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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 ◽  
pp. 101294
Brian E. Saelens ◽  
Richard T. Meenan ◽  
Erin M. Keast ◽  
Lawrence D. Frank ◽  
Deborah R. Young ◽  

M Sobrino-García

Background: The prevalence of hypersensitivity reactions to radiological contrast media (RCM) is increasing due to the greater performance of diagnostic and therapeutic tests that require RCMs. Objective: We carried out a year-long real-life observational study to prospectively evaluate the patients referred to the Allergy Service from Primary Care, Emergency Room, and other Services with suspected moderate to severe RCM hypersensitivity. Methods: To study the costs of RCM hypersensitivity evaluation, we systematically recorded direct and indirect costs. Results: Sixty-nine patients with previous reactions to RCM were evaluated in the Allergy Service from June 1st, 2017, to May 31st, 2018. Total direct health care costs were € 10715.84, with a mean cost per patient of € 155.30 ± 77.08. Specifically, direct non-health costs reached € 1605.42 (mean € 23.27 ± 41.14), and indirect costs were € 6490.85 (mean € 94.07 ± 110.61). In summary, the total cost was € 18812.11, which means a mean cost of € 272.64 ± 164.77. Conclusions: Our study reflects that the costs of an elective evaluation of hypersensitivity to RCM are low. This fact reaffirms that correct and safe management of these patients could be cost-effective, so our efforts should be directed to implement the necessary logistics.

Courtney Cox ◽  
Krishna Patel ◽  
Rebecca Cantu ◽  
Chary Akmyradov ◽  
Katherine Irby

OBJECTIVE: Status asthmaticus is commonly treated in pediatric patients by using continuous albuterol, which can cause hypokalemia. The primary aim of this study was to determine if serial potassium monitoring is necessary by examining treatment frequency of hypokalemia. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was performed in 185 pediatric patients admitted with status asthmaticus requiring continuous albuterol between 2017 and 2019. All patients were placed on intravenous fluids containing potassium. The primary outcome measure was the treatment of hypokalemia in relation to the number of laboratory draws for potassium levels. The secondary outcome measure was hypokalemia frequency and relation to the duration and initial dose of continuous albuterol. RESULTS: Included were 156 patients with 420 laboratory draws (average, 2.7 per patient) for potassium levels. The median lowest potassium level was 3.40 mmol/L (interquartile range, 3.2–3.7). No correlation was found between initial albuterol dose and lowest potassium level (P = .52). Patients with hypokalemia had a mean albuterol time of 12.32 (SD, 15.76) hours, whereas patients without hypokalemia had a mean albuterol time of 11.50 (SD, 12.53) hours (P = .29). Potassium levels were treated 13 separate times. CONCLUSIONS: The number of laboratory draws for potassium levels was high in our cohort, with few patients receiving treatment for hypokalemia beyond the potassium routinely added to maintenance fluids. Length of time on albuterol and dose of albuterol were not shown to increase the risk of hypokalemia. Serial laboratory measurements may be decreased to potentially reduce health care costs, pain, and anxiety surrounding needlesticks.

2022 ◽  
Fatemeh Amirzadehfard ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Imanieh ◽  
Sina Zoghi ◽  
Faezeh sehatpour ◽  
Peyman Jafari ◽  

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) presentation resembles common flu or can be more severe; it can result in hospitalization with significant morbidity and/or mortality. We made an attempt to develop a predictive model and a scoring system to improve the diagnostic efficiency for COVID-19 mortality via analysis of clinical features and laboratory data on admission. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 480 consecutive adult patients, aged 21-95, who were admitted to Faghihi Teaching Hospital. Clinical and laboratory features were extracted from the medical records and analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: A novel mortality risk score (COVID-19 BURDEN) was calculated, incorporating risk factors from this cohort. CRP (> 73.1 mg/L), O2 saturation variation (greater than 90%, 84-90%, and less than 84%), increased PT (>16.2s), diastolic blood pressure (≤75 mmHg), BUN (>23 mg/dL), and raised LDH (>731 U/L) are the features comprising the scoring system. The patients are triaged to the groups of low- (score <4) and high-risk (score ≥ 4) groups. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity for predicting non-response to medical therapy with scores of ≥ 4 were 0.831, 78.12%, and 70.95%, respectively. Conclusion: Using this scoring system in COVID-19 patients, the severity of the disease will be determined in the early stages of the disease, which will help to reduce hospital care costs and improve its quality and outcome.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Balu Vaidyanathan ◽  
Karthika Rani ◽  
Farooq Kunde ◽  
Stephy Thomas ◽  
Abish Sudhakar ◽  

Abstract Background: Prenatal diagnosis of critical CHDs and planned peripartum care is an emerging concept in resource-limited settings. Objective: To report the impact of prenatal diagnosis and planned peripartum care on costs of neonatal cardiac care in a resource-limited setting. Methods: Prospective study (October 2019 to October 2020). Consecutive neonates undergoing surgery or catheter-based interventions included. Patients were divided into prenatal (prenatal diagnosis) and post-natal (diagnosis after birth) groups. Costs of cardiac care (total, direct, and indirect) and health expenses to income ratio were compared between study groups; factors impacting costs were analysed. Results: A total of 105 neonates were included, including 33 in prenatal group. Seventy-seven neonates (73.3%) underwent surgical procedures while the rest needed catheter-based interventions. Total costs were 16.2% lower in the prenatal group (p = 0.008). Direct costs were significantly lower in the prenatal group (18%; p = 0.02), especially in neonates undergoing surgery (20.4% lower; p = 0.001). Health expenses to income ratio was also significantly lower in the prenatal group (2.04 (1.03–2.66) versus post-natal:2.58 (1.55–5.63), p = 0.01);, particularly in patients undergoing surgery (prenatal: 1.58 (1.03–2.66) vs. post-natal: 2.99 (1.91–6.02); p = 0.002). Prenatal diagnosis emerged as the only modifiable factor impacting costs on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis and planned peripartum care of critical CHD is feasible in resource-limited settings and is associated with significantly lower costs of neonatal cardiac care. The dual benefit of improved clinical outcomes and lower costs of cardiac care should encourage policymakers in resource-limited settings towards developing more prenatal cardiac services.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
José Antonio Orellana Turri ◽  
Nana Kwame Anokye ◽  
Lionai Lima dos Santos ◽  
José Maria Soares Júnior ◽  
Edmund Chada Baracat ◽  

Abstract Background The increasing burden of obesity generates significant socioeconomic impacts for individuals, populations, and national health systems worldwide. The literature on impacts and cost-effectiveness of obesity-related interventions for prevention and treatment of moderate to severe obesity indicate that bariatric surgery presents high costs associated with high effectiveness in improving health status referring to certain outcomes; however, there is a lack of robust evidence at an individual-level estimation of its impacts on multiple health outcomes related to obesity comorbidities. Methods The study encompasses a single-centre retrospective longitudinal analysis of patient-level data using micro-costing technique to estimate direct health care costs with cost-effectiveness for multiple health outcomes pre-and post-bariatric surgery. Data from 114 patients who had bariatric surgery at the Hospital of Clinics of the University of Sao Paulo during 2018 were investigated through interrupted time-series analysis with generalised estimating equations and marginal effects, including information on patients' characteristics, lifestyle, anthropometric measures, hemodynamic measures, biochemical exams, and utilisation of health care resources during screening (180 days before) and follow-up (180 days after) of bariatric surgery. Results The preliminary statistical analysis showed that health outcomes presented improvement, except cholesterol and VLDL, and overall direct health care costs increased after the intervention. However, interrupted time series analysis showed that the rise in health care costs is attributable to the high cost of bariatric surgery, followed by a statistically significant decrease in post-intervention health care costs. Changes in health outcomes were also statistically significant in general, except in cholesterol and LDL, leading to significant improvements in patients' health status after the intervention. Conclusions Trends multiple health outcomes showed statistically significant improvements in patients' health status post-intervention compared to trends pre-intervention, resulting in reduced direct health care costs and the burden of obesity.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 55
Aravind Thavamani ◽  
Krishna Kishore Umapathi ◽  
Jasmine Khatana ◽  
Sanjay Bhandari ◽  
Katja Kovacic ◽  

Aim: To analyze the clinical characteristics, trends in hospitalization and health care resource utilization of pediatric patients with cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS). Methods: We analyzed the latest 5 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Kids Inpatient Database (HCUP-KID) datasets including years 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2016 for patients aged 1–20 years with a primary diagnosis of CVS and were compared with Age/gender-matched controls for comorbidities, clinical outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. Results: A total of 12,396 CVS-related hospitalizations were analyzed. The mean age of CVS patients was 10.4 ± 6.7 years. CVS was associated with dysautonomia (OR: 12.1; CI: 7.0 to 20.8), dyspepsia (OR: 11.9; CI: 8.8 to 16.03), gastroesophageal reflux disease (OR: 6.9; Confidence Interval (CI): 6.4 to 7.5), migraine headaches (OR: 6.8; CI: 5.9 to 7.7) and irritable bowel syndrome (OR: 2.08; CI: 1.2 to 4.3) (all p < 0.001). CVS was also associated with increased cannabis use (OR: 5.26, 4.6 to 5.9; p < 0.001), anxiety disorder (OR: 3.9; CI: 3.5 to 4.4) and stress reaction (OR: 3.6; CI: 2.06 to 6.3), p < 0.001. Mean CVS-related hospitalization costs (inflation adjusted) more than doubled from $3199 in 2003 to $6721 in 2016, incurring $84 million/year in total costs. Conclusion: Hospitalized CVS patients have increased prevalence of DGBIs, dysautonomia, psychiatric conditions and cannabis use compared to non-CVS controls. CVS-related hospitalizations in U.S. is associated with increasing health care costs. Better management of CVS and comorbid conditions is warranted to reduce health care costs and improve outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
pp. 101247
Stian Solumsmoen ◽  
Gry Poulsen ◽  
Jakob Kjellberg ◽  
Mads Melbye ◽  
Tina Nørgaard Munch

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