bacterial survival
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Baopeng Yang ◽  
Yujun Jiang ◽  
Yongxin Jin ◽  
Fang Bai ◽  
Zhihui Cheng ◽  

Polymyxins are considered as the last resort antibiotics to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram negative pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes various infections in humans. Proteins involved in lipopolysaccharide modification and maintaining inner and outer membrane integrities have been found to contribute to the bacterial resistance to polymyxins. Oligoribonuclease (Orn) is an exonuclease that regulates the homeostasis of intracellular (3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), thereby regulating the production of extracellular polysaccharide in P. aeruginosa . Previously, we demonstrated that Orn affects the bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolone, β-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics. In this study, we found that mutation of orn increased the bacterial survival following polymyxin B treatment in a wild type P. aeruginosa strain PA14. Overexpression of c-di-GMP degradation enzymes in the orn mutant reduced the bacterial survival. By using a fluorescence labeled polymyxin B, we found that mutation of orn increased the bacterial surface bound polymyxin B. Deletion of the Pel synthesis genes or treatment with a Pel hydrolase reduced the surface bound polymyxin B and bacterial survival. We further demonstrated that Pel binds to extracellular DNA (eDNA), which traps polymyxin B and thus protects the bacterial cells. Collectively, our results revealed a novel defense mechanism against polymyxin in P. aeruginosa .

2022 ◽  
Tamar Szoke ◽  
Nitsan Albocher ◽  
Omer Goldberger ◽  
Meshi Barsheshet ◽  
Anat Nussbaum-Shochat ◽  

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins was shown in recent years to regulate spatial organization of cell content without the need for membrane encapsulation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Yet evidence for the relevance of LLPS for bacterial cell functionality is largely missing. Here we show that the sugar metabolism-regulating clusters, recently shown by us to assemble in the E. coli cell poles by means of the novel protein TmaR, are formed via LLPS. A mutant screen uncovered residues and motifs in TmaR that are important for its condensation. Upon overexpression, TmaR undergoes irreversible liquid-to-solid transition, similar to the transition of disease-causing proteins in human, which impairs bacterial cell morphology and proliferation. Not only does RNA contribute to TmaR phase separation, but by ensuring polar localization and stability of flagella-related transcripts, TmaR enables cell motility and biofilm formation, thus providing a linkage between LLPS and major survival strategies in bacteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aihua Luo ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
Degang Sun ◽  
Xueyu Liu ◽  
Bingchang Xin

Biofilms, which are essential vectors of bacterial survival, protect microbes from antibiotics and host immune attack and are one of the leading causes that maintain drug-resistant chronic infections. In nature, compared with monomicrobial biofilms, polymicrobial biofilms composed of multispecies bacteria predominate, which means that it is significant to explore the interactions between microorganisms from different kingdoms, species, and strains. Cross-microbial interactions exist during biofilm development, either synergistically or antagonistically. Although research into cross-species biofilms remains at an early stage, in this review, the important mechanisms that are involved in biofilm formation are delineated. Then, recent studies that investigated cross-species cooperation or synergy, competition or antagonism in biofilms, and various components that mediate those interactions will be elaborated. To determine approaches that minimize the harmful effects of biofilms, it is important to understand the interactions between microbial species. The knowledge gained from these investigations has the potential to guide studies into microbial sociality in natural settings and to help in the design of new medicines and therapies to treat bacterial infections.

Michele Zuppi ◽  
Heather L. Hendrickson ◽  
Justin M. O’Sullivan ◽  
Tommi Vatanen

Phages, short for bacteriophages, are viruses that specifically infect bacteria and are the most abundant biological entities on earth found in every explored environment, from the deep sea to the Sahara Desert. Phages are abundant within the human biome and are gaining increasing recognition as potential modulators of the gut ecosystem. For example, they have been connected to gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplant. The ability of phages to modulate the human gut microbiome has been attributed to the predation of bacteria or the promotion of bacterial survival by the transfer of genes that enhance bacterial fitness upon infection. In addition, phages have been shown to interact with the human immune system with variable outcomes. Despite the increasing evidence supporting the importance of phages in the gut ecosystem, the extent of their influence on the shape of the gut ecosystem is yet to be fully understood. Here, we discuss evidence for phage modulation of the gut microbiome, postulating that phages are pivotal contributors to the gut ecosystem dynamics. We therefore propose novel research questions to further elucidate the role(s) that they have within the human ecosystem and its impact on our health and well-being.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Erika S. Guimarães ◽  
Fabio V. Marinho ◽  
Nina M. G. P. de Queiroz ◽  
Maísa M. Antunes ◽  
Sergio C. Oliveira

The early detection of bacterial pathogens through immune sensors is an essential step in innate immunity. STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) has emerged as a key mediator of inflammation in the setting of infection by connecting pathogen cytosolic recognition with immune responses. STING detects bacteria by directly recognizing cyclic dinucleotides or indirectly by bacterial genomic DNA sensing through the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Upon activation, STING triggers a plethora of powerful signaling pathways, including the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. STING activation has also been associated with the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the associated inflammatory responses. Recent reports indicate that STING-dependent pathways participate in the metabolic reprogramming of macrophages and contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a robust inflammatory profile. The induction of this inflammatory state is typically antimicrobial and related to pathogen clearance. However, depending on the infection, STING-mediated immune responses can be detrimental to the host, facilitating bacterial survival, indicating an intricate balance between immune signaling and inflammation during bacterial infections. In this paper, we review recent insights regarding the role of STING in inducing an inflammatory profile upon intracellular bacterial entry in host cells and discuss the impact of STING signaling on the outcome of infection. Unraveling the STING-mediated inflammatory responses can enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis of certain bacterial diseases and reveal the potential of new antimicrobial therapy.

2021 ◽  
Qingjie Li ◽  
Lianping Wang ◽  
Shuang Liu ◽  
Jingwen Xu ◽  
Zeyu Song ◽  

Abstract AimsThis study was conducted to screen the type Ⅲ secretion system (T3SS) inhibitors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) from natural compounds. Through systemic analysis the pharmacological activity and action mechanism of candidate compounds in vivo and in vitro. Methods and resultsUsing an effector-β-lactamase fusion reporter system in S. Typhimurium, we discovered that quercitrin could block effector SipA translocation into eukaryotic host cell without affecting bacterial growth, and inhibit invasion or epithelial cells damage. Using β-galactosidase activity and Western blot assay, it was found that quercitrin significantly inhibits the expression of SPI-1 genes (hilA and sopA) and effectors (SipA and SipC). The animal experiment results indicated that quercitrin reduces mortality, pathological damages and colony colonization of infected mice. ConclusionsSmall-molecule inhibitor quercitrin directly inhibits the founction of T3SS in S. Typhimurium, and provids a potential alternative antimicrobial against Salmonella infection.Significance and impact of the studyNatural compounds have become valuable resources for antibacterials discovery due to their widely structures and biological activities. However, the potential targets and molecular action mechanisms of candidate compounds responsible for anti-infections remain elusive. The T3SS plays a crucial role in bacterial invasion and pathogenesis process in S. Typhimurium. Compared with traditional antibiotics, small molecular compounds can inhibit the T3SS of Salmonella and achieve the effect of anti-infection. They have less pressure on bacterial survival and are not easy to produce drug resistance. This provides strong evidence for development novel anti-virulence drugs against Salmonella infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Yasushi Maki ◽  
Hideji Yoshida

Bacteria convert active 70S ribosomes to inactive 100S ribosomes to survive under various stress conditions. This state, in which the ribosome loses its translational activity, is known as ribosomal hibernation. In gammaproteobacteria such as Escherichia coli, ribosome modulation factor and hibernation-promoting factor are involved in forming 100S ribosomes. The expression of ribosome modulation factor is regulated by (p)ppGpp (which is induced by amino acid starvation), cAMP-CRP (which is stimulated by reduced metabolic energy), and transcription factors involved in biofilm formation. This indicates that the formation of 100S ribosomes is an important strategy for bacterial survival under various stress conditions. In recent years, the structures of 100S ribosomes from various bacteria have been reported, enhancing our understanding of the 100S ribosome. Here, we present previous findings on the 100S ribosome and related proteins and describe the stress-response pathways involved in ribosomal hibernation.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Lisa Bleul ◽  
Patrice Francois ◽  
Christiane Wolz

Staphylococcus aureus encodes 16 two-component systems (TCSs) that enable the bacteria to sense and respond to changing environmental conditions. Considering the function of these TCSs in bacterial survival and their potential role as drug targets, it is important to understand the exact mechanisms underlying signal perception. The differences between the sensing of appropriate signals and the transcriptional activation of the TCS system are often not well described, and the signaling mechanisms are only partially understood. Here, we review present insights into which signals are sensed by histidine kinases in S. aureus to promote appropriate gene expression in response to diverse environmental challenges.

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