This chapter aims to analyze the market of fertilizers in Mexico during the pandemic crisis. This analysis of the fertilizer market in Mexico points out that the consumption of fertilizers has undergone a change in the structure in favor of consumers with the highest concentration and diversification. The method used is the analytical-descriptive and the critical reflexive based on the quantitative data obtained from secondary sources. The functioning of an integral model of entrepreneurship in green innovation business (GIB) that is currently emerging and in the process of internationalization is analyzed. This chapter analyzes a particular company that specializes in ecological biomineral organic fertilizer where no chemical product is used to produce the composition. Everything that is marketed is made up of a base of organic minerals and other organic compounds.
The objective of this chapter is to analyze the functioning of an integral model of entrepreneurship in green innovation business (GIB) that is currently emerging and in the process of internationalization. Therefore, this work aims to study the central perspectives of technology that are based on the phenomenon of entrepreneurship and thus develop a strategy that adapts to companies with an ecological basis to achieve internationalization. This chapter analyzes a particular company that specializes in ecological biomineral organic fertilizer, where no chemical product is used to produce the composition; everything that is marketed is made up of a base of organic minerals and other organic compounds.
Aim. Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a widely used chemical product. The production of glycerol has its irreplaceable advantages. With the development of biodiesel industry, it will become the main trend of ECH production in the future. Methods. A vacuum evaporation device is built to investigate the effect of evaporation on the treatment of this kind of high-salt wastewater, and the feasibility of the thermodynamic equation of the simulation process is verified. Process. An AHR fuzzy mathematics evaluation algorithm is used to compare experimental values with simulated numerical values in brine. Results and Conclusions. In the multieffect evaporation process simulation with glycerin-containing brine, the amount of salt precipitated by unit steam energy is arranged in order from more to less than that of seven-effect parallel flow evaporation, is greater than five-effect parallel flow evaporation, and is larger than three-effect parallel flow evaporation, which shows that the increase of validity number is beneficial to the utilization of heat.
Chemical Product Engineering (CPE) is marked by numerous challenges, such as the complexity of the properties–structure–ingredients–process relationship of the different products and the necessity to discover and develop constantly and quickly new molecules and materials with tailor-made properties. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods have gained increasing attention due to their performance in tackling particularly complex problems in various areas, such as computer vision and natural language processing. As such, they present a specific interest in addressing the complex challenges of CPE. This article provides an updated review of the state of the art regarding the implementation of ML techniques in different types of CPE problems with a particular focus on four specific domains, namely the design and discovery of new molecules and materials, the modeling of processes, the prediction of chemical reactions/retrosynthesis and the support for sensorial analysis. This review is further completed by general guidelines for the selection of an appropriate ML technique given the characteristics of each problem and by a critical discussion of several key issues associated with the development of ML modeling approaches. Accordingly, this paper may serve both the experienced researcher in the field as well as the newcomer.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the costs of fluoridation in water supply systems of different population sizes. A case study was carried out comprising cities in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The costs of initial installation, the chemical product, the operation of the system, and the control of fluoride levels between the years 2012 and 2017 were considered. The annual per capita cost of the treatment was calculated to estimate the fluoridation weight concerning the total expenses. The fluoridation annual per capita cost ranged from R$ 20.14 (US$ 7.23) in towns with less than two thousand inhabitants to R$ 0.39 (US$ 0.14) in cities with a population of approximately 520 thousand inhabitants. In systems that supply up to 30 thousand inhabitants, the running cost was responsible for most of the expenses, ranging from 98.2 to 84%. For cities with 520 thousand inhabitants, the costs with the chemical product corresponded to 74.7% of the expenses. Compared with the total treatment cost, the water fluoridation cost ranged from 0.2 to 0.6% for population sizes of 30 thousand inhabitants or more and varied from 1.3 to 7.3% for towns with less than 10 thousand inhabitants. Considering that the decision-making process is complex in the field of public policies, and decision-makers suffer multiple influences as for different policy alternatives, knowing the implications of population size for costs is essential for informed decision-making.
The present study examines the possibility of using an industrial stirred chemical reactor, originally employed for liquid–liquid mixtures, for operating with two-phase liquid–solid suspensions. It is critical when obtaining a high-quality chemical product that the solid phase remains suspended in the liquid phase long enough that the chemical reaction takes place. The impeller was designed for the preparation of a chemical product with a prescribed composition. The present study aims at finding, using a numerical simulation analysis, if the performance of the original impeller is suitable for obtaining a new chemical product with a different composition. The Eulerian multiphase model was employed along with the renormalization (RNG) k-ε turbulence model to simulate liquid–solid flow with a free surface in a stirred tank. A sliding-mesh approach was used to model the impeller rotation with the commercial CFD code, FLUENT. The results obtained underline that 25% to 40% of the solid phase is sedimented on the lower part of the reactor, depending on the initial conditions. It results that the impeller does not perform as needed; hence, the suspension time of the solid phase is not long enough for the chemical reaction to be properly completed.