irreversible damage
Recently Published Documents





2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. L. Casas ◽  
J. L. Azevedo ◽  
L. N. Almeida ◽  
P. Q. Costa-Neto ◽  
R. A. Bianco ◽  

Abstract Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important fungal genera, which affects a wide range of hosts, specifically tropical and subtropical crops. Thus far, there have been several records of mycovirus infection in Colletotrichum spp., primarily by viruses of the Partitiviridae family. There have also been records of infections by mycoviruses of the Chrysoviridae family. Mycoviruses are (+)ssRNA and dsRNA genome viruses, which may or may not be enveloped. To date, no mycovirus with a DNA genome has been isolated from Colletotrichum spp. Typically, mycoviruses cause latent infections, although hypo- and hypervirulence have also been reported in Colletotrichum spp. In addition to its effects on pathogenic behavior, mycovirus infection can lead to important physiological changes, such as altered morphological characteristics, reduced vegetative growth, and suppressed conidia production. Therefore, research on mycoviruses infecting phytopathogenic fungi can help develop alternative methods to chemical control, which can cause irreversible damage to humans and the environment. From an agricultural perspective, mycoviruses can contribute to sustainable agriculture as biological control agents via changes in fungal physiology, ultimately resulting in the total loss of or reduction in the virulence of these pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chan Wu ◽  
Binghong Liu ◽  
Ruiying Wang ◽  
Gang Li

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent end-point of cardiovascular pathology, leading to higher mortality worldwide. Due to the particularity of the heart tissue, patients who experience ischemic infarction of the heart, still suffered irreversible damage to the heart even if the vascular reflow by treatment, and severe ones can lead to heart failure or even death. In recent years, several studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), playing a regulatory role in damaged hearts, bring light for patients to alleviate MI. In this review, we summarized the effect of miRNAs on MI with some mechanisms, such as apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation, inflammatory; the regulation of miRNAs on cardiac structural changes after MI, including angiogenesis, myocardial remodeling, fibrosis; the application of miRNAs in stem cell therapy and clinical diagnosis; other non-coding RNAs related to miRNAs in MI during the past 5 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Liang-Cheng Liu ◽  
Ge WANG ◽  
Jun-Yi SONG ◽  
Bi-Ru HU

Resolving the contradiction between Marine economic development and Marine ecological environment protection has become an unavoidable and sharp problem. The uncontrolled use of Marine antifouling technology will bring uncontrollable and even irreversible damage to the Marine biosphere, which will lead to ecological disaster and threaten the survival of human beings. Therefore, it is an urgent task to find antifouling technology with lower environmental toxicity under the premise of considering economy. More attention should be paid to the long-term impact of mature and new technologies on the Marine ecological environment. This paper introduces the development status of antifouling technology, its influence on Marine ecological environment and puts forward the design strategy of comprehensive biological fouling prevention and control technology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 717-722
Poorva Shrivastava ◽  
Sheetal Morskole ◽  
Lalit Shrivastava

This study was conducted to evaluate the visual field changes in tubercular patients on anti-tubercular therapy and to assess the reversibility of these changes after the discontinuation therapy. This study was conducted as a prospective analytical study at tertiary care centres in Bhopal and Jabalpur on all newly detected tuberculosis patients. Ocular history, relevant history was recorded and detailed ocular examination was done at the time of presentation, before initiating ATT. All the patients were followed up periodically till the cessation of treatment and three months thereafter. A total of 40 cases of newly diagnosed tuberculosis were registered with mean age of 38.4±13.99 years. We documented significant deterioration in visual acuity after 3 months of initiation of therapy. Once the ATT was stopped, the improvement in visual acuity was statistically significant 3 months after the cessation of ATT as compared to visual acuity 3 months after initiation of ATT (p<0.05). But residual visual impairment even after stoppage of ATT was observed. Color vison and visual field defects were observed in higher proportions of eyes following initiation of ethambutol which improved significantly after 3 months of cessation of ATT (p<0.05). Ethambutol, even in recommended dose according to DOTS, has been associated with ocular toxicity which manifests in the form of painless progressive loss of vision, color vision defects and visual field defects. Though these changes are usually reversible, few patients have irreversible damage. Thus, patients receiving ethambutol must be explained regarding these effects and followed up periodically.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Prasanth Bhatt ◽  
Swamynathan Ganesan ◽  
Infant Santhose ◽  
Thirumurugan Durairaj

Abstract Phytoremediation is a process which effectively uses plants as a tool to remove, detoxify or immobilize contaminants. It has been an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique to clean contaminated environments. The contaminants from various sources have caused an irreversible damage to all the biotic factors in the biosphere. Bioremediation has become an indispensable strategy in reclaiming or rehabilitating the environment that was damaged by the contaminants. The process of bioremediation has been extensively used for the past few decades to neutralize toxic contaminants, but the results have not been satisfactory due to the lack of cost-effectiveness, production of byproducts that are toxic and requirement of large landscape. Phytoremediation helps in treating chemical pollutants on two broad categories namely, emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) and emerging inorganic pollutants (EIOPs) under in situ conditions. The EOPs are produced from pharmaceutical, chemical and synthetic polymer industries, which have potential to pollute water and soil environments. Similarly, EIOPs are generated during mining operations, transportations and industries involved in urban development. Among the EIOPs, it has been noticed that there is pollution due to heavy metals, radioactive waste production and electronic waste in urban centers. Moreover, in recent times phytoremediation has been recognized as a feasible method to treat biological contaminants. Since remediation of soil and water is very important to preserve natural habitats and ecosystems, it is necessary to devise new strategies in using plants as a tool for remediation. In this review, we focus on recent advancements in phytoremediation strategies that could be utilized to mitigate the adverse effects of emerging contaminants without affecting the environment.

2022 ◽  
Xiaoyan Ma ◽  
Haoning Gong ◽  
Kenji Ogino ◽  
Xuehai Yan ◽  
Ruirui Xing

Oxidative stress can lead to permanent and irreversible damage for cellular components, and even cause cancer and many diseases. Therefore, the development of antioxidative reagents is a significant strategy for alleviating chronic diseases and maintaining the redox balance. Small-molecule bioactive compounds have exhibited huge therapeutic potential in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Myricetin (Myr) as well-defined natural flavonoid, has drawn wide attention on highly effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Especially at antioxidation, Myr is capable of not only chelating intracellular transition metal ions for removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but also activating antioxidant enzymes and related signal, achieving sustainable scavenging radical activity. However, Myr possesses poor water solubility, which limits its bioavailability for biomedical application, even clinical therapeutic potential. The endogenous antioxidant peptide glutathione (GSH) plays a direct role on antioxidant in cells and possesses good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, but is easily metabolized by enzyme. To take advantages of their antioxidation activity and overcome the above-mentioned limitations, the GSH, Zn2+ and Myr are selected to co-assemble into Myr-Zn2+-GSH (abbreviated as MZG nanoparticles or nanoarchitectonics). Thence, this study offers a new design to harness stable, sustainable antioxidant nanoparticles with high loading capacity and bioavailability, good biocompatibility for optimizing antioxidant to protect cells from oxygenated damage.

2022 ◽  
Kai Kisielinski ◽  
Susanne Wagner ◽  
Oliver Hirsch ◽  
Bernd Klosterhalfen ◽  
Andreas Prescher

Abstract Literature was systematically reviewed regarding CO2 exposure and facemask use. Observational and experimental data are helpful for a risk-benefit assessment for masks as a popular non-pharmaceutical intervention against SARS-CoV2 in the populace. Masks impede breathing by increasing the resistance and dead space volume leading to a re-breathing of CO2 with every breath taken. Fresh air has around 0.04% CO2, while wearing masks more than 5 minutes bears a possible chronic exposure to carbon dioxide of 1.41–3.2% of the inhaled air. Although the buildup is usually within the short-term exposure limits, long-term consequences must be considered due to experimental data. US Navy toxicity experts set the exposure limits for submarines carrying female crews to 0.8% CO2 based on animal studies indicating an increased risk for stillbirths. Additionally, in mammals chronically exposed to 0.3% CO2 experimental data demonstrates teratogenicity with irreversible damage of neurons and reduced spatial learning caused by brainstem neuron apoptosis and a reduced blood level of the insulin-like growth factor 1. With significant impact on three readout parameters (morphological, functional, marker) this chronic 0.3% CO2 exposure has to be defined as being toxic. Additional data exists on the exposure of chronic 0.3% CO2 in adolescent mammals causing neuron destruction, which includes less activity, increased anxiety and impaired learning and memory. There is a possible negative impact risk by imposing extended mask mandates especially for vulnerable subgroups. Circumstantial evidence exists that extended mask use may be related to current observations of stillbirths and to reduced verbal motor and overall cognitive performance in children born during the pandemic. Extended masking in pregnant women, children and adolescents has not been thoroughly tested and studied. As a result of the animal experimental data available, a risk-benefit analysis is urgent and a need exists to rethink mask mandates, which provide appropriate warnings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Xintao Wang ◽  
Bonan Tong ◽  
Rongji Hui ◽  
Congcong Hou ◽  
Zilu Zhang ◽  

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes irreversible damage to the central nervous system and leads to psychiatric symptoms including depression. Notably, METH-induced hyperthermia is a crucial factor in the development of these symptoms, as it aggravates METH-induced neurotoxicity. However, the role of hyperthermia in METH-induced depression-like behaviors needs to be clarified. In the present study, we treated mice with different doses of METH under normal (NAT) or high ambient temperatures (HAT). We found that HAT promoted hyperthermia after METH treatment and played a key role in METH-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Intriguingly, chronic METH exposure (10 mg/kg, 7 or 14 days) or administration of an escalating-dose (2 ∼ 15 mg/kg, 3 days) of METH under NAT failed to induce depression-like behaviors. However, HAT aggravated METH-induced damage of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, reaction to oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Molecular hydrogen acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and has been shown to have preventive and therapeutic applicability in a wide range of diseases. Coral calcium hydride (CCH) is a newly identified hydrogen-rich powder which produces hydrogen gas gradually when exposed to water. Herein, we found that CCH pretreatment significantly attenuated METH-induced hyperthermia, and administration of CCH after METH exposure also inhibited METH-induced depression-like behaviors and reduced the hippocampal synaptic plasticity damage. Moreover, CCH effectively reduced the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased malondialdehyde, TNF-α and IL-6 generation in hippocampus. These results suggest that CCH is an efficient hydrogen-rich agent, which has a potential therapeutic applicability in the treatment of METH abusers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. e000859
Seif Tarek El-Swaify ◽  
Mazen A Refaat ◽  
Sara H Ali ◽  
Abdelrahman E Mostafa Abdelrazek ◽  
Pavly Wagih Beshay ◽  

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for around 30% of all trauma-related deaths. Over the past 40 years, TBI has remained a major cause of mortality after trauma. The primary injury caused by the injurious mechanical force leads to irreversible damage to brain tissue. The potentially preventable secondary injury can be accentuated by addressing systemic insults. Early recognition and prompt intervention are integral to achieve better outcomes. Consequently, surgeons still need to be aware of the basic yet integral emergency management strategies for severe TBI (sTBI). In this narrative review, we outlined some of the controversies in the early care of sTBI that have not been settled by the publication of the Brain Trauma Foundation’s 4th edition guidelines in 2017. The topics covered included the following: mode of prehospital transport, maintaining airway patency while securing the cervical spine, achieving adequate ventilation, and optimizing circulatory physiology. We discuss fluid resuscitation and blood product transfusion as components of improving circulatory mechanics and oxygen delivery to injured brain tissue. An outline of evidence-based antiplatelet and anticoagulant reversal strategies is discussed in the review. In addition, the current evidence as well as the evidence gaps for using tranexamic acid in sTBI are briefly reviewed. A brief note on the controversial emergency surgical interventions for sTBI is included. Clinicians should be aware of the latest evidence for sTBI. Periods between different editions of guidelines can have an abundance of new literature that can influence patient care. The recent advances included in this review should be considered both for formulating future guidelines for the management of sTBI and for designing future clinical studies in domains with clinical equipoise.

Naveen Malik, Sandip Kumar Goyal

Cost, time and quality projection are the crucial aspects in software development process. Incorrect estimations can cause losses which in turn may lead to irreversible damage. It is generally perceived that a imperfectly estimated project always results in a substandard quality due to the efforts being wrongly directed. Firstly Effort Estimation is calculated by actual effort and proposed Effort. That Effort evaluation of 500 NASA projects, after that evaluation is done by four parameters Standard Error, Standard Deviation, Mean Absolute Error, Root Mean Square Error. The author amalgamated the robustness of COCOMO-II with that of Neural Network NN and Support Vector Machine SVM .Quality Which we evaluate that is quality Evaluation of Semantic Web Application. In the last checks the majority of all four parameters for software quality assessment.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document