Disc Diffusion Method
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-37
Vijay Kumar ◽  
Swayambhu Shubham ◽  
Satyendra Narayan Singh

Background: UTI constitute a major public health problem in India accounting 2nd most common infection next to respiratory tract infection. They are responsible for increasing treatment cost and significant morbidity.Aim:-To determine the incidence of UTI, evaluation of pathogens responsible and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in the population.Methods:Urine samples were collected from 300 patients attending the OPD Patna medical college, Patna during the period of 18 months (January 2017 to June 2018) Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done for the bacterial isolates present in the sample by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Only those samples were taken into consideration which develops count equal to or greater than 1*105CFU/ml as indicated by Kass.Results:Out of 300 samples collected 146 (48.66%)) yielded bacterial growth. Out of 146 culture isolates E.Coli was the most common pathogen followed by klebsiella, CoNS and staphylococcus. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed on all the isolates. It was observed that highest sensitivity was 49.31% to amikacin, gentamycin (45.89%), nitrofurantoin (38.35%) meropenem (27.39%).Conclusions:It was observed that high grade of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, cefazolin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and gentamycin is present as a result of misuse or improper use of antibiotic in the community. Hence urine culture is necessary for the diagnostic screening of UTI before the treatment.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 265
Md Minarul Islam ◽  
Rashedul Alam ◽  
Hea-Jong Chung ◽  
Nazim Uddin Emon ◽  
Mohammad Fazlul Kabir ◽  

Bauhinia scandens L. (Family: Fabaceae) is commonly used to treat cholera, diarrhea, asthma, and diabetes disorder in integrative medicine. This study aimed to screen the presence of phytochemicals (preliminary and UPLC-QTOF–M.S. analysis) and to examine the pharmacological activities of Bauhinia scandens L. stems (MEBS) stem extracts. Besides, in silico study was also implemented to elucidate the binding affinity and drug capability of the selected phytochemicals. In vivo anti diarrheal activity was investigated in mice models. In vitro, antibacterial and antifungal properties of MEBS against several pathogenic strains were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. In addition, in silico study has been employed using Discovery studio 2020, UCFS Chimera, PyRx autodock vina, and online tools. In the anti-diarrheal investigation, MEBS showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition rate in all three methods. The antibacterial and antifungal screening showed a remarkable zone of inhibition, of the diameter 14–26 mm and 12–28 mm, by MEBS. The present study revealed that MEBS has remarkable anti-diarrheal potential and is highly effective in wide-spectrum bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, the in silico study validated the results of biological screenings. To conclude, MEBS is presumed to be a good source in treating diarrhea, bacterial and fungal infections.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 192
Tatiana G. Volova ◽  
Svetlana V. Prudnikova ◽  
Evgeniy G. Kiselev ◽  
Ivan V. Nemtsev ◽  
Alexander D. Vasiliev ◽  

The synthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Komagataeibacter xylinus strain B-12068 was investigated on various C-substrates, under submerged conditions with stirring and in static surface cultures. We implemented the synthesis of BC on glycerol, glucose, beet molasses, sprat oil, and a mixture of glucose with sunflower oil. The most productive process was obtained during the production of inoculum in submerged culture and subsequent growth of large BC films (up to 0.2 m2 and more) in a static surface culture. The highest productivity of the BC synthesis process was obtained with the growth of bacteria on molasses and glycerol, 1.20 and 1.45 g/L per day, respectively. We obtained BC composites with silver nanoparticles (BC/AgNPs) and antibacterial drugs (chlorhexidine, baneocin, cefotaxime, and doripenem), and investigated the structure, physicochemical, and mechanical properties of composites. The disc-diffusion method showed pronounced antibacterial activity of BC composites against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Shi ◽  
Qianqian Du ◽  
Lin Yuan ◽  
Wei Gao ◽  
Qing Wang ◽  

Background: The isolation rate of serogroup 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increasing since developing countries began administering the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Methods: We detected the antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of 126 serogroup 15 S. pneumoniae strains isolated from children in China. Serotypes were determined via the Quellung reaction. Antibiotic resistance was tested using the E-test or disc diffusion method. Sequence types were assigned via multilocus sequence typing. Data were analyzed using WHONET 5.6 software.Results: The frequencies of S. pneumoniae serotypes 15A, 15B, 15C, and 15F were 29.37, 40.48, 28.57, and 1.59%, respectively. Continuous-monitoring data from Beijing showed that the annual isolation rates of serogroup 15 S. pneumoniae were 7.64, 7.17, 2.58, 4.35, 3.85, 7.41, and 10.53%, respectively, from 2013 to 2019. All 126 serogroup 15 strains were susceptible to vancomycin and ceftriaxone. The non-susceptibility rate to penicillin was 78.57%. All strains were resistant to erythromycin with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The multidrug resistance rate was 78.57%. The most common clonal complexes were CC3397, CC6011, CC10088, CC9785, and ST8589.Conclusion: Serogroup 15 S. pneumoniae is common among children in China, and these strains should be continuously monitored.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Corina Pascu ◽  
Viorel Herman ◽  
Ionica Iancu ◽  
Luminita Costinar

The present study aimed to determine the bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the western part of Romania. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed based on local inflammation in the udder, changes in milk, and when present, generalized symptoms. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using a rapid test—the California Mastitis Test. The identification of bacterial strains was performed based on biochemical profiles using API system tests (API 20 E, API Staph, API 20 Strep, API Coryne, API 20 NE (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The prevalent isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (50/116; 43.19%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (26/116; 22.41%), E. coli (16/116; 13.79%), Corynebacterium spp. (9/116; 7.75%), Enterococcus spp. (10/116; 8.62%), and Enterobacter spp. (5/116; 4.31%). Phenotype antimicrobial resistance profiling was performed used the disc diffusion method. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria showed low susceptibility to most of the antimicrobials tested, except cephalothin. Susceptibilities to penicillins and quinolones were fairly high in Gram-negative bacteria, whereas resistance was observed to macrolides, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. The highest number of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), the resistance pathotypes identified including the most frequently antimicrobials used in cow mastitis treatment in Romania.

2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (03) ◽  
pp. 6628-2022

Purpose of research: The aim of the study was to determine the presence of Listeria spp. strains in the milk samples obtained from dairy farms in north-eastern Poland and to determine the profile of resistance to antibiotics recommended in the treatment of listeriosis. Material and methods: 500 samples of bulk milk were analyzed. Milk samples were obtained from dairy farms located in Warmia and Mazury region in Poland. Chronic mastitis, requiring frequent and long-term use of antibiotics has been documented in these herds. Isolation of Listeria spp. was performed according to the standard procedure PN-EN ISO 11290-1: 2017-07. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: In total, out of 500 samples of pooled milk, based on biochemical properties, 8 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Listeria (1.6%). The further identification of Listeria strains on the basis of MicrobactListeria12L showed that 3 strains (3/8, 37.5%) belonged to L. monocytogenes species and 5 strains (5/8, 62.5%) belonged to L. innocua species. The analysis of sensitivity to commonly used antimicrobial agents showed that all isolates, both belonging to L. monocytogenes and L. innocua species, were sensitive to ampicillin. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to at least three classes of antibiotics, was confirmed among four isolates (50%). Research summary: The studies undertaken revealed that raw milk can pose a risk for public health due to the prevalence of pathogenic Listeria spp. among which multidrug resistant strains are present. It is therefore necessary to rationalize the use of antibiotics and to monitor bacterial resistance in the food production environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Khalida Bouarroudj-Hamici ◽  
Soraya Mettouchi ◽  
Lynda Medjkouh-Rezzak ◽  
Romain Larbat ◽  
Abderezak Tamendjari

Background: The olive tree (Olea europaea L.), the most widespread plant species in the Mediterranean basin, includes two forms: cultivated (var Europaea) and wild (var Sylvestris). Wild olive trees or oleasters cover large areas in Algeria. It has been shown that oil from oleaster has a higher content of phenolic compounds, which could have antimicrobial properties. Objective:: The objective of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts from four Algerian oleaster oils and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Chemlal variety. Methods: Phenolic compounds were determined by UHPLC-MS. Antibacterial activity was tested against six referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method by measuring the diameters of the zone of inhibition. Results: The results revealed a similarity between the phenolic composition of oleasters 1 and 3 and between oleaster 4 and EVOO; however, the phenolic composition of oleaster 2 that the poorer was markedly different with a higher content of free phenolic alcohols and lower in secoiridoids.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-16
Md Mobarok Hossain ◽  
Tasnim Jabin ◽  
Md Ifrat Hossain ◽  
Mst Arzina Khatun ◽  
Md Hossain Emam ◽  

The study was conducted to detect the antibiotic resistance profile of the clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A from 100 blood samples of patients from different age groups suspected to be suffering from enteric fever. The pure cultures of the bacterial isolates were collected from some renowned diagnostic centers of Dhaka and they were further characterized through the conventional culture, microscopy and biochemical examinations. These isolates were cross checked for the antibiogram profile by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method against ten different types of antibiotics. Most of the isolates were found resistant against azithromycin (100%), nalidixic acid (100%) and ceftazidime (75%). However, isolates showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (95%), levofloxacin (97%), cotrimoxazole (96%) and chloramphenicol (95%). These findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of the drug resistance pattern of S. enterica Serovar Paratyphi A for better public health management. Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.11 (1) 2021: 14-16

Dian Mayasari ◽  
Yosi B. Murti ◽  
Sylvia U. T. Pratiwi ◽  
Sudarsono Sudarsono

The emergence of multi-resistant strains of bacteria reinforces the need to discover new antibacterial agents that are able to combat resistant microorganisms. Medicinal plants are a valuable natural source of bioactive substances against various infectious diseases. Melastoma malabathricum L. is an important herb that is traditionally used to treat several ailments associated with microbial infection diseases such as wounds, diarrhea, dysentery, and toothache. This study investigated extracts of M. malabathricum L. for antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Disc diffusion and TLC-contact bioautography techniques were employed to examine antibacterial properties of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts with observations of diameter inhibition zones and Rf values. Investigation of active compounds in TLC-bioautography used several reagents including citroboric, cerium (IV) sulfate and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), continued by identification of chromatogram profiles through densitometry analysis. The three extracts showed good inhibition against bacterial strains with diameter inhibition zones in the range of 8.0 – 14.0 mm with a number of active spots on TLC-contact bioautography for each extract. This plant may serve as useful source of antibacterial agents for resistant microorganisms and further investigation is needed of its bioactive pure compounds as well as their particular therapeutic potentials and applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
V. Gomathi ◽  
R. Selvameena

Abstract. Mn(II) complexes of Schiff bases 4-((3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-N-(pyridin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (HL2) and 4-((3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-N-(pyrimidin-2- yl)benzenesulfonamide (HL3) were synthesized. The Schiff bases HL2 and HL3 and their complexes were characterized by analytical, conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, ultraviolet-visible, thermal analysis, and EI mass techniques. The spectral data of the complexes have revealed the bidentate complexing nature of the Schiff base ligand through phenoxide ion and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The antibacterial activities of complexes were tested against gram-positive bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2036) and fungal species Aspergillus niger (NCIM 105) and Mucor sp.  (NCIM 108) by disc diffusion method. Keywords: Schiff bases; Mn(II) complex; antibacterial; antifungal.   Resumen. Los complejos de Mn(II) de las bases de Schiff 4-((3-etoxi-2-hidroxibencilideno)amino)-N-(piridin-2-il)bencenosulfonamida (HL2) y 4-((3-etoxi-2-hidroxibencilideno)amino)-N-(pirimidin-2- il)bencenosulfonamida (HL3) fueron sintetizados. Las bases de Schiff HL2 and HL3 y sus complejos fueron caracterizados por métodos analíticos, conductancia, susceptibilidad magnética, espectroscopia infrarroja y UV-vis, termogravimetría, y espectrometría de masas por impacto enectrónico. Los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos para los complejos corroboraron la coordinación bidentada de los ligantes de base de Schiff a través del ion fenóxido y el átomo de nitrógeno del grupo azometino. La actividad antibacterial de los complejos se evaluó contra cepas bacterianas gram-positivas Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2036) y contra especies fúngicas Aspergillus niger (NCIM 105) y Mucor sp.  (NCIM 108) utilizando el método de difusión en disco.

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