

Skin carcinoma is a frequently occurring cancer caused due to ultra violet rays of the Sun. It starts from normal skin cells but later on transforms into cells which undergo uncontrolled mitosis. Skin cancer is not as deadly as other cancers and has no metastasis and is not life threatening. Conventional chemotherapy has in general failed to treat skin cancer due to non specific targeting, which is accompanied by several side effects. Novel therapeutic approach based on nanotechnology have emerged as the best alternative for skin cancer treatment. We presented current scenario of nano based particulate drug carrier approaches for effective therapy for skin carcinoma by reducing side effects. This approach also reduces frequency of administration and improves patient compliance. Nanotechnology has emerged as the best alternative for conventional therapy for the effective treatment of skin cancer. Nanoparticles can specifically target skin carcinoma and are able to sustain drug release and reduce side effects to a greater extent.


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Author(s):  
Arman S. Walia ◽  
Randy F. Sweis ◽  
Piyush K. Agarwal ◽  
Andrew K. Kader ◽  
Parth K. Modi

Over the last decade, an increasing number of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been assessed for therapeutic efficacy in urothelial carcinoma (UC). The high cost has prompted multiple cost-effectiveness analyses for the various disease stages, with no established consensus. We reviewed the literature to assess the available cost-effectiveness studies and summarize their findings. Studies were filtered for a calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to standardize comparison. Over 2600 articles were narrowed to eight primary investigations: one for BCG-refractory non-muscle invasive (NMI), one for neoadjuvant therapy in muscle-invasive (MI), and six for advanced disease. Cost-effectiveness was not achieved for NMI disease. Atezolizumab met the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold as neoadjuvant therapy for MI disease compared to chemotherapy, but with multiple limitations on the interpretation. Of the six studies on advanced disease, the results were mixed. This was at least partially attributable to varied methodologies including extrapolated time horizons, inconsistent cost inputs, and different WTP thresholds. Overall, the aggregate results were not compelling enough to establish ICIs as cost-effective compared to conventional chemotherapy. Value may improve with continued investigation into long-term outcomes, refined patient selection, and pricing discounts.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.S Sudheesh ◽  
Sabitha M ◽  
K Pavithran

The field of cancer nanomedicine has been fueled by the expectation of mitigating the inefficiencies and life-threatening side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Nanomedicine proposes to utilize the unique nanoscale properties...


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