drug induced
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Aran A Groover ◽  
Natalia A Huang

Miliary Tuberculosis (TB) usually has an insidious clinical manifestation including fever, weight loss, night sweats, and little in the way of localizing symptoms or signs. There may be concurrent TB meningitis with associated symptoms. A 35-year old male has known case of pulmonary TB and HCV before three years ago. Presented to emergency department with Fever since 3-weeks ago, abdomen pain, headache since 10 days.

Weibin Ruan ◽  
Xinyun Ji ◽  
Yating Qin ◽  
Xinxin Zhang ◽  
Xiaoning Wan ◽  

Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response that often leads to cardiac dysfunction, which is termed sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC). Harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid compound, has been shown to exert pharmacological effects on several diseases. Here, we investigated whether harmine protected against SIC development and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, the expression of the M1 phenotype markers iNOS and COX-2 was increased in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but this effect was reversed by the harmine intervention. Furthermore, LPS-induced increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and TXB2, generated by macrophages were suppressed when the cells were pretreated with harmine. Meanwhile, our findings showed that harmine administration effectively attenuated inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cells in the proinflammatory environment produced by macrophages, as evidenced by reductions in NLRP3 and cleaved caspase 3 levels and the p-NF-κB/NF-κB ratio. The western blot results indicated that the mechanisms underlying harmine-mediated inhibition of M1 polarization might be associated with suppression of STAT1/3, NF-κB and MAPK activation. Furthermore, an LPS injection induced cardiac dysfunction and decreased the survival rate of mice, which were alleviated by harmine treatment, and the relevant mechanism was possibly attributed to a drug-induced attenuation of the inflammatory and apoptotic processes in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results implied that harmine treatment protected against SIC by suppressing M1 phenotypic polarization and inflammation in macrophages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Aslınur Albayrak ◽  
Bilgen Başgut ◽  
Gülbin Aygencel Bıkmaz ◽  
Bensu Karahalil

Abstract Background Critically ill patients treated in the intensive care units (ICUs) often suffer from side effects and drug-related problems (DRPs) that can be life-threatening. A way to prevent DRPs and improve drug safety and efficacy is to include clinical pharmacists in the clinical team. This study aims to evaluate the classification of drug-related problems and the implementation of clinical pharmacy services by a clinical pharmacist in the ICU of a university hospital in Turkey. Methods This study was carried out prospectively between December 2020 and July 2021 in Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital Internal Diseases ICU. All patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for more than 24 h were included in the study. During the study, the clinical pharmacist's interventions and other clinical services for patients were recorded. DRPs were classed according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe V.8.02. Results A total of 151 patients were included during the study period corresponding to 2264 patient-days. Patients with DRPs had a longer hospital stay and a higher mortality rate (p < 0.05). 108 patients had at least one DRP and the total number of DRPs was 206. There was an average of 1.36 DRPs per patient, 71.5% of patients experienced DRP and 89.22 DRPs per 1000 patient-days. A total of 35 ADEs were observed in 32 patients. ADE incidence was per 1000 patient-days 15.45. ADEs were caused by nephrotoxicity (48.57%), electrolyte disorders (17.14%), drug-induced thrombocytopenia (17.14%), liver enzyme increase (8.57%) and other causes (8.57%). Drug selection (40.29%) and dose selection (54.36%) constituted most of the causes of DRPs. Dose change was the highest percentage of planned interventions with a rate of 56.79%. Intervention was accepted at a rate of 90.8% and it was fully implemented. Conclusion In this study, the importance of the clinical pharmacist in the determination and analysis of DRPs was emphasized. Clinical pharmacy services like the one described should be implemented widely to increase patient safety.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 90-92
Shatavisa Mukherjee ◽  
Shambo S Samajdar ◽  
Kaushik Basu ◽  
Saibal Moitra ◽  
Santanu K Tripath

Drug induced lupus is an autoimmune condition secondary to drug exposure which leads to development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, labelling the culprit drug needs a prudent insight into the pharmacological plausibility of each of the offending drugs in suspicion. Here we present a report where allergen immunotherapy was suspected to cause SLE and a deeper clinico-pharmacological evaluation cleared the air.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1460-1464
Yonis Ismed ◽  
Radiyati Umi Partan ◽  
Ismail Bastomi

Background. Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem, especially in developing countries. Although pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common form of the disease, extrapulmonary tuberculosis also contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. 10-15% of extrapulmonary cases are due to tuberculous arthritis. The following is a case report of a 36-year-old woman with a diagnosis of genu Sinistra tuberculosis arthritis and drug-induced hepatotoxic injury due to OAT. Case presentation. A woman, 36 years old, Muslim, addresses Banyuasin. The patient is a housewife, treated at Dr. Moh Hoesin General Hospital since October 11, 2021. The main complaint in the form of pain in the left knee has been getting worse since 1 week before being admitted to the hospital. 4 months before admission the hospital, the patient complained of left knee pain, the pain felt like being stabbed, coming and going, especially when walking. In this patient, there was a complaint of nausea that was felt in the pit of the stomach. The results of laboratory examinations showed an increase in the transaminase enzyme and hyperuricemia, so it was suspected that the patient had DILI due to OAT drugs. Hepatocyte death in DILI can occur through two processes, namely processes mediated by apoptosis or necrosis. In apoptosis, cell shrinkage and fragmentation occur into small pieces with the cell membrane intact. These fragments are cleared by phagocytosis and generally do not stimulate the host immune response. Conclusion. A patient diagnosed with arthritis tuberculosis genu Sinistra with Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Confirmed COVID 19.

2022 ◽  
pp. 544-546
Abhishek Sharma ◽  
Gulnaz Bano ◽  
Abdul Malik

Drug-induced vasculitis can be defined as inflammation of blood vessels triggered by a spectrum of drugs. It presents not only with a localized skin rash but also may involve the internal organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and joints. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed purpuric pruritic rashes on bilateral lower limbs and buttocks after the ingestion of sulphasalazine. The patient took the prescribed regimen for 14 days while experiencing an adverse drug reaction. At the follow-up visit, the patient was admitted and treated with methylprednisolone monotherapy with 32 mg/day for the first 3 days and after that, methylprednisolone 16 mg for the next 3 days. The rashes resolved after 6 days. Clinicians should ascertain the patient knowledge of how and when to obtain urgent care as the patient may experience ill effects after taking prescribed treatment. Timely advice may save patients’ costs of admission and treatment to manage adverse events.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-18
O. D Ostroumova ◽  
M. S. Chernyaeva ◽  
A. I. Kochetkov ◽  
A. E. Vorobieva ◽  
D. I. Bakhteeva ◽  

Drug-induced atrial fibrillation / flutter (DIAF) is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of pharmacotherapy. Purpose of the work: systematization and analysis of scientific literature data on drugs, the use of which can cause the development of DIAF, as well as on epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, clinical picture, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of DIAF. Analysis of the literature has shown that many groups of drugs can cause the development of DIAF, with a greater frequency while taking anticancer drugs, drugs for the treatment of the cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary and central nervous systems. The mechanisms and main risk factors for the development of DIAF have not been finally established and are known only for certain drugs, therefore, this section requires further study. The main symptoms of DIAF are due to the severity of tachycardia and their influence on the parameters of central hemodynamics. For diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct an electrocardiogram (ECG) and Holter monitoring of an ECG and echocardiography. Differential diagnosis should be made with AF, which may be caused by other causes, as well as other rhythm and conduction disturbances. Successful treatment of DIAF is based on the principle of rapid recognition and immediate discontinuation of drugs (if possible), the use of which potentially caused the development of adverse drug reactions (ADR). The choice of management strategy: heart rate control or rhythm control, as well as the method of achievement (medication or non-medication), depends on the specific clinical situation. For the prevention of DIAF, it is necessary to instruct patients about possible symptoms and recommend self-monitoring of the pulse. It is important for practitioners to be wary of the risk of DIAF due to the variety of drugs that can potentially cause this ADR.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107815522210740
Dr. Arul Janani ◽  
Dr. Anandkumar Shruthilaya ◽  
Dr. Jayaraman Dhaarani ◽  
Dr. Scott X Julius

Introduction: Febrile episodes in oncology is common are mostly of infectious etiology requiring repeated investigations and escalation of antibiotics. But, drug induced fever occur more often than we think in oncological set-up. Case Report: A 5 year old male child with rhabdomyosarcoma, developed high grade fever spikes following Vincristine monotherapy. Infective etiology work up was negative and the fever responded to corticosteroids. Management and Outcome: He was treated with corticosteroids as premedication considering vincristine induced fever. The further courses of VCR- monotherapy were uneventful with steroids as premedication. Discussion: We present the case of vincristine induced fever in a child with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Clinician’s should consider drug induced fever at appropriate conditions, to avoid leading to antibiotic resistance.

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