Bordetella Pertussis
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2022 ◽  
Zheng XU ◽  
Dalong Hu ◽  
Laurence Don Wai Luu ◽  
Sophie Octavia ◽  
Anthony D Keil ◽  

Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccine coverage, pertussis has re-emerged in many countries and caused two large epidemics in Australia since 2007. Here, we undertook a genomic and phylogeographic study of 385 Australian B. pertussis isolates collected from 2008 to 2017. The Australian B. pertussis population was found to be composed of mostly ptxP3 strains carrying different fim3 alleles, with ptxP3-fim3A genotype expanded far more than ptxP3-fim3B. Within the former, there were six co-circulating epidemic lineages (EL1 to EL6). The multiple ELs emerged, expanded, and then declined at different time points over the two epidemics, likely driven by immune selection from pertussis vaccination and natural infection in addition to local and global transmission events. Both hard and soft selective sweeps through vaccine selection pressures determined the current B. pertussis population dynamics. Relative risk analysis found that once a new B. pertussis lineage emerged, it was more likely to spread locally within the first 1.5 years. However, after 1.5 years, any new lineage was likely to expand to a wider region and became no longer spatially structured across the country. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the expansion of ptxP3 strains was also associated with replacement of the type III secretion system allele bscI1 with bscI3. This study advanced our understanding of the epidemic population structure and spatial and temporal dynamics of B. pertussis in a highly immunised population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Asmae Lamrani Hanchi ◽  
Morad Guennouni ◽  
Meriem Rachidi ◽  
Toufik Benhoumich ◽  
Hind Bennani ◽  

Sever acute respiratory infections (SARIs) are a public health issue that are common in children and are associated with an important morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. Although SARI are mainly caused by viruses, they are still a cause of antibiotic overuse. The use of molecular methods especially real-time multiplex PCR allowed to detect a wide range of respiratory viruses and their subtype as well as some atypical bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of respiratory pathogens detected in children admitted with SARI and to highlight the role of real-time multiplex PCR in the rapid diagnosis of viral and bacterial SARI. This work is a descriptive observational study from January 2018 to December 2019 including nasopharyngeal secretions collected from 534 children hospitalised in paediatric department. The detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria was performed by the FilmArray® Respiratory Panel. A total of 387 (72.5%) children were tested positive for at least one respiratory pathogen, and 23.3% of them were coinfected with more than one pathogen. Viral aetiology was found in 91.2% (n = 340). The most common viruses detected were HRV (n = 201) and RSV (n = 124), followed by PIV (n = 35) influenza A (n = 29) and human metapneumovirus (n = 27). Bacteria was found in 8.8% (n = 47), and Bordetella pertussis was the most detected. Respiratory syncytial virus and Bordetella pertussis were significantly higher in infants less than 6 months old. The detection of RSV and influenza A presented a pic in winter, and HMPV was statistically significant in spring ( p < 0.01 ). This study described the epidemiology of respiratory pathogens involved in severe respiratory infections in children that were affected by several factors such as season and age group. It also highlighted the importance of multiplex PCR in confirming viral origin, thus avoiding irrational prescription of antibiotics in paediatric settings.

Rinu Sivarajan ◽  
David Komla Kessie ◽  
Heike Oberwinkler ◽  
Niklas Pallmann ◽  
Thorsten Walles ◽  

To study the interaction of human pathogens with their host target structures, human tissue models based on primary cells are considered suitable. Complex tissue models of the human airways have been used as infection models for various viral and bacterial pathogens. The Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis is of relevant clinical interest since whooping cough has developed into a resurgent infectious disease. In the present study, we created three-dimensional tissue models of the human ciliated nasal and tracheo-bronchial mucosa. We compared the innate immune response of these models towards the B. pertussis virulence factor adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) and its enzymatically inactive but fully pore-forming toxoid CyaA-AC-. Applying molecular biological, histological, and microbiological assays, we found that 1 µg/ml CyaA elevated the intracellular cAMP level but did not disturb the epithelial barrier integrity of nasal and tracheo-bronchial airway mucosa tissue models. Interestingly, CyaA significantly increased interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and human beta defensin 2 secretion in nasal tissue models, whereas tracheo-bronchial tissue models were not significantly affected compared to the controls. Subsequently, we investigated the interaction of B. pertussis with both differentiated primary nasal and tracheo-bronchial tissue models and demonstrated bacterial adherence and invasion without observing host cell type-specific significant differences. Even though the nasal and the tracheo-bronchial mucosa appear similar from a histological perspective, they are differentially susceptible to B. pertussis CyaA in vitro. Our finding that nasal tissue models showed an increased innate immune response towards the B. pertussis virulence factor CyaA compared to tracheo-bronchial tissue models may reflect the key role of the nasal airway mucosa as the first line of defense against airborne pathogens.

Zhen Wang ◽  
Fengfeng Fan ◽  
Jianli Wang ◽  
Liangjia Wang ◽  
Hao Hu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Rahim Raufi ◽  
Reza Shahriarirad ◽  
Nikta Taghipour

Abstract Background: Bordetella Pertussis, known as the causative agent of whooping cough, is one of the leading causes of recurrent persistent cough at all ages, even in vaccinated individuals. Methods: A total number of 110 patients coughing for at least two weeks who were admitted to clinical centers in Jahrom, Iran, were included in this cross-sectional study. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from these individuals at two stages, i.e., at the beginning of the study and on the 21st day. Afterward, anti-pertussis toxin (PT) immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured in serum samples via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The given cases were further evaluated in terms of age, gender, occupation, place of living, and family size.Results: Out of 110 patients recruited in this study, 77 cases were female (70%). Also, only seven patients were shown to be serologically positive (6.4%). Moreover, no significant association was observed between pertussis incidence rate and the study variables, namely, age, gender, occupation, residency area (urban or rural), and family size (p>0.05).Conclusions: This study aimed to emphasize pertussis occurrence in individuals who merely present persistent cough without typical symptoms. This requires the physicians to conduct more precise assessments along with more rapid diagnostic methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
A. E. Tozzi ◽  
F. Del Chierico ◽  
E. Pandolfi ◽  
S. Reddel ◽  
F. Gesualdo ◽  

AbstractDespite great advances in describing Bordetella pertussis infection, the role of the host microbiota in pertussis pathogenesis remains unexplored. Indeed, the microbiota plays important role in defending against bacterial and viral respiratory infections. We investigated the nasopharyngeal microbiota in infants infected by B. pertussis (Bp), Rhinovirus (Rv) and simultaneously by both infectious agents (Bp + Rv). We demonstrated a specific nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles for Bp group, compared to Rv and Bp + Rv groups, and a reduction of microbial richness during coinfection compared to the single infections. The comparison amongst the three groups showed the increase of Alcaligenaceae and Achromobacter in Bp and Moraxellaceae and Moraxella in Rv group. Furthermore, correlation analysis between patients’ features and nasopharyngeal microbiota profile highlighted a link between delivery and feeding modality, antibiotic administration and B. pertussis infection. A model classification demonstrated a microbiota fingerprinting specific of Bp and Rv infections. In conclusion, external factors since the first moments of life contribute to the alteration of nasopharyngeal microbiota, indeed increasing the susceptibility of the host to the pathogens' infections. When the infection is triggered, the presence of infectious agents modifies the microbiota favoring the overgrowth of commensal bacteria that turn in pathobionts, hence contributing to the disease severity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Isaac Peña-Tuesta ◽  
Cristina del Valle-Vargas ◽  
Veronica Petrozzi-Helasvuo ◽  
Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis ◽  
Hugo Carrillo-Ng ◽  

Abstract Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii in children aged less than 1 year admitted with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough. Results A total of 225 nasopharyngeal samples from children under 1 year old hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of whooping cough were studied from January 2010 to July 2012. The presence of A. baumannii was detected in 20.89% (47/225) of the nasopharyngeal swab samples. Among the 47 patients with A. baumannii: 5 were diagnosed with A. baumannii monoinfection, 17 co-infection with bacteria, 7 co-infection with virus and 18 co-infection with bacteria + virus. It was observed that 51.6% (116/225) were children between 29 days and 3 months old, this same group had the highest overall prevalence with 53.3%. The most common co-infecting pathogens were Bordetella pertussis in 55.3%, Adenovirus in 42.6% and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 23.4%.

2021 ◽  
Noemie Lefrancq ◽  
Valerie Bouchez ◽  
Nadia Fernandes ◽  
Alex-Mikael Barkoff ◽  
Thijs Bosch ◽  

Competitive interactions between pathogen strains drive infection risk. Vaccines are thought to perturb strain diversity through shifts in immune pressures, however, this has rarely been measured due to inadequate data and analytical tools. Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis), responsible for 160,000 deaths annually, provides a rare natural experiment as many countries have switched from whole cell vaccines to acellular vaccines, which have very different immunogenic properties. Here we use 3,344 sequences from 23 countries and build phylogenetic models to reveal that B. pertussis has substantial diversity within communities, with the relative fitness of local genotypes changing in response to switches in vaccine policy. We demonstrate that the number of transmission chains circulating within subnational regions is strongly associated with host population size. It takes 5-10 years for individual lineages to be homogeneously distributed throughout Europe or the United States. Increased fitness of pertactin-deficient strains following implementation of acellular vaccines, but reduced fitness otherwise, can explain long-term genotype dynamics. These findings highlight the role of national vaccine policies in shifting local diversity of a pathogen that still poses a large burden on global public health.

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
Jan Čapek ◽  
Ilona Procházková ◽  
Tomáš Matoušek ◽  
David Hot ◽  
Branislav Večerek

Bordetella pertussis , a respiratory pathogen restricted to humans, continuously adapts its genome to its exclusive host. We show that speciation of this reemerging pathogen was accompanied by loss of function of the manganese exporter.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 100072
Thibaut Naninck ◽  
Vanessa Contreras ◽  
Loïc Coutte ◽  
Sébastien Langlois ◽  
Aurélie Hébert-Ribon ◽  

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