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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10228
Xue Chen ◽  
Ye Jin ◽  
Shiping Mao

Information technology has become an increasingly powerful driving force in modern agriculture. In particular, its application is important for the sustainable development of the apple industry. However, to promote technology application effectively, a better understanding of the behavioral intention of apple farmers towards such information technology is needed. This study uses micro data from 226 Chinese apple growers and applies the theory of planned behavior. The factors influencing apple farmers’ intention to choose information technology, along with factors influencing the transformation of that intention into actual behavior, are investigated through structural equation modeling. The results show that farmers’ information technology attitudes and perceived behavioral control have a significant positive impact on their intention to choose information technology, and that intention has a significant positive impact on behavioral response. Additionally, both tacit and explicit knowledge sharing have a positive moderating effect on transforming the intention to choose information technology into actual behavior, and the higher the degree of knowledge sharing, the stronger its moderating effect. The results imply that to achieve industry sustainability, the government needs to improve its guidance and incentives for agricultural technology, as well as support the development of a strong knowledge-sharing system specifically for agricultural information technology.

Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta ◽  
Giuseppe Lubrano Lavadera ◽  
Francesco Pastore

Abstract Existing studies suggest that recent PhD graduates with a job vertically mismatched with their education tend to earn lower wages than their matched counterparts. However, by being based on cross-sectional ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates, these studies raise endogeneity concerns and can only be considered evidence of a correlation between vertical mismatch and wages. This paper improves this literature by applying a heteroskedasticity-based instrumental variable estimation approach to analyzing Italian PhD holders’ cross-sectional micro-data. Our analysis suggests that previous empirical studies have provided slightly upward estimates of the impact of vertical mismatch on wages. Nevertheless, our results show that the effect of overeducation on wages is sizeable. However, no wage effect is found for overskilling. The heterogeneity of these findings by field of study and gender are also inspected.

2021 ◽  
Vol 202 ◽  
pp. 104496
Christopher R. Knittel ◽  
Shinsuke Tanaka

2021 ◽  
Alberto Cavallo ◽  
Oleksiy Kryvtsov

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 1223-1234
Małgorzata Stefania Lewandowska

The relationship between innovation and international competitiveness is the subject of many research studies. The aim of the paper is to examine the association between the introduction of product innovation individually and in pairs with process and marketing innovation and the exporting of enterprises from 13 European Union countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. The study used anonymized micro data from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) for 2012-2014. Based on the sample of 98 809 enterprises, 14 models were built using path analysis with the Bonferroni correction, one for the whole sample and 13 for each of the country studied. The analysis indicates positive link between the introduction of product innovation on sales activity on foreign markets of the enterprises of the surveyed countries (measured by exporting), but only for Germany and Spain. Surprisingly, adding process or marketing innovation to product innovation in most of the cases has an adverse effect on exporting.

2021 ◽  
Kristof De Witte ◽  
Mara Soncin

AbstractInternationalisation is a major trend in higher education worldwide. Yet, little evidence is given on the net impact of international students on national economies. This study addresses this gap by estimating the benefits against the costs driven by international students in Belgium and its Flemish region in particular. Using a unique combination of various sources of micro-data, the results show net positive benefits that exceed costs by a factor ranging between 2.4 (lower bound) and 3.1 (upper bound) times. The results vary highly with the level of education, as the ratio is the lowest for doctoral students (1.2–1.6) and highest for master students (5.1–6.3). The effect is mainly driven by a high stay rate of international students, who are likely to work in the country after graduation. When considering indirect effects, our results show that there are no significant peer effects due to the presence of international students in the classroom.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-36
Fergus Cumming ◽  
Paul Hubert

Abstract We investigate whether the dynamic response of aggregate consumption to monetary policy depends on the distribution of household debt relative to income. Using UK loan-level micro-data, we propose a novel approach to isolate the fraction of households with a limited ability to smooth consumption. By exploiting time and cross-sectional variation, we show that consumption responds more to monetary policy when the share of highly-indebted households is large, but find no state-contingency with respect to the overall level of debt-to-income. Our results highlight the role of household heterogeneity for understanding monetary transmission to aggregate consumption.

Marin Ferry ◽  
Marine de Talancé ◽  
Miguel Niño-Zarazúa

Baoxi Li ◽  
De Xiao

Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between income inequality and objective environmental pollution, but few focus on the nexus between income inequality and subjective environmental pollution (SEP). Using micro data from the Chinese General Society Survey (CGSS) in 2013 and official statistical data at the provincial level, this paper tests the impact of individual-level income inequality on subjective environmental pollution in China. The results show that individual-level income inequality has an inverted U-shape relationship with subjective environmental pollution, which indicates that increasing the income inequality at the individual level will first rise and then reduce their perceived subjective environmental pollution after reaching the peak. For about 84% of respondents, their subjective environmental pollution decreases with the increase of individual-level income inequality. Furthermore, the heterogeneity analyses show that the income inequality of urban residents and of the locals have an inverted U-shape effect on SEP, and the SEP of females and of individuals with positive environmental attitude are more sensitive to the effect of income inequality. Additionally, we find that subjective well-being plays a mediating role in the relation between income inequality and SEP. Individual income inequality decreases their self-reported well-being, and an increase in well-being has a negative effect on their subjectively perceived environmental quality. We also find non-television media exposures, such as newspaper, magazine, broadcasting, Internet, and mobile custom messages, will amplify the effect of individual-level income inequality on subjective environmental pollution.

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