Contraction Pattern
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael W. Konrad

Abstract BackgroundTunicates comprise an invertebrate, chordate subphylum which has been shown to be the closest group to vertebrates. Colonial tunicates are clusters of genetic clones generated asexually from a single free swimming larval “tadpole”. Each individual, or zooid, of the colony has a peristaltic heart which circulates blood through that individual. In addition, each zooid is connected to a common, external vascular network. This vascular network has radial extensions that end at the colony periphery in bulbs, or ampullae, which contract and expand to generate reciprocating flow between ampullae and zooids. Surgically detached ampullae continue to beat.ResultsQuantitative scans of videos of individual ampullae in a young Botrylloides viocella colony demonstrate ampullae contractions are often in phase, with occasional abrupt phase shifts out of and back to synchrony. The vessels connecting the ampullae to the zooid also contract, mostly in phase with the ampullae. Total volumes pumped by this colonial system are a significant fraction of the zooid volume, since it contracts 180 degrees out of phase and at the same frequency as the ampullae. Reversals of the peristaltic heart are at least partially synchronized with ampullae contractions. Ampullae that have been surgically detached from the colony contract at a more uniform rate with more symmetrical profiles than when part of the colony. ConclusionContractions of the ampullae and associated vessels pump sufficient blood in and out of the zooid that they should be considered functional hearts, and the partial synchrony of ampullae contractions results in a larger blood flow compared to an alternative asynchronous contraction pattern. The manner in which the ampullae abruptly fall out of and back to synchrony indicates synchrony is due to entrainment while the out of phase contractions of the zooid may be a direct result of pumping. The shape of contraction curves of detached ampullae pairs is almost indistinguishable from a pure sine wave, indicating that the more complex original pattern was due to interactions between out of phase ampullae. Ampullae and associated vessels might be analogous with the system of lymphatic vessels in vertebrates.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Gephine ◽  
Patrick Mucci ◽  
Mathieu Bielmann ◽  
Mickael Martin ◽  
Laurent Bouyer ◽  
...  

Abstract We compared quadriceps oxygenation and surface electromyography (sEMG) responses during the 1-min sit-to-stand (1STS) in 14 people with severe COPD and 12 controls, in whom cardiorespiratory response, near-infrared spectroscopy signals (oxy [Hb-Mb], deoxy [Hb-Mb], total [Hb-Mb], and SmO2) and sEMG signals of the quadriceps were recorded. Time duration of each sit-to-stand cycle and the total work performed during the 1STS were measured. The quadriceps oxygenation parameters were normalized by reporting their values according to the total work during 1STS. The rate of sit-to-stand maneuvers decelerated in people with COPD leading to smaller total work compared with controls. The pattern of quadriceps oxygenation response during 1STS was similar between groups. However, in COPD, the recovery after 1STS was characterized by larger overshoots in oxy [Hb-Mb], total [Hb-Mb], and SmO2. When corrected for the cumulative total work, the increase in muscle O2 extraction (deoxy [Hb-Mb]) during the first 30 seconds of recovery was greater in people with COPD compared to controls. Quadriceps sEMG changes suggestive of a fatiguing contraction pattern was observed only in people with COPD. All together, these results highlighted physiological misadaptation of people with severe COPD to the 1STS.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicolas Rose ◽  
Surabhi Sonam ◽  
Thao Nguyen ◽  
Gianluca Grenci ◽  
Anne Bigot ◽  
...  

Quantification of skeletal muscle functional strength is essential to assess the outcomes of therapeutic procedures for muscular disorders. Several muscle three-dimensional Organ-on-chip models have been developed to measure the generated force. Yet, these technologies require a substantial amount of biological material, which is problematic in the context of limited patient sample. Here we developed a miniaturized 3D myotube culture chip with contraction monitoring capacity. Combination of light-induced molecular adsorption technology and optimized micropatterned substrate design enabled to obtain high culture yields in tightly controlled physical and chemical microenvironments. Spontaneous twitch contractions in 3D myotubes derived from primary human myoblasts were observed, the generated force was measured and the contraction pattern characterized. In addition, the impact of three-dimensional culture on nuclear morphology was analyzed, confirming the similarity in organization between the obtained 3D myotubes and in vivo myofibers. Our system enabled to model LMNA-related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (L-CMD) with successful development of mutant 3D myotubes displaying contractile dysfunction. We anticipate that this technology shall be used to study contraction characteristics and evaluate how specific diseases affect muscle organization and force generation. Our downsized model system might allow to substantially improve drug screening capability for therapeutic oriented research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (6) ◽  
pp. 030006052110213
Author(s):  
Yuchao Chen ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Minger Wei ◽  
Menglu Zhou ◽  
Linan Zhang ◽  
...  

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a heterozygous CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin 3 gene ( ATXN3). However, patients with homozygous SCA3 carrying expanded CAG repeats in both alleles of ATXN3 are extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of a 50-year-old female who had homozygous SCA3 with expansion of 62/62 repeats. Segregation analysis of the patient’s family showed both a contraction pattern of CAG repeat length and stable transmission. The present case demonstrated an earlier onset and more severe clinical phenotype than that seen in heterozygous individuals, suggesting that the gene dosage enhances disease severity.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jordan Rogan ◽  
Mickey Ray Parker ◽  
Zachary B. Hancock ◽  
Alexis D. Earl ◽  
Erin K. Buchholtz ◽  
...  

ABSTRACTSpecies range contractions are important contributors to biological annihilation, yet typically do not receive the same attention as extinctions. Range contractions can lead to marked impacts on populations but are often only characterized by measurements of reduced extent. For effective conservation efforts, it is critical to recognize that not all range contractions are the same. We propose four distinct patterns of range contraction: shrinkage, amputation, hollow, and fragmentation. We tested their impact on populations of a generic generalist species using forward-time simulations. Results showed that all four patterns differentially reduced population abundance (declines of 60-80%) and significantly increased average relatedness, with differing patterns in nucleotide diversity (π) declines relative to the contraction pattern. The fragmentation pattern resulted in the strongest effects on post-contraction genetic diversity and structure. Defining and quantifying range contraction patterns and their consequences for the planet’s biodiversity provides necessary information to combat biological annihilation in the Anthropocene.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
E Surkova ◽  
A Kovacs ◽  
M Tokodi ◽  
BK Lakatos ◽  
D Muraru ◽  
...  

Abstract Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: None. Background. Right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction in patients with left-sided heart disease is known adverse factor. However, the RV adaptation at the different degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction remains to be clarified. Purpose  to assess the change in RV contraction pattern in relation to LV ejection fraction (EF) in patients with left-sided heart disease. Methods. LV and RV volumes and EF were measured by 3D-echocardiography in 295 patients with left-sided heart disease (59 ± 17years, 69% male). The 3D meshmodel of the RV was postprocessed by the ReVISION software and its contraction pattern was decomposed along the longitudinal, radial and anteroposterior directions (Fig. A) providing longitudinal, radial and anteroposterior EF (LEF, REF, AEF). Relative contribution of each component to the RV systolic function was measured as the ratio between LEF, REF and AEF and global RVEF (LEFi, REFi, AEFi). Results. Patients with LV systolic dysfunction also had reduced RVEF. Relative contribution of the longitudinal and anteroposterior components decreased, while radial component increased in patients with reduced LVEF (Table). RV LEF and AEF significantly correlated with the LVEF (Rho 0.50 and 0.51, p < 0.0001), while the correlation between REF and LVEF was weak (Rho 0.22, p = 0.0002). There was a significant drop in LEF and AEF (Fig. B) and their relative contribution to the total RVEF (Fig. C) starting from the earlier stages of LV dysfunction. However, it was effectively compensated by significant increase in the radial RV component resulting in preservation of total RVEF in those with normal, mildly and moderately reduced LVEF (50 [46;54] vs 47 [44;52] vs 46 [42;49]%), whereas total RVEF dropped significantly only in severe LV dysfunction (30 [25;39]%; p < 0.0001) (Fig. D). Conclusions. The longitudinal and anteroposterior RV contraction was related to the LVEF and decreased from early stages of the LV systolic dysfunction. Increase in the radial component compensated for the loss of longitudinal and anteroposterior RV components in mild and moderate LV dysfunction to maintain total RVEF. Drop in all three components resulted in significant reduction of total RVEF in severe LV dysfunction. Characteristics of study population Overall (N = 295) LVEF≥50% (N = 166) LVEF < 50% (N = 129) LV EF, % 49.6 ± 14.3 59.9 ± 5.6 36.4 ± 10.9* RV EF, % 46.5 ± 9.2 49.8 ± 6.9 42.3 ± 10.0* RV LEFi 0.42 ± 0.09 0.45 ± 0.09 0.38 ± 0.09* RV REFi 0.47 ± 0.1 0.45 ± 0.1 0.50 ± 0.09* RV AEFi 0.39 ± 0.08 0.41 ± 0.08 0.37 ± 0.07* *p < 0.0001 Abstract Figure.


2020 ◽  
Vol 319 (6) ◽  
pp. G696-G702
Author(s):  
Dustin A. Carlson ◽  
Wenjun Kou ◽  
Melina Masihi ◽  
Shashank Acharya ◽  
Alexandra J. Baumann ◽  
...  

Repetitive antegrade contraction, a unique, patterned, motor response to sustained esophageal distension, is observed on functional luminal imaging probe panometry in healthy controls and patients with normal esophageal motility; however, the mechanisms related to this response are unclear. Among healthy, asymptomatic volunteers, cholinergic inhibition with atropine reduced the vigor and triggering of distension-induced esophageal contractility, although the rate at which contractions occurred in a repetitive antegrade contraction pattern was unchanged by atropine.


2019 ◽  
Vol 40 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
M Tokodi ◽  
B K Lakatos ◽  
E Kispal ◽  
Z Toser ◽  
K Racz ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) induces significant changes not only in the left, but also in the right ventricular (RV) morphology and function. Early treatment of MR is recommended, however, surgical procedure disrupts the native RV contractile pattern and predisposes the at-risk ventricle to develop postoperative RV failure (RVF) which is associated with poor outcomes. Purpose Accordingly, the PREPARE-MVR study (PRediction of Early PostoperAtive Right vEntricular failure in Mitral Valve Replacement/Repair patients) aims to explore the alterations of RV contraction pattern in patients undergoing MVR and to investigate the association of preoperative echocardiographic findings with early postoperative RVF. Methods We prospectively enrolled 70 patients (62±12 years, 67% males) undergoing open heart MVR. Thirty age and gender matched healthy volunteers served as control group. Transthoracic 3D echocardiography was performed preoperatively and at intensive care unit discharge. Furthermore, focused 2D echocardiogram was also obtained during the ICU stay. Forty-three patients also completed 6 months follow-up. 3D model of the RV was reconstructed and end-diastolic volume index (EDVi) along with RV ejection fraction (RVEF) were calculated. For in-depth analysis of RV mechanics, we decomposed the motion of the RV to compute longitudinal (LEF) and radial ejection fraction (REF). Right heart catheterization was performed to monitor RV stroke work index (RVSWi). Results RV morphology as assessed by EDVi was unaffected by surgery (preoperative vs postoperative; 73±17 vs 71±16 mL/m2, p=NS). RVEF was slightly decreased after MVR (52±6 vs 48±7%, p<0.05), whereas RV contraction pattern has changed notably. Before MVR, the longitudinal shortening was the main contributor to global systolic function (LEF/RVEF vs REF/RVEF; 0.53±0.10 vs 0.43±0.12; p<0.001), whereas in controls the longitudinal and radial shortening contributed equally to RVEF (0.47±0.07 vs 0.43±0.09; p=NS). Postoperatively, the radial motion became dominant (0.35±0.08 vs 0.47±0.09; p<0.001). However, this shift was only temporary as 6 months later the contraction pattern became similar to controls showing equal contribution of the two components (0.44±0.10 vs 0.42±0.11; p=NS). Postoperative RVF (defined as RVSWi <300 mmHg*mL/m2 or ICU TAPSE <10 mm) was detected in 14 [20%] patients. Preoperative LEF was associated with postoperative RVSWi (r=−0.61, p<0.001) and it was an independent predictor of postoperative RVF (OR=1.16 [1.03–1.35], p<0.05). Conclusion Severe MR induces a significant shift in the RV mechanical pattern which may influence the development of postoperative RV dysfunction and failure after MVR. Advanced indices of RV mechanics are associated with invasively measured parameters of RV contractility and may predict postoperative RVF.


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