mild depression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

Detection of mental disorders in the elderly are using the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) screening/questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and/or or based on structured interviews. The elderly who had complete screening and interview data were included in the study sample, i.e., 85 people. From 85 elderly as a participant, 65 people (76.4%) had a good cognitive, 10 (11.7%) moderate cognitive, and 5 severe cognitive (5.8%), but their daily activities were still good. The results of the screening GDS showed 70 people with mild depression (82.4%), moderate depression in 13 people (15.3%) and 2 people with severe depression (2.3%). The results of the screening with DASS show 15 elderly people with depression (17.5%), 55 people with anxiety (65%) and 15 people experiencing stress (17.5%). Screening for elderly sleep quality with the PSQI for elderly showed 60 people with disrupted sleep quality (70.5%) and 15 people with good sleep quality (17.6%). A 68 people elderly (80%) complained of mild pain and 17 people (20%) with moderate pain by screening using the VAS, where the location of the pain varied in the body and leg areas.

2022 ◽  
Takahiro Tanaka ◽  
Michiko Koga ◽  
Tomoe Senkoji ◽  
Megumi Kubota ◽  
Kazuhiko Ikeuchi ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacts physical health and mental health. People living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders than the general population. We examined the mental health of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Methods We retrospectively examined the medical records of PLWHs who underwent the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 at an HIV referral hospital in Tokyo. Stringency Index (SI) values were used to measure the intensity of social infection control measures. Results Between February 2020-May 2021, 30 PLWH were examined at least once. The median age was 49 years, 29 PLWH were on antiretroviral therapy, and the median CD4 count was 580.5/µL. A total of 30% of the patients experienced distress, 45% depression, and 21.4% generalized anxiety disorder. Fourteen PLWH were taken for a median of four tests (IQR:2.0-7.3) and classified into three types: 1) Moderate distress or mild depression or anxiety at the beginning that decreased gradually (six patients, 43%), 2) persistent severe distress, but moderate depression or anxiety gradually decreased (six patients, 43%), and 3) extremely severe distress and depression or anxiety continued to syncope with the SI values (two patients, 14%). Having no partners, unemployment, and a history of psychiatric diseases were more commonly observed in the highly severe mental health groups. Conclusions PLWH are more vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic than the general population, especially those with substantial social isolation. Attention should be paid to the mental health of PLWH.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Argyro Pachi ◽  
Christos Sikaras ◽  
Ioannis Ilias ◽  
Aspasia Panagiotou ◽  
Sofia Zyga ◽  

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk to nurses’ mental health has increased rapidly. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and burnout and to evaluate their possible association with the sense of coherence in nursing staff during the pandemic crisis. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory questionnaire, Beck’s Depression Inventory, and the Sense of Coherence questionnaire were completed by 101 male and 559 female nurses. Individual and demographic data were recorded. Regarding depression, 25.5% of respondents exhibited mild depression, 13.5% moderate depression and 7.6% severe depression. In the burnout scale, 47.1% had a pathological value. Female nurses had higher burnout (t test p < 0.01, 49.03 vs. 38.74) and depression (t test p < 0.01, 11.29 vs. 6.93) scores compared to men and lower levels in the sense of coherence (p < 0.05, 59.45 vs. 65.13). Regression evidenced that 43.7% of the variation in the BDI rating was explained by the CBI, while an additional 8.3% was explained by the sense of coherence. Mediation analysis indicated a partial mediation of burnout in the correlation between sense of coherence and depression. The sense of coherence acted as a negative regulator between burnout and depression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenyi Zhang ◽  
Xiaozhong Lu ◽  
Derong Kang ◽  
Jiaxin Quan

To understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on postgraduate students’ internships in China, 911 students from different regions of China were surveyed through online questionnaires. Among the postgraduate students surveyed, 48.51% of which believed that the pandemic had its greatest impact on colleagues interaction, and 59.60% believed that the pandemic had a strong impact on practical skills. In total, 31.8% of postgraduate internship programs were impacted by COVID-19. The proportions of respondents having severe, moderate, and mild anxiety levels were 1.42%, 4.72%, and 15.92%, respectively; and the rates of severe, moderate, and mild depression were 1.64%, 10.86%, and 21.84%, respectively. ANOVA found that major, degree type, and degree of impact of the pandemic on colleague interactions and improved practical abilities all affected postgraduate mental health. The findings suggest that the mental health of postgraduate students should be monitored during a pandemic, and targeted psychological counseling should be offered. Postgraduate internships should be emphasized as to ensure a smooth internship process during a pandemic period. Psychological counseling and assistance should be provided to those whose internships were affected by the pandemic, and programs should be set up to aid postgraduate students in adapting to the new internship and employment conditions brought on by the “new normal” of pandemic prevention and control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Munam Raza Jafri ◽  
Anna Zaheer ◽  
Sahar Fatima ◽  
Taiba Saleem ◽  
Atif Sohail

Abstract Background Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. In many countries, general people reported the high level of depression, anxiety, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder during recent a pandemic. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of people who survived through this alarming situation of COVID-19. Methods In this study, seventy individuals (either gender) between the age of 18–60 years, who contracted COVID-19 previously and then recovered as indicated by negative PCR results, were included. Data was collected by using three tools: impact of event scale (IES-R), patient health questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) and corona anxiety scale (CAS). People with other systemic/mental disorders, ongoing malignancies, upper/lower motor disorders and inability to give consent were excluded from the study. Results Mean age of participants was 26.29 + 11.79. All the 70 responders suffered from COVID-19. Among these 23 (32.9%) were asymptomatic and 47(67.1%) had common symptoms related to COVID-19 53 (75.7%) responders also had symptoms post-recovery. Most of the people who suffered COVID-19 had mild depression. Twenty-nine participants (41.4%) reported the highest impact of this traumatic event on their mental health. After suffering from COVID-19, 74.3% reported no anxiety as measured through corona anxiety scale (CAS). Conclusion High level of post-traumatic stress was seen among participants who recovered from COVID-19, especially those patients who were symptomatic. Mild depression and anxiety were also noted among them.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e1512
Parichehr Alizadeh ◽  
Ehsan Bahramali ◽  
Arvin Hedayati ◽  
Azizallah Dehghan

Background: The natural history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as the most prevalent public health issue in Iran has changed with the introduction of novel therapeutic strategies that have reduced its mortality significantly. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorder and frequently co-exist with AMI. There are proposed pathophysiological links between the two diseases among which inflammation is the most important. With more patients surviving a myocardial infarction (MI) event, post-MI depression has become an important determinant of disability and mortality. Materials and Methods: In this study we defined a 1-month post-MI depressive scale of 200 patients using Beck’s inventory questionnaire II and measured serum high Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) to look for the association between inflammatory state and atherosclerosis in different depression score categories. Results: Minimum and maximum Beck scores were 1 and 43, respectively with a mean of 13±8. The mean CIMT was 0.77±0.26 mm. Serum hs-CRP level was measured with a mean of 1.51±1.6 mg/L. According to BDI-II scores, 44.2% of patients 1-month post-MI suffered from more than mild depression. Being affected was not correlated with either the level of hs-CRP or CIMT. Nearly 44 percent of patients suffered more than mild depression. There was a negative association between serum hs-CRP level and CIMT as a measure of atherosclerosis in groups of depressed versus non-depressed patients. This may indicate that the extent of atherosclerosis is not correlated with the inflammatory state after MI in depressed versus non-depressed patients. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the extent of atherosclerosis is not correlated with the inflammatory state after MI in depressed versus non-depressed patients. Nonetheless, the prognostic indications of increased hs-CRP and depression after AMI remains to be investigated further. [GMJ.2021;10:e1512]

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 175-179
Zainab Ali Jaber ◽  
Raghad Awfeeq Salman ◽  
Dania Yasser Abid Al Wahab ◽  
Manal Adnan Habib ◽  
Israa Ali Hussein

Background: Depression, a state of low mood and aversion to activity, can affect people's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being. It can either be short-term or long-term, depending on the severity of the person's condition. Risk factors include personal or family history of depression, major life changes, trauma, stress, certain physical illnesses, and medications. Objective: This study investigates the prevalence of depression among medical students at the University of Baghdad, college of medicine in Iraq, and the association between some variables and depression. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study design with a convenience sampling method was conducted. A sample of 323 medical students attending the University of Baghdad, college of medicine, were included in this study between July 2019 and September 2019, regardless of their age or gender. The study included five grades according to the year 2019-2020. An online survey was conducted using Google Forms which included two sections. Section 1 included questions about participants' demographics. The second section included the PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) score. Results: A total of 323 students of different demographics participated in this study. The number of males was 108 (33.4%), and the number of females was 215 (66.6%). The frequency of participants who got mild depression was the highest, i.e., 127 (39.3%), whereas 85 (26.3%) were non-depressed. Therefore, this study sample had a high prevalence of depression. On the other hand, the frequency of mild-moderate depression was 57.9%. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression among medical students at the University of Baghdad was high. Gender, having friends, having a medical condition or disease, having family issues, whether it's easy to communicate with others, encountering an event that affected them, and having a family member who suffers from a psychological condition are associated with depression among students. In contrast, age, marital status, college year, seeking help in the past, and having a part-time job have no association with depression

Mir Uzma Ashraf ◽  
Priyanka Chaudhary

Background: Raising a mentally challenged child is a challenging and exhausting task. Families can easily become overwhelmed by the process of finding and funding appropriate services. They are faced with the stress of continually witnessing their loved one's struggles to complete everyday tasks, social interactions and education. They must live with the knowledge that there is no end to these struggles.Methods: The study was descriptive study to assess the degree of depression. 200 parents of mentally challenged children in different special educational institutions of Jammu and Kashmir were chosen by convenient sampling method and data was collected with the help of questionnaire (modified becks depression inventory II).Results: Findings of the study revealed that majority 9 (4.5%) were normal ,63(31.5%) had mild depression, 92 (46%) parents had moderate depression and 36 (18%) of parents had severe depression. Significant association was found between relationship with child (p<0.005), religion (p<0.001), education (p<0.001), occupation (p<0.00), monthly family income (p<0.000) and the degree of depression among parents of mentally challenged children.Conclusions: This study revealed that majority of the parents of mentally challenged children were having moderate depression.

Nirmala Nagarada Gadde ◽  
Bhagya Rekha Gogolla ◽  
Vineesh Allenki ◽  
Ravi Babu Damu

Background: The geriatric population is increasing with advancements in the health sector all over the world. At the same time, old age tackles physical, mental and social challenges. Mental health of the elderly is least concerned in developing countries, especially depression, which is easy to screen and our study aims to know its burden and associated risk factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2021 and November 2021 among the geriatric population of Mansoorabad, an urban area in Hyderabad, using the short form of geriatric depression scale (GDS) to assess their depression status. Study subjects who met our criteria were selected through simple random sampling. Data collected were entered and analyzed with MS excel software 2007 and Epi info 3.5.3.Results: In our study sample of 161, males were 61 (37.9%), females-100(62.1%). Most of the study subjects were in the age group 60-70 years (137, 85.1%), followed by the 70-80 years age group (24, 14.9%). Nearly 59.6% of subjects had no depression, 19.9% suffered from mild depression, 8.1%-moderately depressed, whereas 12.4%-severely depressed. The mean age of subjects was 65.6 (±5.9) years. Chi-square test was used to study the association of various factors with geriatric depression and age group, and socio-economic status showed a statistically significant association.Conclusions: This study points towards the sensitization of healthcare workers and other subsidiary health personnel at the grassroots level to detect geriatric depression in nascent stages. Many longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to address various aspects of depression. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 1841-1848
Nuzzullul Ammah ◽  
Dafid Arifiyanto

AbstractPostpartum depression is a mental health disorder that appears after childbirth. Postpartum depression occurs in about 10-15% of mothers who give birth. Postpartum depression has a negative impact on the health status of the mother. It will also have an impact on the family and children because the mothers will refuse to see her baby. The mother’s interest in the newborn baby will decrease so that it will bring harm to the mother and baby. The purpose of this literature review study was to determine the description of depression in postpartum mothers. This literature review study accessed the Garuda Portal and PubMed databases. For Indonesian-language articles, the search was carried out using the keywords “depresi postpartum” or “depresipascapersalinan”, while English articles use the keywords “postpartum depression”. The critical assessment instrument used was the Hawker instrument. The data showed that most of the respondents were less than 35 years old (80%). The most education level was tertiary education (48%). Most of them were unemployed (62), and parity with primiparas (56%). The depression, measured by using EPDS, showed that 41% of the respondents were not depressed. The level of depression, measured by using PHQ-9,showed that 76% of the respondents experienced mild depression. Any new mom can experience postpartum depression. Therefore, new moms need to prepare themselves before and after giving birth to prevent postpartum depression. The literature review research is expected to be a reference for hospitals, educational institutions, and psychology researchers of postpartum depression.Keywords: Postpartum depression. AbstrakPostpartum depression merupakan gangguan kesehatan mental yang muncul pasca persalinan. Postpartum depression ini terjadi sekitar 10-15% pada ibu yang melahirkan. Depresi postpartum berdampak negatif terhadap status kesehatan ibu, selain itu juga akan berdampak pada keluarga dan anak karena ibu akan menolak untuk melihat bayinya, minat ibu pada bayi yang baru lahir akan berkurang bayinya sehingga akan mendatangkan kerugian bagi ibu dan bayinya. Untuk mengetahui gambaran depresi pada ibu postpartum. Penelitian literature review ini mengakses database Portal Garuda dan PubMed. Untuk artikel berbahasa Indonesia pencarian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kata kunci “depresi postpartum ”atau“ depresi pasca persalinan ”, sedangkan artikel berbahasa Inggris menggunakan kata kunci “depression postpartum”. Instrumen telaah kritis yang digunakan yaitu dengan menggunakan instrument Hawker. Data karakteristik responden berdasarkan usia ibu postpartum sebagian besar berusia <35 tahun (80%), tingkat pendidikan paling banyak berpendidikan Perguruan Tinggi (48%), pekerjaan sebagian besar tidak bekerja (62%), dan paritas dengan primipara (56%). Berdasarkan tingkat depresi yang diukur menggunakan EPDS (41%) responden tidak depresi dan tingkat depresi yang diukur menggunakan PHQ-9 (76%) responden mengalami depresi ringan. Depresi pasca persalinan dapat terjadi pada ibu yang baru saja melahirkan, maka ibu perlu mempersiapkan diri sebelum dan sesudah melahirkan untuk mencegah terjadinya depresi pada ibu postpartum. Penelitian literature review ini diharapkan dapat menjadi referensi bagi pihak rumah sakit, institusi pendidikan maupun peneliti mengenai aspek psikologis pada ibu yang mengalami depresi postpartum.Kata kunci :Depresi pasca persalinan.

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