relative crystallinity
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Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 171
Jianyou Zhang ◽  
Xuehua Xie ◽  
Lyu Zhang ◽  
Yiling Hong ◽  
Gaopeng Zhang ◽  

Pre-cooked adzuki beans (Vigna angularis), which looks like dried adzuki bean, is easily cooked and preserved. This study aimed to optimize the microwave pre-cooked conditions on adzuki beans by applying the response surface methodology. The results showed that soaking time has a significant effect on the gelatinization degree of adzuki beans according to microwave time. The most suitable gelatinization and the sensory scores were obtained with a soaking time of 7.8 h, a microwave power of 830 W, and microwave time of 92 s. The pre-cooked treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the protein, free amino acid, fat and starch content of adzuki bean products. The results of SEM and polarized light microscopy showed that the surface and center of starch were damaged after microwave treatment. XRD showed that microwave pre-cooking did not change the crystal structure of starch and maintained the original order of type A structure while reducing the relative starch crystallinity. FT-IR showed that the pre-cooked treatment did not produce new structure in adzuki bean starch, but the ratio of 1047/1022 cm−1 was slightly decreased, indicating that the starch crystallization area decreased relative to the amorphous area and the relative crystallinity decreased. The results of FTIR were consistent with X-ray diffraction results. Therefore, microwaves improved the gelatinization of adzuki beans and made the pre-cooked adzuki beans more suitable.

2022 ◽  
pp. 66-82
Edson A. S. Filho ◽  
Carlos B. B. Luna ◽  
Adriano L. Silva ◽  
Eduardo S. B. Ferreira ◽  
Edcleide M. Araújo ◽  

The heat treatment effect on kaolin waste from mining was evaluated on the structural and thermal behavior of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/KW (kaolin waste) and PCL/HTKW (heat-treated kaolin waste) composites were processed in an internal mixer and subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kaolin waste showed kaolinite and quartz in its composition, while the heat treatment at 1200°C modified it to mullite, quartz and silica-rich amorphous phase. By XRD, there was an increase in the intensity of the peak 2θ = 23.9° of the PCL/KW composites compared to neat PCL. In contrast, PCL/HTKW composites tended to reduce the intensity of the peak 2θ = 23.9°, especially at 5% HTKW. The crystalline melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PCL/KW and PCL/HTKW composites were practically unchanged, compared to PCL. However, the crystallization process was more effective with the kaolin waste (KW) without heat treatment, indicating that the HTKW amorphous phase inhibited crystallization. The PCL/KW development promoted an increase in crystallization temperature, relative crystallinity, and crystallization rate, surpassing PCL and the PCL/HTKW system. In view of this, kaolin waste has the potential to accelerate the PCL crystallization process, contributing to add value to a material that would otherwise be discarded and minimizing environmental impacts.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 172
Chang Liu ◽  
Hejing Yan ◽  
Suwen Liu ◽  
Xuedong Chang

Chestnut is popular worldwide for its unique flavor, high eating quality and nutrition. Here, we evaluated the influence of phosphorylation and acetylation on the structural, physicochemical and functional properties of chestnut starch. Scanning electron micrographs showed the agglomeration of starch granules and the appearance of numerous dents on the starch granule surface under phosphorylation and acetylation. X-ray diffractograms confirmed that the modification treatments did not affect the C-type crystal pattern, but reduced the relative crystallinity of the chestnut starch, particularly phosphorylation. Moreover, modification improved the paste transparency of the starch. Differential scanning calorimeter analysis revealed that the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of the starch decreased with the increasing substitution degree, particularly in phosphorylated starch. The Rapid Visco Analyser analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation could greatly improve the pasting properties of chestnut starch. In addition, phosphorylated and acetylated starch had a smaller amount of slowly digested starch and a larger amount of resistant starch relative to native chestnut starch. In conclusion, the functional and physicochemical properties of chestnut starch can be significantly improved through phosphorylation and acetylation, demonstrating its great application potential as a food additive.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sucharita Sethy ◽  
Saroj Kumar Samantaray ◽  
Bhabani K. Satapathy

Abstract The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) loading on the crystallization behavior of matrix polyamide 12 (PA-12), in PA-12/polypropylene-MWCNT (PP-MWCNT)-based nanocomposites were analyzed for their non-isothermal crystallization behavior at various cooling rates of 2.5–20 °C/min in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Several kinetic models such as Jeziorny (modified-Avrami), Mo and Tobin models were employed to analyze the crystallization behavioral trend with respect to time and temperature of the nanocomposites. The crystallization rate increased half-time of crystallization with MWCNT content as estimated from the Jeziorny theory. The linear agreement between Jeziorny model and experimental relative crystallinity outperforms the Tobin analysis where the coefficient of linear regression was found to be considerably trailing behind and off the satisfactory mark. The Mo model accounts for the percentage crystallinity and thereby successfully explained the crystallization behavior of PA-12 where the kinetic parameters increased with crystallinity indicating higher cooling rate for higher crystallinity. The MWCNT induced crystallization (nucleation activity) values were close to zero irrespective of MWCNT loading which reiterates the enhanced crystallization (rate) of PA-12 in the nanocomposites. Estimations based on Friedman approach showed inter-relationship between activation energy and crystallinity where the later was found to be governed by major (matrix) PA-12 phase.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3042
Jilin Dong ◽  
Lu Huang ◽  
Wenwen Chen ◽  
Yingying Zhu ◽  
Baoqing Dun ◽  

The starch digestion processing of whole grain foods is associated with its health benefits in improving insulin resistance. This study modified the digestibility of whole quinoa flour (WQ) via heat-moisture treatment (HMT), HMT combined with pullulanase (HMT+P), HMT combined with microwave (HMT+M), and HMT combined with citric acids (HMT+A), respectively. Results showed that all the treatments significantly increased (p < 0.05) the total dietary fiber (TDF) content, amylose content, and resistant starch (RS) content, however, significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the amylopectin content and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content of WQ. HMT+P brought the highest TDF content (15.3%), amylose content (31.24%), and RS content (15.71%), and the lowest amylopecyin content (30.02%) and RDS content (23.65%). HMT+M brought the highest slowly digestible starch (SDS) content (25.09%). The estimated glycemic index (eGI) was respectively reduced from 74.36 to 70.59, 65.87, 69.79, and 69.12 by HMT, HMT+P, HMT+M, and HMT+A. Moreover, a significant and consistent reduction in the heat enthalpy (ΔH) of WQ was observed (p < 0.05), after four treatments. All these effects were caused by changes in the starch structure, as evidenced by the observed conjunction of protein and starch by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), the decrease in relative crystallinity, and transformation of starch crystal.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Chengyi Sun ◽  
Yuqing Hu ◽  
Xietian Yu ◽  
Zhijie Zhu ◽  
Shuai Hao ◽  

Abstract Native rice starches were treated with five periods of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) under each of 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 MPa, respectively. The morphological, structural and physicochemical properties of starches treated with UHPH were examined. The mean particle diameter of starch nanoparticles ranged between 154.20 and 260.40 nm. SEM revealed that the granular amorphous region of starch granules was damaged under pressures between 60 and 80 MPa, and the crystalline region was further destroyed under pressures as high as 100–160 MPa. DSC demonstrated that the gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies of nanoparticles reduced. The relative crystallinity reduced from 22.90 to 13.61% as the pressure increased. FTIR showed that the absorbance ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 decreased, and increased at 1022/995 cm−1. RVA results indicated that the viscosity of starch samples increased between 60 and 120 MPa, and the reverse effect was observed under 140 and 160 MPa.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 3855
Basheer Aaliya ◽  
Kappat Valiyapeediyekkal Sunooj ◽  
Chillapalli Babu Sri Rajkumar ◽  
Muhammed Navaf ◽  
Plachikkattu Parambil Akhila ◽  

Talipot starch, a non-conventional starch source with a high yield (76%) from the stem pith of talipot palm (Corypha umbraculifera L.) was subjected to three different thermal treatments (dry-heat, heat-moisture and autoclave treatments) prior to phosphorylation. Upon dual modification of starch with thermal treatments and phosphorylation, the phosphorous content and degree of crosslinking significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) and was confirmed by the increased peak intensity of P=O and P–O–C stretching vibrations compared to phosphorylated talipot starch in the FT-IR spectrum. The highest degree of crosslinking (0.00418) was observed in the autoclave pretreated phosphorylated talipot starch sample. Thermal pretreatment remarkably changed the granule morphology by creating fissures and grooves. The amylose content and relative crystallinity of all phosphorylated talipot starches significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) due to crosslinking by the formation of phosphodiester bonds, reducing the swelling power of dual-modified starches. Among all modified starches, dry-heat pretreated phosphorylated starch gel showed an improved light transmittance value of 28.4%, indicating reduced retrogradation tendency. Pasting and rheological properties represented that the thermal pretreated phosphorylated starch formed stronger gels that improved thermal and shear resistance. Autoclave treatment before phosphorylation of talipot starch showed the highest resistant starch content of 48.08%.

Yuehui Wang ◽  
Kuijie Sun ◽  
Wenchang Zhu ◽  
Wenping Ding ◽  
Qingyun Lyu ◽  

Waxy rice is one of the most popular traditional crops served as a staple food in China. In this study, the effect of different factors including &alpha;-amylase activity, protein, and amylopectin structure on the pasting properties of four waxy rice varieties were investigated. Rice flours treated with AgNO3 solution, DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) or protease, suggested that both &alpha;-amylase activity and protein significantly decrease the pasting viscosity of waxy rice flours. Chain length distribution of amylopectin as measured by high performance ion exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) showed that starch with higher ratio of short chain leading to a higher pasting viscosity. X-Ray diffractograms showed that the crystal type of all the four varieties of rice starches were characteristic A-type. Relative crystallinity of each rice starch was further calculated, and a higher crystallization resulted in a higher viscosity. Our study would provide a fundamental knowledge of the relationship between different factors and waxy starch pasting properties, as well as be a reference for controlling the quality of waxy rice starch-based food.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2601
Wichian Sangwongchai ◽  
Kanitha Tananuwong ◽  
Kuakarun Krusong ◽  
Maysaya Thitisaksakul

Rice production systems and soil characteristics play a crucial role in determining its yield and grain quality. Two elite Thai rice cultivars, namely, KDML105 and RD6, were cultivated in two production systems with distinct soil characteristics, including net-house pot production and open-field production. Under open-field system, KDML105 and RD6 had greater panicle number, total grain weight, 100-grain weight, grain size, and dimension than those grown in the net-house. The amounts of reducing sugar and long amylopectin branch chains (DP 25–36) of the RD6 grains along with the amounts of long branch chains (DP 25–36 and DP ≥ 37), A-type starch granules, and average chain length of the KDML105 were substantially enhanced by the open-field cultivation. Contrastingly, the relative crystallinity of RD6 starch and the amounts of short branch chains (DP 6–12 and DP 13–24), B- and C-type granules, and median granule size of KDML105 starch were significantly suppressed. Consequently, the open-field-grown RD6 starch displayed significant changes in its gelatinization and retrogradation properties, whereas, certain retrogradation parameters and peak viscosity (PV) of KDML105 starches were differentially affected by the distinct cultivating conditions. This study demonstrated the influences of production systems and soil characteristics on the physicochemical properties of rice starches.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
Ming-yue Li ◽  
Hai-qing Ren ◽  
Yu-rong Wang ◽  
Ying-chun Gong ◽  
Yong-dong Zhou

AbstractTwenty-year-old Pinus radiata trees imported from New Zealand were investigated, and a comparison was made between the outerwood (rings 16–20) and corewood (rings 4–6) in terms of mechanical properties, anatomical characteristics, microfibril angle (MFA), relative crystallinity, crystallite size and lignin content to determine the relationship between their mechanical properties and microstructures. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the Pinus radiata outerwood were significantly better than those of the corewood. The outerwood had a modulus of rupture (MOR) of 106 MPa, a modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 11.4 GPa, and compressive strength parallel to the grain of 38.7 MPa, and the MOR, MOE and compressive strength parallel to the grain of the corewood were 78.9 MPa, 7.12 GPa and 29.3 MPa, respectively. The observed microstructures of the Pinus radiata outerwood and corewood were different, mainly due to differences in cell wall thickness, MFA, and relative crystallinity. The double wall thickness of the tracheid cells of the corewood and outerwood were 3.65 and 5.02 µm, respectively. The MFA data indicated that the average MFA of the outerwood was 14.0°, which was smaller than that of the corewood (22.3°). With X-ray diffraction, the relative crystallinity of the corewood was determined to be 35.7%, while that of the outerwood was 40.2%. However, the crystallite size of the outerwood cell wall shows no obvious difference from that of the corewood. Imaging FTIR spectroscopy showed a slightly higher relative content of lignin in the cell wall of the outerwood. The correlation between the microstructures and mechanical properties showed that the corewood with a thin cell wall, large MFA and low relative crystallinity had poor mechanical properties, while the outerwood with a thicker tracheid, smaller MFA and higher relative crystallinity had better mechanical properties. This means that the MFA, relative crystallinity and cell wall thickness synergically affect the mechanical properties of Pinus radiata in different radial locations.

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